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Logical 8V:v^ 

BV 4447 .C527 1906 
Clark, Francis E. 1851-1927 
Christian endeavor in all 

Rev. Francis E. Clark, D.D., LL.D., 

The Founder of the Christian Endeavor Movement, 




The Story of a Great Religious Move- 
ment which has Spread Over all the Earth 
from a Small Beginning in America. 

BY . 



Founder and President of the United Society of Christian Endeavor. 

Author of "Training the Church ©f the Future," "A New Way Round an Old 
World," " The Great Secret," "Fellow Travelers," etc. 

Profusely Illustrated 

With Nearly 200 Half-Tone Engravmgs, Portraits and Etchings. 


Entered According to the Act of Congress 

In the Year 1906 


W. E. Scull 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress. 

All rights reserved. 

This work is sanctioned and approved by 
The United Society of Christian Endeavor and 
is the official record of Christian Endeavor in 
All Lands during its first twenty-five years of 

In order to produce so valuable a work and 
sell it at low prices, it is offered for sale by sub- 
scription through authorized agents only. 

To all persons desiring a copy of this book we 
will, on request, send the name of our agent in 
their community, or if we have no agent we will 
arrange to send a copy of the book direct. 


The preparation of this history has been no light task, not 
because of the lack of material, but because of its superabun- 
dance. In order to condense the story of twenty-five years into 
a volume of reasonable length, it has been necessary to discard 
much that the writer would like to include. Especially griev- 
ous has it been to him to omit the mention of the service of 
many personal friends and earnest workers in the Christian 
Endeavor movement, whose achievements are well worthy of 
record. But to name all who deserve "honorable mention" 
in such a history would be to make it little more than a cata- 
logue. The names of some workers whom the writer counts 
among his dearest personal friends are not found in this vol- 
ume. If any one should find any achievement of the Christian 
Endeavor movement omitted, to which he thinks space should 
have been given, he will know the reason. If, on the other 
hand, any line of work seems to be unduly magnified, he may 
remember the couplet of old Edmund Waller, which applies 
to historians as well as to bards : 

"Poets lose half the praise they should have got, 
Could it be known what they discreetly blot." 

It will be found, however, I believe, that no large de- 
partment of the Christian Endeavor achievement has been neg- 
lected, and that the leading events in the history of the move- 
ment are here recorded. 

In the preparation of this volume the writer has consulted 
the reports of the leading conventions in America, Great 
Britain, and Australia, which are contained in many large 




volumes, as well as files of The Christian Endeavor World, 
The Christian Endeavour Times, Die Jugend-Hilfe, Activite 
Chretienne, Esfuerzo Cristiano, O Esforco Christao, India 
Christian Endeavourer, The Irish Endeavourer, the Church 
of England Christian Endeavourer, The Christian Endeavour 
Link, The Christian Endeavour News, and The Roll-Call, of 
Australia, Endeavor, of Japan, The South African Endeav- 
ourer, as well as many of the State papers of America, includ- 
ing The Ohio Endeavorer, The Pine-Tree Endeavorer, The 
Texas Christian Endeavorer, Iowa Christian Endeavor, The 
Christian Endeavor Visitor, of Baltimore, The Pacific Chris- 
tian Endeavorer, The Nebraska Endeavor News, The Varick 
Christian Endeavorer, Endeavor Items, the New York 
State paper, and many other papers published by State and 
local unions. 

I am also indebted to several volumes by Professor Wells, 
whose contributions to Christian Endeavor literature are fre- 
quently acknowledged, and have also consulted Rev. Mr. 
Spedding's volume on "Christian Endeavor, Its Genesis and 
Genius," Rev. Dwight M. Pratt's "A Decade of Christian En- 
deavor," and other volumes which are referred to in the course 
of this history. 

My thanks are due to Rev. W. Knight Chaplin of Eng- 
land; to Rev. L. B. Chamberlain of India, Rev. Frederick 
Blecher of Germany, and many other Christian Endeavor 
leaders in dififerent lands for helpful information, as well as 
to many who have told me of their personal experiences, which 
are embraced largely in the chapter entitled "Christian En- 
deavor in Every-Day Life." 

To some extent I have been able to draw upon materials 
used in other volumes I have written concerning various 
phases of the Christian Endeavor movement; but I have used 
them very sparingly, since I have designed this history to be as 
fresh and up to date as I could make it, from the standpoint 

Foreword. ^ 

of the new quarter-century, which, as I write these words, has 
just begun. 

This volume has been written in a hospitable foreign city, 
whither the author has come for the leisure and quiet which he 
could not obtain at home, and, as these pages have been penned, 
especially the later chapters, he would very gratefully ac- 
knowledge the many letters and telegrams and kind messages 
which have come to him from all parts of the world, inspired 
by the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Society. Many of the 
leading papers and magazines, in both America and Great 
Britain, and some in Germany, France, and Switzerland, and 
other lands as well, have contained most appreciative articles 
on the twenty-five years of Christian Endeavor work. 

May the coming quarter-century prove the Society to be 
fully worthy of the numerous congratulatory words and pro- 
phecies of even larger success which the anniversary has 
called forth. 

Above all, in making acknowledgment of aid received in 
the writing of this volume I cannot forbear to speak of one 
who has been my chief inspiration and unfailing helpmeet 
from the beginning of the Christian Endeavor movement. 
She it is to whom this volume is dedicated. She not only 
rocked the cradle of Christian Endeavor, but has watched over 
its growth with constant and helpful solicitude. In the prep- 
aration of this volume she has rendered me invaluable help, not 
only in the mechanical task of its preparation, but also in fre- 
quent suggestions for its improvement,and much aid in search- 
ing the authorities and the records of the movement. 

Five years ago, on the twentieth anniversary of the move- 
ment I had occasion to express my gratitude for God's good- 
ness during the first score of years of its existence. In view 
of the still larger blessings that have come during the last five 
y^ars, I may be allowed, perhaps, to repeat in part the Psalm 
of Praise for this full quarter-century of God's right hand. 



1. I Thank God for the men with whom I have been 
associated in the executive office of Christian Endeavor, for 
confidant and fellow worker, for secretary and treasurer and 
editor and trustee. There have not been many breaks in our 
ranks — few by death and fewer still by alienation. There 
were never more devoted friends than those who have worked 
together for Christian Endeavor, some of them for nearly 
twenty years. 

2. I Thank God for the great number of Christian 
Endeavor leaders in State and district and local unions; for 
their self-sacrificing labor, which would aggregate tens of 
thousands of years during these last two decades. To them 
under God belongs more credit than will ever be known for 
the success of the movement. 

3. I Thank God for the pastors who have so many 
times strengthened our hands, and overlooked our failings, 
and cheered our hearts by kind words of appreciation; who 
have so seldom been captious, so often generous and appre- 
ciative; who have made Christian Endeavor possible by in- 
troducing it to their young people, and by sustaining them 
in their work. 

4. I Thank God for the friends I have found in every 
land and in every denomination; for the dear fellow workers 
in Great Britain and France and Germany and Switzerland 
and Spain, in Sweden and Russia and Bohemia and Bulgaria 
and Macedonia and Italy and Portugal, in Australia and 
South Africa, in India and China and Japan and many 
islands of many seas; that our hearts have all been knit to- 
gether by the Christian Endeavor tie that binds. 

5. I Thank God for those who modestly call themselves 
the rank and file, really the bone and sinew, of Christian 
Endeavor; those whose names I know not, and who do 
not care to have them paraded in print. These names are 
written in heaven. They will all be accounted for in the 
last roll-call. 

6. I Thank God for the Christian Endeavor marines 
who have sailed the sea for God; for the Christian Endeavor 
soldiers who have stood for Him in camp and fought for 
Him on the field, for the Christian Endeavor martyrs in 
Madagascar and Armenia and China, who have counted not 



their lives dear unto them; for the Christian Endeavor pris- 
oners who behind the bars have found the liberty wherewith 
the Son maketh free, and who, in Him, have become free 

7. I Thank God for those who have entered into the 
blessedness of "the Quiet Hour," who have been hidden in 
"the secret of His pavilion;" for those who have learned 
the joy of giving as they have been prospered; and for the 
millions of dollars which have been sent to relieve the desti- 
tute and to enlighten the darkened eyes. 

8. I Thank God for the strong young men whose 
hearts He has moved to fight their country's peaceful battles, 
and to stand for righteousness in the State, purity in the city, 
and peace in all the world. 

9. I Thank God for the boys and girls whose feet have 
been turned Zionward in the Junior societies; for their child- 
ish love and service; for the self-denying leaders who have 
guided them so faithfully. 

10. I Thank God for the beautiful fellowship that has 
blessed Christian Endeavor, and that people whose creeds 
differ, whose forms are various, and whose traditions are 
diverse, have come to see that our Lord's prayer was for them, 
that "they might be one," while the world has looked on and 
said, "Behold, how these brethren love one another!" 

11. I Thank God for the wonderful conventions, 
which for a dozen years have so far surpassed our early 
dreams and outclassed our early hopes; for these dear fellow- 
ships; for their inspirations; for their joy; for the eyes that 
have glistened, the souls that have broadened, and the hearts 
that in them have leaped to new impulses. 

12. I Thank God for His Holy Spirit, without whose 
leadership all endeavor is vain. 

"Bless the Lord, O my soul!" 

"I will bless the Lord at all times; His praise shall con- 
tinually be in my mouth." 

"O magnify the Lord with me, and let us exalt His name 

Munich, Bavaria, Feb. 2, IQ06. 






I. The Soil, the Seed, and the Climate . . . . 17 

II. The Genesis OF the Christian /Endeavor Society . 34 

III. Some First Things 42 

IV. The Exodus of the Society 52 

V. The Line of March .63 

VI. The Hand of Providence 74 

^VII. Underlying Principles 89 

VIII. Helps and Helpers 103 

IX. Helpers in Type 116 

X. The Great Conventions 128 

XL London and Ningpo 142 

XII. Wonderful Gatherings in Australia and India . 159 

XIII. "The Best Yet" 172 

XIV, Cm Bono? 185 

XV. Young Men and Maidens 199 

XVI. The Junior Army 212 

XVII. The Society and the Psychologist 225 

XVI 11. The Christian Endeavor Covenant 241 

XIX. The Christian Endeavor Forum 254 

XX. The Society's Programme of Work 266 

XXI. The Society and Its Relations 275 

XXII. Back Currents and Eddies 288 

XXIII. Touches of Color 298 

XXIV. Christian Endeavor as an Educator . . . .312 
XXV. Evangelistic Endeavor at Home and Abroad . . 327 

XXVI. The Society as a Democracy 341 

XXVII. The New and the Old in Christian Endeavor . 352 

XXVIII. Christian Endeavor in the Americas .... 362 

XXIX. Christian Endeavor in Europe 380 

XXX. Christian Endeavor in Africa 400 

XXXI. Christian Endeavor in Asia 416 

XXXII. Christian Endeavor in the Island World . . . 438 




XXXIII. Christian Endeavor Among the Boer Prisoners . 452 

XXXIV. Christian Endeavor Afloat 462 

XXXV. Christian Endeavor in Surprising Places . . . 473 

XXXVI. Four Christian Endeavor Journeys Around the 

World 487 

XXXVII. Citizenship Endeavors • . 497 

XXXVIII. Kindling Missionary Fires 508 

*^XXXIX. Christian Endeavor and the Deeper Christian 

Life , . . 521 

XL. Practical Endeavors .529 

XLI. Christian Endeavor in Every-day Life ... 540 

XLII. Heroic Christian Endeavor . . . . « -550 

XLIII. Christian Endeavor in Song = . 560 

XLIV. Bright Plans Tried and Proved ...... 576 

^XLV. How to Lift an Endeavor Society 586 

XLVI. The Pastor and the Christian Endeavor Society . 593 

XLVII. Convention Oratory 601 

XLVIII. " That They All May Be One " ..„.,. 614 


Dr. Francis E. Clark Frontispiect 

WiLLiSTON Church Page ig 

An Avenue of Palms in Honolulu " 65 

Leading British Endeavorers " 75 

Prominent British Endeavorers " 79 

Christian Endeavor in Different Languages " 85 

A Gospel Boat in Foochov^^ " 88 

C. E. Convention in Bombay " 91 

Prominent American Endeavorers " 105 

Leading American Endeavorers . . . '. . " 109 

American Endeavorers " 117 

Facsimile of Swiss C. E. Paper "121 

The White City at Detroit . " 129 

The All-India Convention at Allahabad " 169 

Dr. Clark's Five C. E. Journeys in Europe "191 

Endeavorers of Many Lands " 201 

Aboriginal American Endeavorers " 205 

Some Chinese Juniors " 213 

C. E. Badges from Many Parts of the World " 299 

A Remarkable Banner from China " 310 

View of Lake Manomet, near Sagamore Beach, Mass " 315 

Chicago Endeavorers' Evangelistic Cruise " ZH 

Royal Endeavorers, Prince and Princess of Sweden " 343 

Officers and Workers in Europe " 381 

A Street Scene in Cairo " 401 

Christian Endeavor in Egypt " 403 

Workers of Various Nations " 4' 7 

The Taj Mahal of Agra, India " 429 

Floating C. E. Society. On Board the U. S. S. Maine .... " 465 

Australian Aborigines " 475 

A C. E. Society School for the Blind at Bombay "481 

One Way of Going to a C. E. Convention in China " 509 

An Industrial School in India " 513 

Prominent Christian Endeavor Evangelists " 5-3 

Two Heroes of China '" 55 1 

Leaders in Song " 56 r 

At the National Capital " 5^7 

Famous Preachers and Christian Endeavorers " 595 



An Old Book by Cotton Mather Page 24 

WiLLiSTON Church Parsonage " z] 

WiLLiSTON Chapel " 30 

Mrs. Francis E. Clark " 35 

Facsimile of Original C. E. Constitution " y] 

First Twenty Names of Original Members " 40 

IV. J. Van Patten " 43 

Memorial Tablet, Williston Church " 46 

Rev. C. a. Dickinson " 48 

The C. E. Covenant in Tamil " 55 

The Japanese C. E. Covenant " 56 

Telugu C. E. Covenant " 60 

The Bridge of Ten Thousand Ages " 67 

A Ragged Sunday School in Foochow^ " 70 

Miss A. Bliss " 71 

Jamaica Christian Endeavor " 83 

Leaders of C. E. Work in India " no 

Geo. W. Coleman " 114 

Our Brothers in Type " 124 

A Typical C. E. Convention Tent Scene " 133 

A C. E. Convention Audience in Boston " 136 

London International C. E. Convention " 144 

Children's Choir, London International " 150 

The Ningpo Convention Committee " 154 

The Ningpo Officials " 156 

Town Hall, Sydney, Australia . . . . » " 160 

In the Australian Bush " 163 

Mexican Endeavorers " 174 

Christian Endeavor in Japan " I77 

Baltimore Convention Building " 183 

Ute Indians Going to Colorado Convention " 188 

Christian Endeavor in Ireland " i94 

Some Presidents of C. E. Societies in Persia " 208 

Some Junior Endeavorers of Harpoot, Turkey " 214 

Chinese C. E. Juniors at Foochow " 217 

Some Spanish C. E. Juniors " 218 

Bridge Built by Juniors at Melbourne Convention "221 

Representing Growth of C. E. Movement in China " 223 

German Boy Who Formed a Society in School 227 

Junior C. E. Music Band, Konigsberg Germany "230 


xiv Illustrations. 

C. E. Juniors in Bebek, Turkey Page 235 

Facsimile of a C. E. Pledge " 243 

The C. E. Covenant, Turkish " 246 

The C. E. Covenant, Bohemian " 248 

The C. E. Pledge, Malagasy " 251 

Getting Ready for a Convention in Portugal " 258 

Sunshine Committee in Turkey Reading to Blind Woman . . . " " 268 

Rev. Enrique de Tienda " 272 

The M. E. Society of Barcelona, Spain " 282 

Rough Sketches from Which C. E. Badge was Designed .... " 303 

The Increase Banner Given to Oregon " 305 

Johanneslund Missionary Institute " 317 

C. E. Summer School, Yarmouth, Maine " 321 

New Summer Home of C. E. at Sagamore Beach " 323 

First Mothers' Society of C. E., Topeka, Kansas " 329 

Men's Meeting during Convention, Washington, D. C " 335 

Raw Material for the C. E. in Africa " 338 

Monastir, Turkey, Home of Four C. E. Societies " 339 

English, Irish and Scotch C. E. Convention, Scotland .... " 347 

A Bit of the Last Welsh C. E. Convention " 349 

Tent Endeavor, Denver C. E. Convention " 369 

Endeavorers at Dr. Clark's Birthplace, Aylmer, Quebec .... " 374 

The Cathedral in Mexico City " 375 

The Second National C. E. Convention in Brazil " 377 

Group of Endeavorers in Sao Paulo, Brazil " 378 

Scandinavian Delegates to C. E. Convention in Berlin .... " 386 

A C. E. Convention in Sweden " 389 

First C. E. Convention Held in Russia " 391 

Executive Committee of Hungarian C. E. Union " 392 

Spanish C. E.'s in Costumes of Different Provinces " 394 

C. E. Society, Geneva, Switzerland " 396 

A Junior C. E. Society in Spain " 397 

Spanish Junior C. E. Society of Valencia " 399 

C. E. Society of Lagos, West Coast of Africa " 405 

How Some Christian Endeavorers Travel in Africa ..... " 408 

Executive Committee of the South African C. E. Union .... " 411 

Seventh National South African Convention at Durban, 1905 . . " 413 

Rev. D. G. W. R. Marchan "415 

The Zig-Zag Bridge in China " 420 

The White Pagoda in Foochow " 422 

Japanese Endeavorers at Osaka " 423 

The Banner Convention PIeld in Japan in 1903 ....... " 425 

A Japanese Women's C. E. Society " 427 

Street Scene in Calcutta " 43i 

Some Endeavor Leaders in India " 433 



Girls' C. E. Society in Marsovan, Turkey Page 435 

City Hall, King William Street, Adelaide " 440 

Some Leading Endeavor Workers in Australia . " 442 

Girls' School, Kohala^ Hawaii " 446 

Miss Olafia Yohansdotter, Icelandic Interpreter ...... " 450 

John Makins, Mgr. Seamen's Home, Nagasaki, Japan ..... " 466 

Antoinette P. Jones, Falmouth, Massachusetts " 467 

Floating Christian Endeavorers, U. S. Cruiser Chicago .... " 469 

The White C. E. Society in Frankfort State Prison " 477 

On the Valdez Glacier, in Alaska " 483 

Some C. E. Veterans, National Military Home, Kansas .... " 485 

A Beauty Spot in New Zealand " 488 

Going by Wheelbarrow to a C. E. Service in China " 490 

Mayoral Reception to Dr. Clark, New Zealand " 491 

Route of Dr. Clark's Fourth Journey Around the World .... " 492 

A Scene in Scandinavia . " 494 

How We Travel in the Boxer Country .........* " 495 

Drinking Fountain Erected by Christian Endeavorers .... " 500 

Hon. S. B. Capen, LL. D., Boston, Massachusetts " 501 

Hon. H. B. F. Macfarland "505 

German Endeavor Officers " 511 

C. E. Society Girls' Orphanage, Marsova, Turkey in Asia ... " 516 

Before and After — Before " 518 

Before and After — After " 519 

C. E. Flower Committee in India Starting for the Hospital . . " 531 

C. E. Rest for Ranchmen at Pierre, South Dakota -" 533 

Lumbermen's Reading Room, Furnished by Endeavorers ... " 536 

Recognition Certificate ' 53S 

A Native Alaskan Christian Endeavorer " 54^ 

An Open Air Meeting in Bahia, Brazil "545 

Christian Endeavorers Among the Lepers " 556 

Mr. Tung and His Family " 558 

Facsimile of C. E. Hymn by Rev. Samuel F. Smith ..... " 56-2 

Hymn and Music by Rev. John Pollock "566 

Blest Be the Tie That Binds, in French "569 

Farewell to Soldiers Leaving Japan for China ...... ', ^"^^ 

A Burmese Choir Leader 574 

A Musical Notation ^^ 5c^o 

Record of C. E. Missionary Collections, 1905 '^' 581 

A German C E. Cartoon « ^°^ 

A German Symbol of Christian Endeavor . 600 



" The wonder now is that we have been expending ourselves 
so largely on literary and mutual-improvement societies, instead 
of appealing to the spiritual forces that were lying unawakened 
in so many j'oung natures. The church life of the future will 
be healthier, gladder, more enterprising, as our Endeavorers 
pour into the churches to assume, as they certainly will do, posi- 
tions of great responsibility." Rev. F. B. Meyer. 

HE growth of a new movement in the moral or re- 
ligious world, or, for that matter, in the social, 
business, or any other world, is very much like 
the development of a new fruit or flower. Two 
things, at least, are essential, the soil and the seed. 
In the Christian Endeavor movement the soil is the heart of 
youth, warm, responsive, easily cultivated. The seed is the 
idea of personal service for Christ and for the church. 

But the soil, however fertile, and the seed, though burst- 
ing with life, will not produce their normal fruitage in an 
inhospitable climate. The most fertile soil and seed brought 
together at the north pole will produce no fruit, and the neces- 
sary climate for the growth of the Christian Endeavor seed 

2 17 

i8 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

and its propagation in all parts of the world was not found 
until the last quarter of the nineteenth century, when interest 
in Christian nurture and the training of the young for Chris- 
tian service began to be the most vital interest of the Christian 
church. Here, then, were the three essentials of the new 
movement: soil, seed, and climate. 

The good soil and the good seed had of course always 
existed, and the good atmosphere in a limited degree; but they 
had never been brought together for the development and 
growth of a new and universal movement. 

That the soil of youthful hearts has always been respon- 
sive to the highest motives and always been ready to bring 
forth the good fruits of Christian service is proved by the 
experience of all those who have had anything to do with the 
Christian nurture of the young since our Lord said, "Let the 
little ones come unto Me." 

Many were the groups of boys and girls who in the elder 
days came together for prayer or for Christian work. The 
experience of my older readers is confirmed by the latest word 
of the psychologists, who have written many learned volumes 
to prove that at the period of adolescence and soon after the 
soul of the child is opened to the Infinite as at no other time. 
Then, they tell us, the soil of the soul is most prolific and fruit- 
ful. New thoughts, new emotions, new aspirations, spring up 
as if by magic. 

The good seed of the Word of God, and of personal ser- 
vice, too, for Christ's sake, has often been planted in all the 
ages past in the soil of youth by wise teachers and pas- 
Personai ^^^^ jj^^ jj^^j^ j^^ ^^-^.j^ ^1^^ ^^^ loaves and the two 

fishes, the little Israelitish maiden in the court of 

Syria, are typical Junior Endeavorers. The boys have always 
been ready to distribute the loaves and fishes, and the girls have 
always been willing to tell the good news which they have 
learned, when wisely directed and encouraged by their elders. 

The Soil, the Seed and the Climate. i. 

20 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

But, alas! the third element of religious growth among the 
young, the warm, genial, all-embracing atmosphere of good 
will and interest in their work, has not always been found in 
the Christian church. In fact, until within the last half-cen- 
tury little has been thought of them or their needs. The idea 
of conquest from without dominated the church, rather than 
the thought of growth from within. The minister and evan- 
gelist sought to turn the calloused feet of hardened sinners into 
the way of truth rather than the tender feet of the little child. 
The thought of the church as an army rather than a home, or 
as a hospital for the decrepit and the diseased rather than as a 
nursery, dominated the religious thought of the centuries; 
and it was not until Bushnell wrote his epoch-making book on 
Christian nurture that the modern religious world began to see 
that there must be training from within, as well as conquest 
from without, if the church was to hold her own, and win the 
world to her standards. 

One of the most interesting illustrations of the truth that, 
whereas the right soil and the right seed were often brought 
together, yet the genial climate was lacking is furnished by 
the stories of the old young people's societies which were 
formed in the earlier Puritan days of the New England com- 
monwealths. There were at one time a number of such socie- 
ties, which had many features in common with the Christian 
Endeavor movement, though nothing was known of them by 
the leaders of the modern movement for years after the Chris- 
tian Endeavor Society had grown strong. 

As gunpowder and the mariner's compass and the 
printing-press were invented in China centuries ago, and re- 
invented on an entirely independent basis when the 
Puritan modern European world had need of them, so the 

^' principles of the modern Christian Endeavor So- 
ciety seem to have been antedated by the Puritans of the Mas- 
sachusetts Colony. No one less distinguished than Cotton 

The Soil, the Seed and the Climate. 21 

Mather himself, apparently, formed the first of these societies. 
The seed was so good, and the soil so fertile, that a number of 
others sprung up in Massachusetts and the other New England 
colonies in the first half of the eighteenth century, more than a 
hundred and fifty years before the beginning of the modern 
Christian Endeavor movement. 

Here is a copy of three features of the agreement* made in 
June, 1741, by the young people of the North Parish of 
Bridgewater, now Brockton, Mass. We reproduce this agree- 
ment exactly as written out by these "yuthe who Thrue the 
grace of God have been awakened to be consarned about the 
things that belonge to our everlasting peace and that wolde re- 
member our Creator in the days of our yuthe." The spirit and 
purpose of these "yuthe" are evidently more to be commended 
than their orthography. 

"i it shall be our endeaveare to spend the tow ourse 
frome seven to nine of every lords day evening in prayer to 
gathare by turnse the one to begine and the outhear to con- 
clud the meting and betwene the tow prayers haveing a sar- 
mon repeated whereto the singing of a psalm shall be anexed 
and ef aftear the stated exersise of the eveneing are ovear if 
theare be any residue of time we will aske one a nothare ques- 
tions out of the catecism or some questions in divinyty or have 
such reliagus conversation as we shall best sarve for the edefi- 
cation of the sosiety." 

"2 that we will bare with one anothare infarmitys and 
not upbrad tharwith nor deulge any thing of what natur so- 
ever to that is done at our meetings to the pregedic of it." 
** * *********** 

"3 one in tow monthes we will read over our articals 
at our metings and call over our lest that if any have been 
absent that may by one of the sosiety be asked the reson 

That the movement indicated by this ill-spelled agreement 

* This document was discovered by Rev. Otis Cary, an honored missionary 
to Japan, when home on a furlough, and was sent to the writer. 

22 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

among the youth of Bridgewater was somewhat widespread is 
indicated not only by the church records which we find in va- 
rious towns, but by some ancient books, notably a rare little 
leather-covered volume by Cotton Mather, the originator of 
these societies, published in 1724, and entitled 'Proposals for 
the Revival of Dying Religion by Weil-Ordered Societies for 
that Purpose." 

In this little volume, also, are contained the constitution 
and rules on which the other similar societies were evidently 
Cotton based, and these bear many curious resemblances to 

Mather's the modern Christian Endeavor Society. There 

Model. . . -' 

was to be a weekly meeting at which all the mem- 
bers evidently were expected to be present, and in these meet- 
ings "two hours were to be occupied with prayers and a ser- 
mon and the singing of a psalm annexed." Yet these differ- 
ences from a modern young people's meeting, which at first 
seem so radical, were only what might be expected in the more 
sedate and sermon-loving days of the Puritan commonwealth. 
This society was formed long before the organized missionary 
efforts of the American churches; but that the missionary 
spirit was not absent is proved by the fact that a collection was 
provided for, though only once in three months, "out of which 
the necessary charges of the society shall be defrayed, and the 
rest be employed upon such pious uses as may be agreed upon." 

But the most interesting resemblance between this old- 
fashioned society and those of modern times is the provision 
for keeping the membership an active one, and weeding out, 
from time to time, those who have lost their interest or are 
wilfully negligent of their duties. In the modern society the 
delinquent mxmber is quietly dropped after three consecutive 
and unexcused absences from the monthly roll-call meeting. 
In the ancient society we find this provision in the constitu- 
tion : 

"Let the List be once a quarter called over; and then. If 

The Soil, the Seed and the CHmate. 23 

it be observed, that any of the Society have much absented 
themselves, Let there be some sent unto them, to inquire the 
Reason of their Absence; and if no Reason be given, but such 
as intimates an Apostacy from good Beginnings, Let them 
upon Obstinacy, after loveing and faithful Admonitions, be 

Evidently Cotton Mather meant that the names should be 
obliterated from the roll of the society, and not the persons 
themselves; a rule which if carried out in many a modern 
church and religious society would do much to prevent the 
accumulation of dead and unsightly limbs on the living tree. 

Yes, in those ancient days the seed was sound and the soil 
was fertile — there can be no doubt about it, for it was 
A substantially the same seed and the same soil that 

Atmos? have produced so abundant fruitage during the last 
phere. quarter of a century. But how different was the at- 

mosphere! As different as December from June. The 
church of that day abounded in strong, stalwart, militant 
souls; but the hard surroundings of those pioneer days, the 
rugged theology that had more often conceived of God as a 
King and a Judge than as a loving Father, and more especially 
the Pauline idea of conversion, which dominated the church 
almost to the exclusion of the Timothy type, all combined to 
produce an atmosphere in which these young people's societies 
could not long thrive. A few far-seeing souls, like Cotton 
Mather himself, and doubtless others of his type, recognized 
the vast importance of such a movement. They prayed, they 
preached, they organized, but the atmosphere of the times was 
too much for them. 

The symbol of the church in those days was the tithing- 
man's stick, with which to rap naughty boys over the head, 
rather than the shepherd's crook wherewith to guide them into 
the green pastures of loving service. After a time these socie- 
ties seem to have wholly disappeared. No trace of one of them 


Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

was to be found in any of the churches where they had been 
established, except in some musty records; and their exist- 
ence was wholly unknown, except possibly to a few antiqua- 

Keligious Societies. 


For the REVIVAL of 

Dying Religion, 

BY WellOrdered 


For That PURPOSE. 

With a brieFDiscouRSE, Offered 
unto a Keligious Society, on 
the Firft Day ot their Meeting. 

I Their V. II. Edify one another 

Printed by S. Kneeland» for John 
Phillips, and Sold at his Shop 
over againft the South-fide of the 
Town Houfe. 1724. 


rians and historical scholars, for years after the Endeavor 
movement, which had unconsciously adopted some of Cotton 
Mather's principles and methods, had grown strong. 

The Soil, the Seed and the Climate. 25 

But, as years went on, the atmosphere began to grow more 
spring-like, and the theology of the day became more genial. 
The appalling loss from the Sunday-school and in Christian 
families of young people who did not walk in their fathers' 
ways, and were lost to the church, forced itself upon the atten- 
tion of the Christian public. Young America began to assert 
itself more and more in various ways; and, though this asser- 
tion had many unpleasant and some deplorable features, it also 
had something to do with ushering in what has been called the 
Young People's Era. 

There were other contributing causes, too, which made 
possible in the fulness of time the new young people's move- 
ment. Almost exactly a hundred years before the formation 
of the first Christian Endeavor society, Robert Raikes in Glou- 
cester, in England, had formed the first modern Sunday-school, 
other a poor little afifair, to be sure, for ragged children, 

u2ng"''^ who must be tolled in by the ofTer of a hot potato. 
Causes. yet the pioneer of that magnificent movement which 
now numbers pupils by tens of millions, and its teachers by 
the hundred thousand. But it was the pioneer of more than 
the Sunday-school. That little ragged Sunday-school in a by- 
street of Gloucester was the forerunner of many other forms 
of Christian nurture and of interest in the religious life of 
youth, and did more than all other things to prepare the way 
for the time when the boys and girls, and their older brothers 
and sisters, should not only be taught, and entertained, and sur- 
feited with books and picture papers and summer picnics and 
Christmas trees, but should be given their share in the service 
and responsibility of the church of God. 

A generation before the date of the first Christian En- 
deavor society came the formation of the first Young Men's 
Christian Association, and this noble organization, spreading 
so rapidly throughout the world, and finding its most congenial 
home in America, did not a little to awaken the church to the 

26 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

needs and possibilities of the hour. If so much was to be done 
for the young men, why should not the young women share in 
the privileges and duties, and if an organization outside of 
the church, though related to it in most friendly and sympa- ,/ 
thetic bonds, should undertake this most-needed work for their' 
fellows who had no church affiliations, why should not the 
church itself do such a work for its own young people, thus 
drawing them to itself by the strongest of all bonds, that of 
active and loving service? 

Such ideas were the leaven in the meal, which silently 
were everywhere at work until the whole was leavened, or, to 
revert to the original figure, these influences modified and 
warmed the church atmosphere toward the youth until the 
good seed, once more planted in the good soil, could spring up 
and bear abundant fruitage everywhere. 

It is altogether probable, too, that many of the mistakes 
and failures made by pastors and churches in caring for the 
young people did their full share toward hastening the dawn- 
ing of the day of this modern young people's movement. The 
writer himself pleads guilty to his full share of these mistaker 
and failures, and on that account can speak of them with free- 
dom and without offence. Most of these mistakes lay along 
the line of doing too much for the young people 

Mistakes J r> r r 

and rather than allowing them to do what they could 

for themselves and others. Our Lord's command 
was practically inverted, and "Not to minister, but to be min- 
istered unto," the design of many, might have been the motto 
of many of these abortive attempts to interest and help the 

With the very best intentions, but often with very indifTer- 
ent results, everything possible was done to interest and attract 
the boys and girls. Reading-rooms were sometimes furnished, 
debating-societies started, musical clubs organized; teas and 
suppers and picnics were the order of the day in many 

The Soil, the Seed and the Climate. 27 

churches. It became a standing and threadbare pleasantry 
that there were two seasons of the year when the Sunday-school 
would be sure to be full, just before Christmas, and again just 
before the midsummer picnic. From the very nature of the 
case the Sunday-school could not demand from its members 
much in the way of service. The scanty hour devoted to it 
must be filled with teaching. Many teachers congratulated 

WiLLisTON Church Parsonage, Portland, Me., 
Where the first Christian Endeavor society was formed. 

themselves if they could persuade any of their scholars even to 
glance at the lesson in advance. "How can we attract the 
young people? How can we win them to the church?" were 
the perennial subjects of ministers' meetings and conferences, 
but we seldom heard it asked: "How can we set them at 
work for the church? What can we give them to do for 
Christ?" The typical ministers' meeting which I attended 

Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

many years ago, just before the formation of the first Christian 
Endeavor society, comes to my mind as I write. The subject 
was the one which was even then familiar and well worn, 
/What shall we do for the young people? How can we in any 
measure stop the dreadful leak between the Sunday-school and 
the church? How can we save the children of the church 
themselves, those who were in a sense born into her fellow- 
ship, and who she had a right to expect would grow up into 
her communion and service? 

In some form this old but imperious question was being 
discussed. Various remedies, and more or less successful ef- 
forts, were reported, when one young man, with the air of 
knowing it all, arose and said that he had solved the problem. 
He had won all the boys and girls to his side and to the side 
of the church. And how did he do it? Why, simply by the 
aid of ''the succulent oyster." He had brought the 

Service, . -^ ^ 

not boys together and given them an oyster supper, and 

'then had invited the girls, and treated them in the 
same manner; and now they were all his friends and the 
friends of the church. 

To one other young minister in that assembly this solution 
of the most serious problem in the church life of the times was 
a woful disappointment, perhaps because he himself had made 
some poor and useless efforts of a similar kind. In any event, 
he went away disappointed and none the wiser; but his mind 
Was gradually working out the problem, and from the very 
failure of these poor makeshifts at Christian nurture he came 
to see that there must be something more earnest and strenuous, 
something that demanded service for the church, and not sim- 
ply a condescending willingness to be pleased and entertained 
by the church. In fact, he came to see that the order of our 
Lord's life-motto could not be reversed, but that those who 
should be won for the Christian life must minister, and not 
merely be ministered unto. 

The Soil, the Seed and the Climate. 29 

But the entertainment idea had taken deep root every- 
where in the church a generation ago. On my first visit to 
Great Britain in the interests of the Christian Endeavor So- 
ciety one minister in an ecclesiastical assemblage objected to 
the Society because there was "too much prayer-meeting, and 
too little lawn-tennis." For his part, he said, he thought it 
quite as much the duty of his young people to play lawn-ten- 
nis as to go to the prayer-meeting, and he would as soon think 
of pledging them to one duty as the other. 

However, the failures of lawn-tennis, of pink teas, and 
Christmas trees, and summer picnics to strengthen the church 
and develop the religious life of the young people soon made 
themselves evident; and these many and varied failures were 
not the least important means of preparing the Christian world 
for an organization which should plant itself firmly and un- 
equivocally on the basis of service for others for Christ's sake. 

Thus was the atmosphere made ready for the upspringing 
of the good seed in the good soil. 

A new variety of fruit, however, must have some one 
starting-place, some garden in which it may first be developed 
X*'^ . and broup;ht to greater or less perfection ; then 

Experi= 00 r 1 

mental sccds and shoots are easily multiplied until the 

of^*^ world is filled with them. Every country, and al- 

Endeavm- ^lost cvcry State in our own land, has now its exper- 
imental farm, where new seeds are tested and new varieties 
of fruits and flowers are given a chance to show whether they 
are worth the ground they occupy. Burbank, the plant-wiz- 
ard of California, is conducting these experiments on an enor- 
mous scale, and every now and then is surprising the world 
with some entirely wonderful production of plant life. But 
even Mr. Burbank has to acknowledge that many of his ex- 
periments are fruitless. Not one efifort in a hundred, perhaps 
not one in a thousand, brings forth a new and really valuable 
variety of fruit or flower. 

30 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

In some such way, though often unconsciously, and of no 
set purpose, experiments are being carried on in the moral and 
religious world. Many of them are necessarily failures, so far 
as any large results follow; but they are all useful, at least in 
showing how not to do it; and from a thousand plants, perhaps, 
will spring one really desirable scion. 

WiLLisTON Chapel, Portland, ]\Ie., 
Where the first Christian Endeavor society met. 

Williston Church in Portland, Me., seems to have been 
chosen by Providence as the experimental farm for the devel- 
opment of a new variety of organization for young people. 
The pastor of the church was by no means an ecclesiastical 
Burbank; but he had the advantage of making various experi- 
ments which he found to be failures, and of being turned by 

The Soil, the Seed and the Climate. 31 

these failures to the development of another and more fruitful 
form of organization. This church was well adapted to such 
experimental work. It was young, as well as its pastor. It 
was only eight years from its formation to the time when the 
first Endeavor society was started. It was buoyant, hopeful, 
and full of large expectations for the future. It had no an- 
cient traditions to hamper it. Its affairs need not forever be 
managed in the same way because they always had been thus 
managed. The first part of Peter's declaration concerning 
the use of unclean animals was never used as a text in that pul- 
pit, "Not so. Lord, for I never have." The people were quite 
willing that their young pastor, whose good intentions, at 
least, they believed in, should go ahead and do about as he 
pleased, so long as he did not preach heresy in the pulpit, or 
neglect the services of the sanctuary or his parish duties. 
^P^g More than all, Williston Church was a most 

Composition favorable experimental ground for a new organiza- 
Wiiiiston tion for young people since its membership was 
very largely made up of young people. The only 
elderly man was the white-haired senior deacon, whose heart 
was as young as the youngest, and who, had he lived to watch 
the progress of the Endeavor movement, would have rejoiced 
in it as perhaps no one else. All the other members of the 
church, almost without exception, were on the sunny side of 
forty, if we may assume that the younger side is the sunnier, 
which, however, is an open question that need not be discussed 
here. There were not a few boys and girls from twelve years 
old and upwards ; for, though on one occasion a member of the 
church committee in examining candidates asked one of the 
trembling young disciples the old test question of sterner Puri- 
tan days, whether she would be willing to be damned for the 
glory of God, the question was not pressed, and children and 
young people who gave credible evidence of conversion and a 
purpose to lead a new life in and for Christ Jesus were always 

32 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

gladly and affectionately welcomed into the church-member- 

Moreover, all the members of this church had recently 
come together. Its growth had been very rapid during the 
last three or four years, and there was a feeling of keen sym- 
pathy and joyous fellowship among its members such as is 
rarely exhibited even in the most prosperous of churches. 
One reason for this was that they had worked and sacrificed 

The church had been organized eight years before in a 
humble wooden mission chapel, where for some time a Sun- 
day-school had been carried on by the State Street Church, 
one of the weathiest and strongest in the city. Here had come 
together a few like-minded Christian workers, whose persist- 
ent desire was to carry the gospel into a neglected part of the 
city and care for the poorer people of the region, who could 
not or would not go to the more fashionable and wealthy 
churches. Their self-sacrificing labors were quickly and 
abundantly blessed, and new members were added to the 
church at every communion. Some wealthy and influential 
men came to the support of the new enterprise, and threw 
in their lot with the struggling church. A new and com- 
modious building was projected soon after the coming of their 
new pastor, a building which required all the resources of the 
struggling church, and called upon its members 
Local for no little self-denial. The prayer-meetings of 

phere^^ WilHston Church soon became famous throughout 
the city for their warmth and earnestness, and even 
on Sunday evenings the people decided that a prayer service, 
which often overflowed the vestry into the main body of the 
church, was more helpful and stimulating to their religious 
life than a more formal and elaborate service would be. 

Thus the local atmosphere was exactly favorable to the 
growth of the new seed which was soon to be planted. But one 

The Soil, the Seed and the Climate,, 33 

other condition was lacking, and that was soon supplied; for 
an unusually gracious revival interest was aroused among the 
people in the winter of 1881 in connection with the Week of 
Prayer. In anticipation of this week the pastor had preached 
and prayed. Expectation of an unusual blessing was aroused. 
A special day of prayer by the whole church preceded it. 
Prayer-meetings were held in connection with the Sunday- 
school service after the first Sunday of January, 1881. The 
expected, and not the unexpected, occurred. That which had 
been longed for and prayed for came to pass. Revival inter- 
est was awakened, as had been the case during the four preced- 
ing years of this pastorate in connection with the Week of 
Prayer; but in 1881 the interest was more general and intense 

than before. Many young people were led to de- 
Revivai cidc to livc for Christ and to acknowledge Him by 
the^ociJty joining the church, and just at this juncture, when 
was not only the general atmosphere throughout the 

country was ready to welcome a new religious 
movement, but when the special and individual climate, if I 
may so speak, of that particular church was most congenial to 
the new and tender plant, the seed was dropped into the mel- 
low soil of youthful ardor and devotion, and the first society 
of Christian Endeavor sprang up, and the movement, of which 
the future chapters of this book will tell, had begun. The 
Society, let it ever be remembered, was born in a revival. 





" The Society commends itself to me by proving itself at 
once spiritual and practical, strong and supple. I appreciate 
its unity and variety, and, finally, its high value as developing 
simultaneously a spirit of ecclesiastical loyalty and of Christian 
solidarity, the latter being symbolized by the common title 
w^hich unites all the societies under one wide banner, while it 
leaves to each of them perfect liberty." 

Rev. Theodore Monod, Paris. 

ROMANTIC interest always attaches to a birth, 
however humble and unimportant. The fluffy 
chicken peeping through the broken eggshell, 
and facing the sun for the first time with its un- 
accustomed eyes; the butterfly crawling out of 
the chrysalis before it has once dared to use its untried wings, 
are eagerly watched by every lover of life, because something 
new is stirring. Into a new body has come that wonderful, 
unexplainable principle called life. Even an incubator in a 
shop window will always attract more attention than a dis- 
play of the richest and costliest goods. 

The birth of a new organization which has a mission to 
perform in the world may occur in most humble and obscure 
circumstances. In fact, it usually does so occur, but it is nev- 
ertheless of interest even in its least important details. 


Genesis of the Society. 


of a 

In describing the birth of the first society of Christian 
Endeavor I think I cannot do better than to quote the story 
as written out by me some years since,* when the circumstances 
were freshly and vividly in mind: — 

The second day of February, 1881, proved to 
be one of the bitterly cold days in the calendar of 
the year; and Maine knows something about cold 
weather, as my readers who have the good fortune 
to live in the Pine-Tree State can testify. Snow covered the 
ground and the house-tops, and glitter- ^,~^-,.^ 

ing icicles like stalactites of diamonds \ 

hung on the eaves. 

The crisp snow creaked under the 
runners of the flying sleighs, and the 
coasting and skating were excellent. 
But in spite of these outdoor attractions 
of a northern winter the young people 
accepted an invitation from their pastor 
and his wife to come to the parsonage. 
Various savory and spicy odors 
from the kitchen were wafted upwards 
to the pastor's study throughout the 
morning of that day, for the Mizpah 
Circle were coming to tea, and the pastor's wife desired to 
treat them with due hospitality. 

In the afternoon some forty girls and boys, with a few 
young ladies, gathered for the usual meeting of the Mizpah 
Circle, and after tea were joined by their older brothers and 
sisters. Conspicuous among the older ones were Mr. W. H. 
Pennell and his fine Sunday-school class of young men. After 
a little general conversation as to the importance of starting 
right, of working for the church, and of showing one's colors 
for Christ on all occasions, the pastor with a good deal of hesi- 

* In " World-Wide Endeavor." 

IMrs. Francis E. Clark. 

36 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

tation produced a constitution whiose germs had lain in his 
mind for a long while, but which he had written out for the 
first time that day. 

He was afraid that its strenuous covenant would not com- 
mend it to the young people, that they would be afraid of its 
strictly religious character, that they would not find enough 
of the oyster-supper and "pink-tea" element in it to win their 
approval ; but ever since his weak faith and lack of knowledge 
of young hearts have been rebuked by their acceptance of this 
constitution and by the loyal adhesion to it of millions of like- 
minded youth. 

^(^g It was proposed in this document, which the 

Object minister that morning brought down from his study, 

and the fe fa J ) 

Member= that the society should be called the "Williston 
''*' Young People's Society of Christian Endeavor." 

Its object was declared to be "to promote an earnest Christian 
life among its members, to increase their mutual acquaintance, 
and to make them more useful in the service of God." It pro- 
vided also that there should be two classes of members, "ac- 
tive and associate," the active members being those who sin- 
cerely desired to accomplish the results above specified, and 
the associate members those who were not willing to consider 
themselves decided Christians, but who desired the privileges 
and companionships of the society. 

The leading committees were defined in the same way 
as they are now defined in the constitution of the Society, and 
it was soon provided that they should make a report to the soci- 
ety at the monthly business-meeting concerning the work of 
the past month. But, as in these days, so also in that early day, 
everything pivoted on the prayer-meeting. The most impor- 
tant clause of the constitution related to the prayer-meeting, 
which stated, ''It is expected that all the active members of 
this society will he present at every meeting unless detained 
by some absolute necessity, and that each one will take some 

Genesis of the Society. 37 

part, however slight, in every meeting." This sentence was 
underscored; and, when the constitution was printed, it was 
put in italics, which symbolizes the way in which it has been 


Fac-5iinile of Original Constitution. 



COPrRlGHT, 1895 

The Genesis of Christian Endeavor. 
Facsimile of the First Page of the Original Constitution. 

engraved, underscored, and italicized on the heart of the 
Christian Endeavor movement from that day to this. 

Moreover, this article concerning the prayer-meeting 
went on to state that once each month an experience-meeting 

38 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

should be held, "at which meeting each member shall speak 
concerning his progress in the Christian life for the 
Piv^otai past month." "If any one chooses, he can express 
Meeting. J^-^ fge^jj^gg j^y ^n appropriate verse of Scripture." 
"It is expected, if any one is obliged to be absent from this 
experience-meeting, he will send his reason for absence by 
some one who attends." Moreover, at the close of the month- 
ly experience-meeting, the constitution specifies that "the roll 
shall be called, and the response of the active members who 
are present shall be considered a renewed expression of alle- 
giance to Christ. If any member is absent from the monthly 
experience-meeting and fails to send an excuse, the lookout 
committee is expected to take the name of such a one, and in 
a kindly and brotherly spirit ascertain the reason of the 
absence. If any member of this society is absent and 
unexcused from three consecutive experience-meetings, such a 
one ceases to be a member of the society, and his name shall be 
stricken from the list of members." v' 

It will be noticed, that, word for word, this original con- 
stitution has in all important particulars been followed by the 
vast majority of the almost numberless millions of copies of 
constitutions printed since, though there is no compulsion in 
this matter, and every society may frame its own constitution 
in general conformity to the Christian Endeavor idea. The 
object of the Society was defined in the same way then as now. 
The two classes of members were distinguished from each 
other by the same definition then as now. The committees, so 
far as they were outlined at all, were assigned the same duties 
in that original constitution as they now assume wherever 
they are found. 

The provision for the consecration-meeting was complete 
from the first, and the same words are used now as then, with 
the exception that it was in those days called an "experience- 
meeting," a name which was often applied to it for some years, 

Genesis of the Society. 39 

but which was afterwards dropped for the broader and more 
significant term "consecration-meeting." 

This, then, was the document which the pastor on that 
cold February evening brought down-stairs to his young peo- 
ple. No wonder that he felt in some doubt as to whether they 
would accept its strong and iron-clad provisions. With a 
good deal of natural hesitation he presented it to them, and 
read the constitution through, page by page. 
How ^ deathly stillness fell upon the meeting. 

t*^^ .^ ^. Those strict provisions were evidently more than the 

Constitution . ^ -^ 

was young people had bargained for. They had not 

Received. , ^ j , , i i • i • • i • 

been accustomed to take their religious duties so 
seriously. Nothing of the sort had ever been heard of in that 
church, or, to their knowledge, in any church, before. To 
some of them it seemed that more was expected of them than 
of the deacons even, and other officers of the church; and they 
felt keenly their own inexperience and awkwardness in Chris- 
tian service. 

It was simply a company of average young people. Not 
many mighty, not many learned, were there; but this company 
was another of the weak things which God used to confound 
the mighty. These young men and women were as bashful, 
as timid and retiring, as any similar company probably. 
Among them was not a single unpleasantly precocious young 
Christian. There was no prig in all that room, imbued with 
the smug consciousness that he was "not as other men." 

They were active, energetic, fun-loving young people, 
just such as can be gathered in any church to-day. 

But they were Christian young people. Their hearts 
were touched by love for Him who gave Himself for them, 
and they sincerely desired to do His will. 

As I said, a considerable and painful silence fell upon 
the meeting when this constitution with its serious provisions 
was proposed. It seemed as if the society would die still-born. 

40 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

and be simply a creature of the pastor's imagination. But 
God ordered it otherwise. In that company were two who 
were especially influential and helpful in launching the little 
craft. These were Mr. W. H. Pennell, before mentioned, 








First Twenty Names of the Original Members. 

and the pastor's wife. Seeing that the matter was likely to fall 
through, at least for that meeting, Mr. Pennell affixed his sig- 
nature to the constitution, and called upon his class of young 

Genesis of the Society. 41 

men to do the same. Mrs. Clark quietly circulated among 
the girls of the Mizpah Circle, persuading them that it was not 
such a "dreadful" promise to make as they at first supposed, 
telling them that any earnest young person could live up to the 
provisions of this constitution, and promising herself to be an 
active member, though at first she shrunk from the pledge as 
much as any of them. 

One by one the young men and women affixed their names to 
the document, a few more minutes were spent in conversation, 
a closing prayer was offered and a hymn sung, and the young 
people went out into the frosty night to their homes, with many 
a merry "Good-night," "Good-night," to each other; and the 
first society of Christian Endeavor was formed. 




" This admirable movement has alreadj^ survived the peril 
of being a ' novelty.' There is a cemetery for religious and 
benevolent enterprises just at that point where novelty dies out, 
and plenty of them have had Christian burial in that ' potter's 
field.' By God's good guidance and rich blessing the Christian 
Endeavorers have left that fatal spot far behind, and are 
marching on, two million strong. May the societies live on, to 
march into the millennial morning with colors flying and the 
dear name of the Crucified on every ensign." 

Rev. Theodore Cuyler, D.D., in l8p4. 

LTHOUGH the first society of Christian Endeav- 
or was born, it had not yet begun its work, nor 
had it proved its right to live. The easiest thing 
in the world to do is to start a new organization. 
It requires little genius or foresight, and no tact 
and patient persistence. But to keep an organization alive, to 
foster it so that it shall increase in strength and stature and in 
favor with God and man — that is difficult. Thousands 
of young people's organizations, in the church and out, have 
been born only to die an inglorious death, ''unwept, unhon- 
ored, and unsung." Such organizations had been started be- 
fore in Williston Church, and had come to their natural end 
in a longer or shorter space of time. These failures caused 
the new organization to be looked upon, even by its warmest 
friends and advocates, with something of doubt and fear, if not 


Some First Things. 43 

of distrust. Would it go the way of all the others? Would 
it flourish famously for a few weeks, and then "peter out," in 
^ the expressive language of the boys of that period? 

E^^'dm nt ^^ ^"^ could answer these questions, or pretended 
to. The new society was an acknowledged experi- 
ment, but an experiment undertaken modestly, but with trust 
in God for results, and with "faith triumphant o'er our fears." 
The first prayer-meeting of the society was held a few 
days after the organization described in the last chapter, and 
on a Friday evening, the regular eve- 
ning for the young people's meeting in 
that church. The pastor, at least, went 
to that meeting with not a little anxiety. 
He had staked much in his own mind 
upon this new organization. It was, 
he almost felt, his last hope ; for he had 
tried other plans of interesting, enter- 
taining, and thus winning the young 
people, with very indifferent success. 
But this first prayer-meeting of the 
new society surpassed his fondest ex- 
pectations. It was a revelation, to him 
and to all who attended it, of what a ^- J- ^''" P^"^"- 

young people's meeting might be. Nothing like it before had 
ever been held in Williston Church, noted as that church was, 
in limited circles, at least, for its good prayer-meetings. 

A young man * was in the chair as leader of that first meet- 
ing, who was experienced and gifted in such service ; but he did 
not have to do it all, or exhort any one to "occupy the time," or 
overwork the hymn-book in efiforts to prevent the hour from 
dragging too wearily. For the first time in the history of that 
church, at least, all who attended the meeting felt some obliga- 
tion to sustain it. They were not eloquent or wise, these 

* Mr. Granville Staples, the first president of the society. 

44 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

young people; but the meeting was theirs in a peculiar sense, 
and they were there not merely to listen and absorb, but to give 
out and to help. 

The result was that, instead of the three or four little ser- 
monettes and long prayers which had heretofore filled up the 
hour of the young people's meeting, forty young 
First people, more or less, with Scripture verses and sen- 

me^etfne. tences of prayer, and some of the more experienced 
with longer testimonies or exhortations, were heard 
in those precious and prophetic sixty minutes devoted to the 
first genuine Christian Endeavor prayer-meeting. 

The singing, too, took on new life and vigor; for it was 
their own singing; their own chosen hymns were suggested; in 
fact, in every sense it was their own meeting. It was evidently 
the little clause relating to the prayer-meeting which had 
wrought this marvellous change. This clause, which was 
afterwards expanded into the prayer-meeting pledge, read as 
follows : 

"It is expected that all the members of the society will be 
present at every meeting, unless detained by some absolute 
necessity, and that each one will take some part, however 
slight, in every meeting." 

But this meeting, though the first, was by no means the 
hist of t'^e series, nor was it the best, for each successive meet- 
ing seemed to grow in interest and power. Numbers in- 
creased rapidly. Young men and women who never thought 
of going to a prayer-meeting before were attracted to this 
one. When they came once, they came again, and often were 
soon enrolled as earnest Christians and active members of the 
society. The halting, stumbling, btSt genuinely sincere, utter- 
ances of these young disciples, the heartiness of their singing, 
the very Scripture verses which they made their own as they 
brought them to the meeting, gave new power and a perennial 
interest to a meeting which before had often been a dragging 

Some First Things. 45 

discouragement to pastor and young people alike. No longer 
now did the pastor look forward with apprehension to the 
Friday evening meeting, but with eager anticipation as to a 
place where he should himself gain spiritual help and new 
courage for his work, and in which his part, if he chose, might 
be as slight as that of the youngest boy. 

In fact, though always present and always participating, 
he rarely led a meeting, preferring to sit with the young men 
as one of them, and giving the responsibility and educational 
advantage of leadership to those who needed it most, some- 
times the very youngest boys and girls in the society. 

Of course it will not be supposed that a high order of lit- 
Spread= crary merit was always attained in these meetings, 
eagle nor that the graces of fluent eloquence and oratory 

Oratory ... 

Discour= were often exhibited. In fact, eloquence and ora- 
^^^ * tory were rather discouraged, and anything like 

bombastic spread-eagleism would have seemed too absurd to 
be indulged in such a time and place. 

There were, to be sure, a few among the older members 
who were educated, experienced, and gifted ; but it was under- 
stood by all that the young people's meeting was no place to 
display gifts or graces of speech, but simply for outspoken ac- 
knowledgment of the religious purpose, a place for the ex- 
pression, however poor and halting the words used, of the 
dominant purpose of life to serve Christ and to help others. 

This thought entirely revolutionized the prayer-meeting 
idea of that church so far as the young people were con- 
cerned. It was not a place primarily for instruction, for 
learned essays or homilies, or even for "edification" in the old- 
fashioned sense of that term. It w^as a place for arousing the 
dormant religious life, for training and practice in the expres- 
sion of that life, for the development of courage in acknowl- 
edging one's convictions, of sympathy for those who were 
struggling forward on the same up-hill road to the Celestial 


Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

City, and of encouragement to the weakest and humblest who, 
thus comparing notes, as it were, with others in the same stage 
of religious development, would gain a help that they could 
never get from the learned and the experienced. 

In my opinion the true prayer-meeting idea a quarter of a 
century ago was in danger of being lost, as indeed it is now in 
some individual churches. The idea of instruction was dom- 
inating it. It had become the unwritten law in many a church 


i-^sr SOCIETY or christ 





. JR. CH Rl STANDI: _ - , 



iii )j ii |j i ) iii f i^ iwy^wy^ww 

Memorial Tablet, 
Williston Church, Portland, Me. 

that only those who were gifted and well educated could '^take 
part to edification" in the prayer-meeting. 

This idea had already borne disastrous fruit in many a 
church which had practically given up the social midweek 
meeting free to all for participation, and had substituted the 
midweek lecture, practically another little sermon to burden 
the pastor, and often to prove of small benefit to the few who 
heard it. But the radical idea that there was a place for all 
in the young people's meeting, and a part that all could take, 
however timid, bashful, or ignorant, revolutionized and re- 

Some First Things. 47 

vivified that dying young people's meeting in Williston 
Churchi, as it has done to many another wherever the Chris- 
tian Endeavor idea has extended. 

As has been said, not only were the youngest and most 
Youne inexperienced young people expected to take part 

Leaders in the meeting, but they were expected to lead it as 
Christian well; and this leadership of the weak proved by no 
means weak leadership, for with redoubled readi- 
ness and earnestness the others w^ould rally to the help of their 
inexperienced and sometimes sadly flustrated companions; and 
all would pronounce this meeting at the end the very best 
of all. 

, One of these early meetings I remember w^ith peculiar 
interest because of the entire inadequacy of the leadership 
from the oratorical point of view. It was the first attempt of 
this boy of thirteen or fourteen, who had but just begun the 
Christian life. The subject of the meeting was "Christian 
Heroism," or willingness to endure ridicule for Christ's sake. 
The boy leader gave out the hymn, and stumbled through the 
Scripture passage, evidently in great trepidation; but, when 
it came to giving his few words of explanation or exhortation, 
his ideas evidently forsook him. "If you are a Christian, — " 
he began, and could get no further. "If you are a Christian, 
— " he said once more, and there was another pause. "What 
you scared of, anyway?" was his only comment, and he sat 
down, doubtless inwardly covered with shame and confusion 
of face. 

But it proved to be a capital opening for the meeting. 
The young leader had shown his own determination and cour- 
age, and that was better than a well-ordered and eloquent dis- 
course on Christian heroism. The youngest and weakest felt 
that they could do as well as he; and so the meeting went 
on from start to finish with prayer and song and testimony and 
Scripture quotation, far more successfully, doubtless, than if 


Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

the pastor or one of the elders had sat in the chair, and direct- 
ed the thought of the young people. 

It must not be supposed that all the meetings were of 
exactly this type. There were skilled leaders for some of 
them; sometimes the opening thought was contained in a brief 
written essay; and the pastor and a few older Endeavorers 
were always present to give the meeting the right turn if inex- 
perience or timidity went hopelessly wrong. In fact, there 
was an infinite variety to these meetings, which was one of 
their perpetual charms. 

But there were other "first things" in this new society 
besides the first prayer-meeting. This society did not expend 
all its energies upon the weekly meetings any more than its 
thousands of successors. This was rather the power-house 
where were obtained the spiritual energy and fervor which 
turned all the wheels of the society. 

The first social gathering was quite as success- 
ful in its way as the first prayer-meeting. A social 
committee had been appointed at the very outset, 
and this committee felt it to be its bus- 
iness and privilege to make this first 
sociable as interesting and helpful to 
all as it could possibly be made. No 
wallflowers were allowed to adorn the 
sides of the room. No little groups 
and cliques were expected to spend the 
evening together to the neglect of their 
companions. It was a bright, breezy, 
entertaining gathering; and all went 
away feeling that a new social centre 
for the young people had been found, 
and that centre the church to which 
they belonged. 

Rev. C, A. Dickinson. D. D. ^ . , r ■, n , • , 

Los An<:-eies Cai Another of the nrst thmgs was the 




Some First Things. 49 

missionary committee with its activities. The Mizpah Circle, 
before alluded to, had trained the girls and the younger boys in 
missionary activities; and it was not hard for them to under- 
stand that to work for others was quite as essential a feature of 
the new young people's society as to pray among themselves. 
Pledge-cards for collecting missionary money were at once in- 
troduced, and the outlook of the society from the very first day 
embraced not only Portland and its charities, and the needs 
of America, but extended to India, China, Africa, and the 
islands of the sea; a prophecy, as it now seems, of the way in 
which this little society, looking out from Williston Church 
to the very ends of the earth, should soon go out into these 
distant countries to promote their evangelization and civili- 

Other committees to turn the musical ability of the soci- 
First ^^^ ^^ good account, to beautify the pulpit with 

Coni= flowers, to visit the sick and poor, and to welcome 

mittees. ^ , , 

strangers, were soon formed as the necessary out- 
growth of the Christian Endeavor idea; and on that very 
first evening the lookout committee, which has proved so 
potent a factor in the life and growth of the whole move- 
ment, was inaugurated. 

Its name indicates its purpose. It was to look out over 
the whole field of the society, and far beyond its borders. It 
was to find new members, and bring them in and introduce 
them to the work and to the workers. It was to be a kind of 
outside conscience to the indifferent and careless, to remind 
them of their duties, and to win them back to their allegiance. 
In a sense, indeed, this was the great fly-wheel of the society, 
which was to keep all the other wheels running. Its duties 
and offices were perhaps quite as original as any other feature 
of the new organization, and it has proved an indispensable 
adiunct wherever the Christian idea has found its way. 

These first social gatherings, first missionary enterprises, 

50 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

first meetings, first committees, were only the first in a long 
series of growingly successful efforts to help the young and 
train them for Christ in Williston Church. The secret, if not 
of perpetual motion, at least of perpetual rejuvenation and 
renewal of energy seemed to have been discovered. This 
new society did not wane and dwindle as others had done be- 
fore it. The love of the members did not wax cold; or, if 
some lost their first energy and impulse for service, others 
were added, and laggards were revived, so that the numbers 
and zeal of the society steadily held their own or advanced. 

The minister did not have to push, and prod, and exhort, 
and in the end carry the burden himself; but it was dis- 
tributed on so many younger shoulders that half of his own 
previous load was carried by them; and, with the young peo- 
ple to do the work and take the leadership in many 
^^earing activities, he could nevertheless be the unseen 
BurdeiT*^* power behind them, keeping his hands on the reins 
to guide the little chariot where he deemed best, 
and always keeping in touch with his young people, as he 
had never been able to do before they were thus carefully 
organized for Christian service. 

In other words, an organization as nearly self-governing 
and self-propagating as any organization can be had come 
into existence in Williston Church, and the problem which 
had exercised the heart of this pastor and thousands of others 
had in a measure been solved. It is not out of place to add 
here, perhaps, that after a quarter of a century the original 
society is still as strong and vigorous as ever. The minister 
who formed the society remained with them for only about 
three years after its organization. Three others have suc- 
ceeded him, and to-day their honored pastor* declares that the 
society is still as his own right hand, that the young people 
are unswervingly loyal and true to their obligations. Genera- 

=^Rev. Smith Baker. D.D. 

Some First Things. 51 

tion has succeeded generation, for the generations in a young 
people's society are necessarily short-lived; but the original 
spirit animates the Williston young people of to-day. They 
have recently raised among themselves a thousand dollars for 
their beautiful new parish house, and in all activities for their 
society, for their church, and the "regions beyond" they main- 
tain all the zeal and devotion of the original Endeavorers. 



" The coming historian will characterize the nineteenth 
century as The Age of New Forces. He will make mention 
of steam and electricity, and of their wonderful application 
and adjustments in the industrial world. He will have some- 
thing to say about dynamite and of the part it played in en- 
forcing peace. But he will dwell with vastly greater emphasis 
on certain new forces and new adjustments of religious things, 
such as the Sunday-school, the missionary propaganda, the tem- 
perance reform, women's work, and the Endeavor movement. 
Nor is the last the least. It stands for the transfusion of 
youthful blood ; it means the mobilization of the Christian 
army; it marks an awakening as distinct as the Crusades and 
immensely more momentous." 

Rev. David J. Burrell, D.D., New York City. 

HE exodus of the Society of Christian Endeavor 
from its original home was unlike that of the 
Israelites in that it was no forced matter com- 
pelled by hard taskmasters who would hold it 
back from any Promised Land. There was 
always the utmost readiness on the part of that society to 
share with others the good things which God gave to it, but 
its plans and methods were never forced upon another church 
or upon the attention of the world. The Society went out 
because it could not stay at home. It illuminated othei 


The Exodus of the Society. 53 

churches than Williston and other towns than Portland for 
the same reason that a candle gives its light. It could not 
help it. 

And yet for eight months the Christian Endeavor idea in 
its modern form was confined to Williston Church. It needed 
such a period of probation and testing before its value was 
sufficiently assured to be recommended to others. But by 
that time it had not only "felt its feet," to use a nursery phrase 
appropriate to such an infant society, but was ready to walk 
and leap beyond the borders of its own church home. 

By that time nearly thirty weekly prayer-meetings had 
been held, and with very few exceptions they had all been 
marked by spiritual power, and had proved of real 
Tpl'^g and lasting benefit to all the members. By that 

Testin time, too, the monthly roll-call meeting, which at 

first was called an "experience-meeting," had 
proved its supreme value in once a month facing the young dis- 
ciples with the question of their progress or decline in the 
Christian life. The very calling of the names, as of those 
who had committed themselves to the service of the Master 
and to upholding the honor of His church, had a remarkable 
restraining and elevating influence, and it had come to be 
thought of, as it has since been frequently called, "the crown- 
ing meeting." The committees, too, several new ones having 
been added since that February night which has already been 
described, were working effectively and without friction; and 
their monthly written reports showed what they had at least 
endeavored to do in Christ's name and for His church. 

The experimental days were by no means over, but the 
new plans had been sufficiently tried to permit a modest recital 
of them in The Congregationalist newspaper, under the title, 
"How One Church Looks after its Young People." This 
article, which was merely a brief description of the methods 
and plans of the Society of Christian Endeavor, now so well 

54 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

known, brought me an unexpected correspondence. I expect- 
ed to hear no more from this than from any other newspaper 
article; and, as every writer knows, that is usually very little. 
But this article seemed to be on a subject which was exercising 
the minds of many. 

A reprint of the article in The Sunday-School Times and 
other papers in England and America increased the 
Appearance Correspondence concerning this new organization, 
'". though it was some years before any fruit appeared 

in Great Britain. So many were the requests for 
information that it was soon found necessary to print with a 
gelatine pad some copies of the constitution which the Willis- 
ton Society had adopted, to send to inquiring friends. 

But even then it never occurred to any one, certainly not 
to the writer, that the subject would prove of general interest, 
or that it would ever be worth while to spend any money for 
printers' ink in making known the principles of the Society. 
Those early days of small expectations stand out in vivid con- 
trast to these days that mark the close of the first quarter-cen- 
tury of the movement. 

Now the constitution, which was then printed by the 
laborious and imperfect hectograph process, is multiplied by 
a million copies every year, and is calculated not in one lan- 
guage only, but in fifty. The principles which were then 
regarded as entirely experimental, adapted possibly to the 
church where they originated and to a few others of a similar 
character, are now confidently recommended not only to Amer- 
icans and to the churches of the Pilgrim order, but to liturgical 
and non-liturgical churches, to English and French, Spaniards 
and Scandinavians, to the Teutons and the Slavs alike, to the 
Orientals as well as Occidentals. And not without reason 
or in a spirit of boastfulness is the Society thus commended, 
but because during these twenty-five years it has proved its 
adaptability to all these races and its ability to do for young 

The Exodus of the Society. 


people everywhere, if it is given a fair chance, what it had 
already done for the young people of Williston Church. 

The reason for this universal adaptability must lie not in 
any wisdom of methods, but in the principles that underlie 
these methods. It is inconceivable that any mere form or 
plan of church-work that was not based on fundamental and 
universal principles could have thus succeeded so quickly in 
finding its way into every land and language. 


CU T ^ .(^ ^ ^ ^ f^ iX>( 

jpl^eo CDQj^git G^Qj ^^fiiTest^ssiiU nwS^ isir^f cr^ssr Q^FtuujQeuesirCBQLneBrtnt 

^aientr Q/sirdQ QBiSjfgj Qen/iu) ai''&^eieii(^Oeuek erarj>u>, ereir ^aisrreo 

SHU) aiira(SfdQan(BdBQpair. ^(5 Qifliuir ^eaiuQiuins erdr ai^eawaisirQiuM' 
e^tTLo K^emaawujiTiLi iSee>pQaippei)u>, erek sit^^q^ld ^eigi—ai((hLDi'@LU ^dius- 

fiirSfSlU) uiii^QujDetjt}) eifTd^dQsir(Sd@<:peir. wrr/faii^B fifliSsr^£i>€aL.» 
^^L-i—fiPfl^ eiinru>^Qr)de Oeieiri^jfiiTiiS(i^d(^u>QuirQgf!, s>.(Swir(a)ei jfuuLf. 
eijiTpQd(^ia aimesur/ieofi^ a^iiafifiirQ^d^^ O^ifisEuQuek. 

S^uiSuih — , -..- _ esnaOiui^^^. - 


The Cliristian Endeavor Covenant in Tamil. 

But here is the secret: The Society in every part, in 
pledge and prayer-meeting, in its committees and all its activ- 
ities, is based on these principles. The young Christian has 
implanted within him something of devotion to the highest 
ideals and a desire to attain them. The very words "conver- 
sion" and "Christian" are empty and meaningless 
Principles, unlcss this is true. This devotion must find expres- 
sion in word and deed. "No impression without 
expression," is the latest word of the psychologist. Reduced 


Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

to ordinary phrase, the young Christian to grow in grace must 
practise the Christian graces. He must give out as well as 
receive. He must exercise as well as eat. He must not be 
ashamed of his religion, or unwilling to sacrifice himself for 
his Master. The Christian Endeavor Society simply says: "I 
will show these young Christians how they may work and 
how they may speak for Him whom they have begun to serve. 
I will provide an easy and natural channel for the expression 
by word and deed of their religious life." 

Human nature is the same the world around, whatever be 
the color of the skin, the environment, or the heredity. To 
be a Christian means the same thing on the Congo that it 
means in Chicago; in Laos as in London the service of Christ 



m ^ r <■ 4 '^' .y-v ^^ iiH V X ^ 

L 't ^ 6 /./ > X /^ f/S 'f ^ - ^^ 

^ I- f isi: m .-^ ^ '^' ^ x^ -^ <■ M in ^ ^ 

^ ^ ^- f mm J. - ^\-\ u^ ^ ^' ^ ^ m 

^, - 4^ ^ t- •= ^ ^ y^\^ » ^ u m ^' ^ 

m -= / ^ '^ -^ m m jf m "$ "^ <• M ■= m 


^- * ? ^ ^ -l^ ^J ^ #i L 

-4^ qf qp ^ 

* M ^ fiH ? <• ia ^' li? ^ ^< "^ J. m m 
^ i-^ mi^m 4 ^ ^/ i? ^ - - 51 # 


The Christian Endeavor Covenant in Japanese. 

calls for the same qualities of sincerity and devotion; and so 
an organization which made this appeal to the young people 
finds itself as much at home on the banks of the Nile or the 
Yang-tse-kiang as it does on the shores of the Connecticut or 
the Thames. 

The Moses of the new movement, if we may so call him, 

The Exodus of the Societyo 57 

who first led it out into a new field of activity, was Rev. 
Charles Perry Mills, of the North Church in Newburyport, 

Mr. Mills, who some years ago passed on to his abundant 
reward, was from the very beginning of his most useful career 
an enthusiastic advocate of the organization. After many 
years of labor among his own young people, recalling a full 
decade of happy service in his Christian Endeavor society, he 
characteristically wrote : — 

"In the first voyage which the young Christian Endeavor 
child undertook, it passed successfully from port to port, from 
Portland to Newburyport, where it was warmly adopted be- 
cause of its comely beauty and promising vigor. That Chris- 
tian Endeavor was of spiritual origin and destined to become 
a providential movement may be gathered from the similarity 
of the occasions that called into being the first and second soci- 
eties. The Newburyport pastor, the first winter of his pas- 
torate, 1 88 1, had the happiness to see a revival that resulted in 
the conversion of a goodly number of young people, a revival 
that was simultaneous with the one that occurred in the Port- 
land church, that produced similar results, and that led to the 
formation of the first society, and then, when the plan of the 
first was known, to the second. The spiritual chords were 
vibrating in unison, all unconsciously, between these two sea- 
port cities seventy miles apart on the Atlantic coast. . . . 
It was divinely given to Dr. Clark to originate the motion; 
the Newburyport pastor has always felt special gratitude that 
his life has been signalized by the opportunity given him to 
second the motion. If a motion is made and not seconded, 
that is one sign that it is without wisdom, or that the time is not 
ripe. But, when the motion is seconded, it is then open for 
discussion and adoption. The Williston plan was seconded 
because it was motion, an advance method over existing organ- 
izations for the training of the young." 

58 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

Mr. Mills's "second" of the Williston motion was quickly 
followed by others, and before the new year of 1882 dawned 
there were at least three or four other societies, one in a Chris- 
tian church in Rhode Island, another in the St. Lawrence/ 
Church of Portland, still another in Burlington, Vt. ; and then 
the list began to increase so rapidly that the exact order could 
no longer be kept recorded. 

Demands upon the parent society and its pastor for infor- 
mation concerning the work became more and more numer- 
ous. A private bureau of information was practically estab- 
lished, whose expense was largely divided between Mr. W. H. 
Pennell, the first signer of the constitution, and the pastor. 
The constitution was printed, and one or two leaflets were 
prepared to save busy men the labor of an overburdening cor- 
respondence. But even then there was no thought of any 
large or permanent movement as resulting from the Williston 
experiment. How could such development come from such 
a tiny mustard seed? How could the branches from so insig- 
nificant and inconspicuous a tree extend into all the world? 
The idea, if it had occurred to any one in those days, would 
have seemed quite absurd. There were hundreds of more in- 
fluential churches and wiser pastors throughout the country, 
who could with far more promise of success start such a move- 

But again God chose the "foolish things of the world to 
confound the wise, and . . . the weak things of the world 
to confound the things which are mighty, . . . that no 
flesh should glory in his presence." 

One event which hastened the exodus of the Christian 
Endeavor Society was doubtless a little convention or "confer- 
ence," as it was then modestly called, which was held in Wil- 
liston Church on the second of June, 1882. This conference 
was certainly "the day of small things" from the modern con- 
vention standpoint. But it is significant that before the first 

The Exodus of the Society. 59 

society was eighteen months old it should call together its few 
friends and neighbors, saying, "Rejoice with me." This gath- 
ering was a forecast, small and insignificant as it was, of one 
of the great means which have been used of God in promot- 
ing the exodus of the Christian Endeavor idea. It is not too 
much to say that the Society has introduced a new era of con- 
ventions. It has popularized to an amazing extent the great 
religious convocation, and that little gathering in Williston 
Church on that early June day was the John the Baptist of 
the mighty gatherings, thirty, forty, and fifty thousand strong, 
that have assembled in Boston and New York and San Fran- 
cisco and London, and which, with magnificent numbers and 
enthusiasm, now assemble year by year in almost every Prot- 
estant country in the world. 

Six societies, with less than five hundred members, were 
represented at this first conference; but it was known that a 
few others existed. From Bath, thirty-five miles from Port- 
land, one society sent representatives, all the other delegates 
coming from the city of Portland, which by that time had four 
flourishing societies, the Williston being the largest and report- 
ing 168 members. It was thought remarkable, indeed, that 
any one should be enough interested in the society to journey 
the thirty miles or so necessary to bring the delegates from 
Bath to Portland, and their devotion was favorably com- 
mented on. But these few journeying delegates were typical 
of a great host which was soon to begin to make its annual 
pilgrimage to the Christian Endeavor convention. 

A few years later, at about the same time of year, nearly 
25,000 young people were journeying, not thirty miles, within 
the boundaries of a single State, but most of them for three 
thousand miles across the continent, to attend a similar conven- 
tion in San Francisco. Delegates have been known to walk 
for seven days over the hot plains and hills of Mexico for two 
hundred miles or more, to reach their convention. Hundreds 


Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

crossed the ocean from America to England when the World's 
Convention was held in the world's commercial capital. And 
I have myself seen my Bengalese fellow Christian Endeavor- 
ers reach their convention village very early in the morning, 
after an all-night tramp to reach it, which they must repeat on 
the following night, after the convention was over, in order 


•T* g° » ;iM. 

rfS» jSA>S^» "^ab . ed!6aSj£Jb4o '^;&rnax> "^ScSoS'&sSj^Stp 



■"^<?Ty*'*® ■ 



The Christian Endeavor Covenant in Teluyu. 

to reach their homes, since there were few lodging-places in 
the village. 

The story of some of these conventions will be found in 
other chapters, and I allude to them now only to show, by way 
of contrast, vsdiat that first little convention became, for it had 
within it the seed which developed by God's swift and mighty 
evolution into the unparalleled religious gatherings of these 
later days. 

After all, the same spirit prevailed in that modest little 
convention of 1882, the same themes were discussed, the same 

The Exodus of the Society. 6i 

fellowship was enjoyed, which have made memorable these 
later gatherings. The little oak is very small as it peers from 
the acorn, to be sure, and very insignificant; but it is an oak, 
nevertheless. Its first leaf is an oak leaf. Its fibre is of the 
texture of the giant parent, under whose shadow it grows, and 
the same kind of sap. runs through its veins. So it was with 
this earliest convention. It gave promise of the future. The 
prayer-meeting and the consecration-service, the lookout com- 
mittee, and the ways of winning others by the social gathering, 
and the larger objects of the Society, its spirit, and its funda- 
mental purposes, were all discussed. 

The oldest minister of Portland, Dr. Holbrook, who was 
then well beyond the Psalmist's threescore years and ten, was 
chosen chairman of the conference, thus demonstrating that, 
though this was a young people's society, largely composed of 
young people and led by them, yet there was no age limit 
which should prevent a young-hearted if gray-haired pastor 
from being their leader, counsellor, and friend, a character- 
istic fact which succeeding years have emphasized a thousand 

The first permanent organization of societies was then 
efifected with Mr. W. H. Pennell for president, with a list of 
vice-presidents, a secretary, and an executive committee, whose 
chief duty was to provide for a conference to be held the fol- 
lowing year. 

I will not burden this history with the names of those who 
were prominent at this time, and who became the officers and 
the members of this very modest and informal organization. 
Their names are recorded elsewhere, t and their work is held 
in grateful and imperishable remembrance. It seems pro- 
phetic that, small and insignificant as this conference appears 
in the light of future events, yet a Portland religious paper * 

t Many in " World-Wide Endeavor." 
* TJic Christian Mirror. 

62 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

published at the time should contain this paragraph, in closing 
an account of the conference : 

"May the time speedily come when every church in our 
land shall cherish in its midst one of these societies of earnest 
Christian Endeavor, full of faithful young workers, which in 
turn shall add beauty and strength to its pillars, and prove an 
honor to the church roll." 

When we remember the few and small societies which 
then existed, and the small likelihood that their number would 
ever be very materially increased, it would seem that this was 
written in the spirit of prophecy rather than of actual expecta- 
tion based on human foresight. That in less than twenty-five 
years this prophecy should be measurably fulfilled so far as 
the Protestant churches of America are concerned could have 
been discerned in 1882 only by the eye of faith. 

Thus the Society went on and went out from its original 
home. As the days passed by, the volume of the Christian 
Endeavor stream rapidly grew larger and larger. Rivulets 
began to pour into it from every State and Province in Amer- 
ica, and it was not many years before they were joined by trib- 
utaries from other countries whose story we must reserve for 
another chapter. 




" The three words that lie at the foundation of our com- 
mon Christian conceptions are ' consecration,' ' fellowship,' 
' service.' Christian Endeavor has made these words and what 
they signify an integral part of the thought and faith of the 
Christian young people of all lands. ' Consecration ' has be- 
come their creed ; ' fellowship,' their ritual ; ' service,' their 
practice. Under the impulse of such an organization the de- 
vout young people of all nations in a united endeavor for a 
world's redemption are exalting before the unbelieving and the 
unevangelized the Christ they love and serve. This is the 
crown and glory of the movement." 

Rev. James L. Barton, D.D., 
Secretary of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign 


|T this point of our story, since we have been de= 
scribing the exodus of the Society into fields im- 
mediately adjoining its original home, it seems 
fitting to tell something about its line of march 
into other lands, though the more detailed ac- 
count of the development in these lands will be given in other 

Undoubtedly the first society formed outside of the North 
American continent was the one in the Fort Street Church of 
Honolulu. The Hawaiian Islands were then an independent 


64 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

monarchy, though the American colony was large and influ- 
ential, as it always has been since the days of the early mission- 
aries. Rev. J. A. Cruzan, who was then the pastor of the 
church, writes that the article already alluded to, "How One 
Church Looks after its Young People," "drifted into his om- 
nivorous scrap-book." 

It is noticeable that the conditions existing in that church 
in Honolulu were the very same as those in which the first 
Endeavor society was born in Portland. 

"Gracious revivals," wrote Mr. Cruzan, "in 1881-82 had 
brought a large number of new-born souls into the Kingdom. 
Many of these were young people, some of them young men 
who have since helped to make history in Hawaii. 
Outsi'de"^^ For the spiritual training of these young Christians 
America there was organized a young people's meeting of the 
type so well known a quarter of a century ago, and 
of which in most cases it had to be sadly written, 'Ye did run 
well ; who did hinder you?' Many things hindered this young 
people's meeting in Honolulu, and the summer of 1883 proved 
a welcome opportunity to allow it to die decently." 

But the death of the old society made way for the birth 
of the new, and the following November (1883) the society 
was organized on Christian Endeavor lines, the first society in 
Hawaii and the first outside of America. 

"The iron-clad pledge was pared down somewhat," says 
Mr. Cruzan, "and the usual result which follows the removal 
of the spinal column ensued — collapse. But there was life in 
the society, and it would not die. It was soon thoroughly re- 
organized on strict Christian Endeavor lines. The Hon. W. 
O. Smith, afterward the attorney-general of the republic of 
Hawaii, was chosen president, and proved an admirable lead- 
er. From that time forth this society has been an efficient 
factor in the life of the church with which it is connected, of 
the city of Honolulu, and of the little nation." 

The Line of March. 


66 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

Thus wrote Mr. Cruzan something more than ten years 
ago, and with added emphasis the last paragraph might be 
written to-day. It is interesting to supplement his story with 
a scene that came under my own observation about l;^ decade 
after his words were written. The steamer on which I was 
embarked with a companion for Australia steamed into the 
jbeautiful harbor of Honolulu early one morning in January, 
1904, and the first object that greeted our eyes was a substan- 
tial steam-launch coming out to meet the steamer with a com- 
pany of Christian Endeavorers on board. They wore their 
yellow ribbon badges, and almost before the little launch was 
made fast to the great steamer's side climbed up on deck bring- 
ing the warm and abundant greetings of the Honolulu En- 
deavorers. Here were the pastors of the churches of the sev- 
eral nationalities, and other leading workers, both young men 
and women. But they were only the prelude, as it were, to 
^ the full orchestral welcome that awaited us a few 

Memorable momcnts later at the pier, where was a throng of 

Scene , t , t 1 

in Endeavorers such as 1 have seldom seen gathered 

in one small city, American Endeavorers and Ha- 
waiian Endeavorers, Chinese and Japanese Endeavorers, 
Portuguese also and some workers among the Koreans, who 
expected soon to start a society for this nationality. Garlands 
of leis were put about our necks, according to the Hawaiian 
custom. The sweet Hawaiian song* of welcome was joined in 
by all nationalities, and a little later in the great stone church 
where the first society was started we heard each company of 
Endeavorers, seated according to nationalities, and in their 
own tongue, consecrate themselves anew to the Master's serv- 

*" Hawaii's land is fair; 

Rich are the gifts we share. 
This is our earnest prayer, 

O Lord of light, 
That as a noble band 
We maj' join heart and hand 
Till all Hawaii's land 

Stands for the right." 

The Line of March. 


ice. In the Hawaiian group was a stalwart company of sol- 
dierly young men in their gray uniforms, from the society of 
the Kamehameha school. In the Chinese section, both Juniors 
and seniors were represented, as well as in the Japanese, and 
the Portuguese Endeavorers were none the less enthusiastic in 
their own way than the other nationalities for "Esforgo Chris- 

Thus had the little one in Hawaii become a thousand. 
Since that visit, though so recent, the growth of the Hawaiian 
societies has been still more remarkable under the leadership 

The Bridge of Ten Thousand Ages, Foochow. 

of Judge Lyle Dickey, the president of the Hawaiian Christian 
Endeavor Union, for in a single year the number of societies 
increased by more than 1 16 per cent. 

But Christian Endeavor was not to stop in its pilgrimage 
when only half-way across the Pacific. Very soon after we 
heard of its establishment in Honolulu news came that it had 
reached the coast of Asia, and was becoming acclimated in 
Foochow, China. 

Rev. George H. Hubbard, a missionary of the American 

68 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

Board in China, was the pioneer of the society in the dis- 
tant Orient. As a young man in his Connecticut 
in home he had become practically acquainted with 

China. ^j^^ working of the Society, and with a young man's 

zeal to attempt hitherto untried experiments he concluded 
to see whether it was adapted to the Chinese mind. 

The response was emphatic and immediate. The society 
in Foochow was a success from the first, though of course the 
beginning, like all beginnings, was small and insignificant. 
But the Chinese have a genius for organization; their guilds 
and fraternities have made the society idea entirely workable 
in their hands, and Christian Endeavor is finding an ever-in- 
creasing opportunity and ever-enlarging field in the Celestial 

One of the side-lights upon the beginning of the work in 
Foochow comes to us from an address of Mr. Ling, a gifted 
young Chinese pastor, who, with no less wit than quaintness of 
expression, when addressing a convention in Shanghai, re- 

"As the gospel has spread, the devil has had to retreat. 
Now that he has now^here to stay in Western countries, he has 
come to China to live. In 1884 we started our first Christian 
Endeavor society, the object of which is to drive him out of 
China. If we succeed, he cannot go back to the West, but 
must be driven into the Eastern sea, where he will meet the 
fate of the Gadarene swine, who perished in the waters." 

From 1884 to 1900 is not a very far cry, but what a growth 
we note in the little organization w^hich in 1884 according to 
Mr. Ling started to drive the devil out of China! It was 
my good fortune to attend the All-China Convention of that 
year, which assembled in the native city of the movement. 
Before the convention actually began, with some of the mis- 
sionaries and Chinese Christians who were particularly inter- 
ested in the work, with Mr. Hubbard as leader, we all assem- 

The Line of March. 69 

bled in the moonlight on the spot where sixteen years before 
the first little society had been formed. The house 

Wonderful . , . , . , . 111 1 

Growth in which It Started its career had been torn down, 
China. ^^^ ^'^'^ could not, therefore, meet in the rooms of 

its birth; but the next best thing was to stand in the 
open air under the stars, and sing "Praise God from whom 
all blessings flow." 

The next day the first session of the convention was held 
in the largest church of Foochow. More than a thousand 
blue-gowned Celestials were gathered there; and, as the writer 
was introduced, they all rose and, putting their hands high 
above their heads, shook them at him in their own unique and 
expressive way of giving welcome. 

Before this, Mr. Hubbard, who is specially skilful in de- 
vising pleasant reminders of the past, had provided me with a 
little Chinese drum, and a rude gavel made from a beam of 
the house in which the first society of Christian Endeavor in 
China was started. This gavel and drum were to be used in 
calling the convention to order, and were reminiscent of the 
earliest days, when the Society, for lack of a better name, and 
because of the difficulty of translating "Christian Endeavor" 
into Chinese, was called in that tongue, "THE Drum-Around- 
AND-Rouse-Up Society." The name perhaps was as rude as 
the gavel; but it was significant, too, and exactly expressive 
of one chief purpose of the Christian Endeavor Society, vigor- 
ously to seek out and arouse to action the young Christians of 
the world. 

This convention, too, was notable in other ways, for it 
showed in a remarkable way how, on mission ground espe- 
cially, denominational differences can be sunk, and the widest 
Christian fellowship prevail in a common organization. The 
society started in China in a mission of the American Congre- 
gationalists, but it soon spread into the Methodist and Church 
of England missions, which occupy the same great field of the 


Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

Fukien province, though, unhappily, as it seemed to many, the 
Methodist societies had been changed at the request of home 
authorities into Epworth Leagues, and were not so directly 
concerned with the convention as the others. Yet this first 
meeting was held in a Methodist church, the largest in the 
city, and the missionaries of the Church of England were quite 
as pronounced as the American missionaries in their interest 
and advocacy of the Society, which has spread lo all their sta- 
tions throughout the province. From Foochow the Society has 

A Ragged Sunday-School, in Foochow, China. 

spread into the remotest parts of China, as will be told in a 
later chapter. Some of the delegates to this convention had 
come many days' journey by the slow and primitive Chinese 
land conveyances, or in the dreadful steerage of a 
Chinese steamer, knowing perfectly well that when 
they reached the convention they could understand 
little or nothing that was said; for most of the addresses must 


The Line of March. 


necessarily be in the Foochow dialect, which was not familiar 
to those from a distance. 

"Why did you come?" I said to one young man, who had 
travelled five hundred miles, and who spoke and understood a 
different dialect. "Why did you come if you knew you could 
not understand what was said?" 

"O," he replied, with kindling eyes and a glowing smile, 
"I would not have missed the convention for anything. I 
never realized before that there were so many Christian people 
in all the world. To be sure, I could not understand much of 
what was said; but I knew the tunes that were sung, and I 
could feel the spirit and atmosphere of the convention; and 
these have been the most blessed days of all my life." 

One of the eminent missionaries at this convention. Dr. J. 
E. Walker, actually translated some of the addresses from 
Foochowese into Mandarin, so that the 
distant Chinese delegates might under- 
stand them. A remarkable example 
of the unifying power of Christianity, 
which thus made even the Chinese 
of different provinces acquainted with 
one another, and united them in a com- 
mon bond of fellowship and a common 
organization. Thus again had the 
little one of 1884 become the thousand 
and the ten thousand of iqoo. 

Of one more country I must speak 
in this chapter. For at about the same 
time when the Society found its way 
to Hawaii and China it also made its 
appearance in India, or rather in Ceylon, the spicy island to 
the south of the great triangular peninsula. How interesting 
and almost unbelievable were those reports that came of the 
establishment of the first societies in different lands! "Can it 

Miss A. Bli^^s, 
Founder of the first so- 
ciety in South Africa, at 
Wellington in 1887. 

72 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

be," the Endeavorers said to themselves, "that God has a use 
for our little society in countries so strange and remote? Can 
it be that our pledge and consecration-meeting can help the 
dusky children of distant Asia?" 
o . . We hardly dared to believe the good news at 

lieginnings -^ o 

•n _ first; but, as letters began to arrive with detailed ac- 

counts of these beginnings of Christian Endeavor, 
we came to believe that possibly the Society had a wider mis- 
sion than we had dared to dream. Among these letters, so 
surprising in their information, was one from Miss Margaret 
Leitch of Ceylon, telling of the formation of a society among 
the Tamil-speaking children of Jaffna. This could be called 
in these days a Junior society, and the generosity of these early 
Juniors has often stimulated to self-denial the Juniors at home, 
as they have been told how the boys belonging to this first Cey- 
lon society were accustomed to dedicate a cocoanut-tree to the 
Lord's service, and to write upon the bark the letters which in 
Tamil stood for Y. P. S. C. E. All the cocoanuts which grew 
upon this tree, we were told, were given for missionary work 
in other lands, while the girls who were too poor to afford a 
tree dedicated a hen to the same purpose, and all her eggs and 
chickens were sacred to missionary work. 

The Society seems to have sprung up almost spontaneously 
in several other parts of India; first of all, in the Arcot mission 
of the Reformed Church, whose missionaries have always 
been particularly active in advancing the cause. So small 
were many of these beginnings, however, that they have left 
but few records behind them. But all the greater is the con- 
trast with the splendid growth and vigorous aggressiveness of 
the Indian Endeavorers of the present day. Processions a 
thousand strong and more march through the streets of the 
convention cities, with streaming banners, and beating drums, 
and loud, triumphant trumpets, according to the Indian 

The Line of March. 73 

"Who are these?" say the non-Christians one to another, 
as they come rushing to doors and street corners as the pro- 
, cession moves past. 

"These are the Christian Endeavorers," proudly respond 
the members of the Society. "They are meeting here in a 
great convention, over a thousand strong. Their object is 
to make India a Christian land. They have millions of 
brothers and sisters in America and Europe and Australia 
and all the world over. Come to the meetings, and hear what 
they have to say, and listen to their singing, and learn the 
Jesus way." 

Often this invitation is accepted, and these great gather- 
ings of enthusiastic Endeavorers in India, as in America, 
leave a permanent impression behind them of the enthusiasm, 
vigor, and aggressive earnestness of the young Christian of 
the twentieth century. Thus again has the little one of 
1883-84 in India become the thousand of to-day. May the 
thousand of to-day become the million of to-morrow! 



" It is not possible to perpetuate for twenty-five years a re- 
ligious movement requiring the co-operation of multitudes, and 
to extend it around the globe, unless at its heart is something 
more than the will and purpose of men, even the directing wis- 
dom and impulse of the Divine Spirit." 

Rev. Charles Cuthbert Hall, D.D., 
President of Union Theological Seminary. 

'T is always a joy in this chronicle to record, as we 
have frequent occasion for doing, the special 
hand of Providence in guiding the beginnings 
and the progress of the Christian Endeavor 
movement; for, while it makes the human agen- 
cies that have been concerned in it the less important, this 
record shows the divine favor, and gives promise of perma- 
nent results, for He who hath planted and hitherto cared for 
the seed will scarcely allow it to droop and wither. 

Even the most careless student of this historv, and the 
most sceptical of those who study the ways of God with man, 
can hardly have failed to see already the good hand of Provi- 
dence in the Christian Endeavor movement. It is almost in- 
conceivable that a society starting under these obscure 
auspices, with no influential backing or ecclesiastical patron- 
age, should have found its way so rapidly into so many lands 
and so many denominations unless directly guided by a higher 


The Hand of Providence. 


Leading British Endeavorers. 

Rev. John Pollock, 
President of the British C. E. Union. 
Rev. Bishop Evelyn R. Hasse, 
Ex-President of the British C. E. Union. 

Rev. J. D. Lamont, 
Ex.-President of the British C. E. Union. 

Rev. W. Knight Chaplin, 
Hon. Secretary of the British C. E. Union. 

76 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

power than we could see at work with our eyes merely upon 
the human chess-board. 

Horace Bushnell has a powerful sermon on the subject, 
"Every Man's Life a Plan of God." This title is true of hu- 
man organizations as well as of human lives, and the further 
story of the introduction of the Christian Endeavor move- 
ment into Great Britain, Australia, and other lands, where it 
soon made its way, shows in a remarkable manner the divine 
care for small beginnings. "The romance of the insignifi- 
cant" is characteristic of the beginnings of Christian En- 
deavor in all lands. 

One of the members of the first society in Port- 
Beginnings 1 1 1 r -^ 11 

in land before it was many years old was a young me- 

Brfta^in. cliauic, who had recently come from Crewe in 
England to try his fortune in the New World. 
Being a member of the High Street Church of his native 
English city, he soon found congenial friends among the 
young people of Williston Church, and entered into their life 
and religious activities. He was by no means a remarkable 
young fellow, merely a bright young mechanic; but he could 
write a letter. Few can do less than that. He soon wrote 
to his former pastor in Crewe, the Rev. A. W. Potts, about 
the new religious organization which he had found in Port- 
land, which was called the Society of Christian Endeavor. 
He suggested that perhaps such a society might be equally 
good transplanted to English soil. The letter bore fruit, and 
after a few months from its receipt by the pastor a similar 
society was organized in the High Street Church of Crewe. 
From this little seed the plant grew, not as rapidly, to 
be sure, as in America; for there were certain prejudices and 
traditions to overcome in the mother country, which were not 
so strong in the younger nation. But still it grew, and in 
1891, nine years after the first American convention was held, 
the first English convention gathered in this same High Street 

The Hand of Providence. "]"] 

Church of Crewe. The pastor to whom years before this 
young mechanic wrote his simple letter gave an abundant 
welcome to the two American delegates* who attended it. 

"Welcome, thrice welcome," said Mr. Potts, in his open- 
ing address, "for you have come to undertake this great En- 
deavor task. Welcome to all the toil and conflict of this 
great movement; welcome to all the joy and the inspiration of 
it also, and in the end may it please God to welcome us all 
into heaven's higher fellowships, and to grant to us the final 
rewards of our labor and victory." 

The To this higher reward Mr. Potts was very soon 

Convention Summoned. He lived but a short time after this; 
Great ^^^ ''^^^ lifc-work had been done and well done, and 

Britain. he will always be remembered as the earliest friend 
and pioneer of the Society in Great Britain. 

In this address of welcome he speaks, to be sure, of "this 
great movement;" but it was by no means great at this time in 
Great Britain. A few struggling, half-distrusted societies 
existed in different parts of the United Kingdom, but there 
was no concerted Christian Endeavor movement, which then, 
and for some time afterward, sheltered itself under the 
kind wing of the Sunday-school Union. This Union first 
in 1888 invited the writer, and afterwards in 1891 invited 
some American friendsf with him to present the claims of 
the new movement to the British public. 

So much for the small beginnings. But what a contrast 
do we see now! A young man some twenty years ago wrote 
a letter to his pastor in England. A little society resulted, in 
a comparatively uninfluential church. Barely a dozen years 
roll around, and we see the religious circles of London itself 
moved by a mighty religious gathering of youth. From all 

*The Rev. Charles A. Dickinson, D.D., and the Rev. Francis E. Clark, D.D. 
fThe Rev. James L. Hill, D.D., the Rev. Neheniiah Boynton, D.D., the Rev. 
C. A. Dickinson, D.D. 

78 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

parts of the United Kingdom they pour into the capital. Eng- 
land and Ireland and Scotland and Wales all send great 
delegations. From America nearly two thousand Christian 
Endeavorers reach the shores of Great Britain in spite of a 
deplorable accident which burned their steamers and disar- 
ranged their plans, just on the eve of embarkation. From 
Australia and New Zealand come very considerable contin- 
gents, and many countries of continental Europe are rep- 

The Alexandra Palace is filled with a vast 
^ throng of earnest young Christians; twenty thou- 

Wonderful , . . • , , • , , \ , 

Contrast saud, it IS Said, being gathered under the crystal 
1900. (jome at the same time, while great tents outside are 
pitched to accommodate the overflowing throng. The great- 
est pulpit orators of two continents assemble on the platform, 
representing all the great denominations of Protestantism. 
For this is the World's Christian Endeavor Convention of 

At the same time Exeter Hall and the City Temple, the 
Metropolitan Tabernacle and the Westminster Chapel, are 
laid under contribution to accommodate the convention; and 
on the Sunday in hundreds of churches of the metropolis are 
preached eloquent sermons by representative Endeavorers, 
concerning the principles and methods of the movement, for 
there are more than six hundred* Christian Endeavor so- 
cieties in London alone, and throughout Great Britain they 
are numbered by the thousands, and their adherents by the 
'hundred thousands. Who will say that in such growth the 
hand of God cannot be seen? 

About the time when the young man from Crewe wrote 
the letter above mentioned, another young man sailed in his 
father's ship from Newburyport. His father was the cap- 

* The date of this convention was July, 1900. This number is now very 
considerably increased. 

The Hand of Providence. 


Prominent British Endkavorers. 

Mr. W. H. Hope, Rev. James Mursell, 

Liverpool. Adelaide, So. Australia, formerly of Edinburgh. 

Rev. Carey Bonner, 


Mr. Charles E. Waters, Rev. J. Brown Morgan, 

London. Bradford. 

8o Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

tain, and the young man, with health somewhat impaired, 
took passage with him, hoping for restoration of health. But 
God had other designs in that voyage than simply the renewal 
of the health of one faithful young Christian, though that, 
too, was accomplished. 

Far-ofif Australia was the destined port of this 
{Jg^ Newburyport ship, and the young Christian En- 

Society deavor passenger, it is interesting to know, was a 

Was JT o ; o 7 

Carried member of that second society of which we have 
Australia, already told in the "Exodus" chapter. This young 
traveller has never made any pretensions to special 
eloquence or wisdom. But like a thousand other young En- 
deavorers he was faithful to his covenant pledge and his re- 
ligious training, whether in New England or at the antipodes. 
After the ship dropped anchor in the beautiful harbor of Bris- 
bane the young American went ashore of course, and equally 
of course he went to church, — for was not that in his pledge? 
— and entered somewhat into the religious life of the town, 
though his stay was but short. 

It was long enough, however, for him to tell the Rev. 
Mr. Whale, the pastor of the Baptist Tabernacle, and Mr. 
G. H. Buzacott, another prominent Christian worker of Bris- 
bane, of the new society which was making headway in 
America, and whose principles and practices he knew so well 
because of his personal work in the old North Church of 

There is nothing like personal knowledge and personal 
advocacy. "We cannot but speak the things which we have 
seen and heard," said Peter and John on one of the great 
occasions of their lives. So this young man simply told the 
things that he had seen and heard among the young people in 
his own home church, and the first society in Australia was 
the result. 

About the same time when this society was formed in 

The Hand of Providence. 8i 

Queensland another was formed in Prahran, a suburb of Mel- 
bourne, in Victoria. 

From independent information, but in an equally in- 
conspicuous and unheralded way, this other society was 
started; but from this little seed what fruit-laden orchards 
have grown! By way of contrast let us visit together the 
Junior rally of the Victoria convention of 1904, held very 
near the birthplace of the first, or possibly the second, little 
society in all Australia. 

A great throng of people is making its way to the great 
Exhibition Building, the largest audience-room in all the 
great city of Melbourne. Here, not many months before, in 
the presence of a Duke and Duchess of York, the Australian 
Commonwealth had been proclaimed, and the six colonies 
had become the six states of the great United States of 

But on this occasion of which I speak, the huge hall 
was thronged not with politicians or curiosity-seekers, but 
with the five thousand children of the Junior societies of 
Christian Endeavor of Melbourne, with as many more of 
their fathers and mothers and teachers and older friends, who 
had come to see them build the "Christian Endeavor 
Bridge."* The stones of the bridge are marked "Faith" and 
"Hope" and "Love" and "Temperance" and "Fidelity" and 
other graces. One side of the bridge represents the Sunday- 
school and the home, while the other side represents the 
church of the living God. With laborious care the children 
put together the blocks, and locked them all with the key- 
stone "Jesus Christ." Lamps were lighted on the 
ACstraiian parapet, which spelled out "JUNIOR." Three 
Scene. large flags were unfurled, one from each parapet. 

the Union Jack, the Stars and Stripes, and the Australian 

*This is a favorite Junior exercise in Great Britain and Australia, and was 
first prepared by Mr. W. H. Hope, of Liverpool. 

82 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

flag, which received the most applause of all from the young 

They were banked up around the great organ, one of the 
largest in the world, in vast tiers, banks on banks of sweet, 
smiling, prettily dressed children, the loveliest of flower- 
gardens. They overflowed into the galleries near by, and into 
the floor of the audience-room below, while thousands of de- 
lighted parents filled the back spaces. Then, when the exer- 
cise was over, the children began to troop over the bridge 
by scores and hundreds, passing, as they were directed, from 
the home side and the Sunday-school side to the church side 
of the bridge, thus symbolizing, as was intended, the great 
idea of Junior Endeavor as the causeway between the home 
and Sunday-school and the church, the bridge over which 
a multitude of children in Australia and other countries are 
metaphorically passing every year, to take their place, as we 
may hope and believe, as "pillars in the temple of our God." 

As we look on that first scene of small and insignificant 
beginnings and on this great throng of interested and en- 
thusiastic Christians, after a very few years gathered in the 
Island Continent, a scene which I have witnessed in all its 
essential particulars half a score of times in the great cities 
of Australia, we must again say: "This work is not of man, 
but of God. His guiding hand is in it all." 

Some few years after the first society was started in Port- 
land a poor old sailor lay sick in a hospital in Port Antonio, 
in Jamaica. This was nothing unusual, nor was it out of the 
ordinary for this stranded sailor to have given to him some 
illustrated papers and magazines, which had been 
The story ggni- fgr the purposc by a good lady in Boston. 
stranded Among the other papers was one called The 
Golden Rule,* the chief exponent and advocate of 
the Christian Endeavor cause. The old sailor very likely 

* Now The Christian Endeavor World. 

The Hand of Providence. 83 

knew nothing of the Christian Endeavor Society, and cared 
as little for it; but he was interested in the pictures with 
which the paper abounded, and afterward carelessly laid it 
one side. 

But God had a use for that stray newspaper. A good 
Christian philanthropist of Port Antonio, when visiting the 

Jamaican Christian Endeavor. 

hospital and the sick sailor's cot, took up the paper, and read 
for the first time of the Christian Endeavor Society, which 
was then but little known, even in the land of its birth. But 
the good seed was sown in the heart of the visitor, and soon 
after the first Christian Endeavor society made its appear- 
ance in the Methodist Church at Port Antonio. Again the 
good seed sprang up and bore fruit, and soon began to "shake 

84 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

like Lebanon" throughout the beautiful island of Jamaica. 

Not many years after, it was my good fortune to visit 
this lovely tropic isle, and everywhere from end to end I 
found that Christian Endeavor societies had been planted. 
One meeting especially in the ancient capital, in Spanish 
Town, impressed my imagination. The church was thronged 
with a great company of black Endeavorers, for there are of 
course but few others in the island, where white people, are. 
numerically speaking, but an insignificant fraction of the pop- 
ulation. In that balmy climate the windows and doors were 
all wide open, and dusky faces peered in at all of them, for 
there was no room in the large church for the throngs who 
would attend. On the platform were the colored ministers, 
and besides the two American visitors only one other white 
person, the very efficient and beloved secretary of the Jamaica 

The address of welcome was given by one of the blackest 
of the black brethren, and was characteristic of his eloquent 
race, hearty, enthusiastic, and genuine. 

"We are very glad," he said in his expansive peroration, 
"to welcome our American cousins, as ^ve English say." 

This representative of the British nation had never been 
in England, nor had any of his ancestors, nor was it likely 
that he ever would go; but it seemed to me not only a beauti- 
ful tribute to the patriotic feeling of the people that they 
thought of themselves as "we English," but it was also a 
tribute to the cause of Christ and to this youngest organiza- 
tion of the Christian family that it brought together white 
English and black English, Americans and Afri- 
Cousiniy caus, and made them feel their kinship in the com- 
ecom . j^Qj^ cause of Christ; for it was something more 
hearty than a "cousinly" welcome that the Americans received 
throughout the island. 

Thus again the story of the mustard-seed was repeated 

The Hand of Providence. 






Christelike Strevers Vereniging 

Esforyo Christao 

Kristelig Virksomhed 

86 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

in the history of Christian Endeavor in Jamaica. Again is 
the hand of God plainly seen as we look at the chance paper 
sent to the sick sailor, and the vigorous and influential work 
of Jamaican Christian Endeavorers as it is now being car- 
ried on in almost every town and hamlet of the island, a work 
that has spread to the other West Indies, and bids fair to bring 
the same blessing to them. 

In every other country Christian Endeavor had an 
equally inconspicuous beginning, though not always so rapid 
a growth. In Germany, now one of the Continental strong- 
holds of the Society, it was introduced by a young theological 
student named Blecher, who read in 1893 an article on the 
Society by a German American, Pastor Berner, of Bufifalo, 
N. Y. "I spoke of it," says Pastor Blecher, who from the 
very beginning has been the faithful and indefatigable secre- 
tary of the German Christian Endeavor Union, "to several 
pastors and friends; but they paid little attention, and showed 
still less sympathy with it. 'Quite good, but American,' was 
the usual answer." 

Ill health sent the president of the United Society to 
Switzerland in 1894, ^^^ on his recovery, in November of 
that year, a meeting was held in Berlin in the interests of 
the Society, Herr Graf Bernstorfif being the interpreter. No 
one who was present at that meeting, who knew the obstacles 
to be encountered and the difficulties to be overcome, would 
have dared to predict that in 1905 a great European Chris- 
tian Endeavor convention would be held in the same city of 
Berlin, attended by delegates from most European 
in countries, and holding among many other meetings 

ermany. ^ great praisc service attended by six thousand peo- 
ple, at which service German royalty itself was represented, 
as well as a great multitude of the royal servants of the King 
of kings. 

I have already spoken of a visit to England in 1888 at 

The Hand of Providence. 87 

the invitation of the Sunday-school Union. After the meet- 
ings in England were over I crossed the Channel to spend a 
few hours in Paris. Seeking out one of the McAU Mission 
stations, I found there the Rev. C. E. Greig, who was holding 
at that very moment a meeting for the boys and girls of that 
quarter of the city. When he knew of the mission that had 
brought me to Europe, he exclaimed at once: "This is in- 
deed most providential. I have long been seeking and pray- 
ing to know what more I could do for the boys and girls. 
This very day the thought has been strangely impressed upon 
me that something new should be attempted. The Christian 
Endeavor Society is the very thing. We shall try it at once 
wherever we can in our mission." 

He was as good as his word, and from that moment the 
Society began its career in France, and has never ceased to 
be grateful for the kindly interest and guiding hand of the 
head of the McAU Mission. 

So I might go on, telling in detail the story of the small 
beginnings in every land. It is the same story, varied by in- 
teresting details in all the countries where Christian En- 
deavor has found a foothold. No king or bishop or pope has 
decreed its existence; no great church has fostered its growth; 
but in every country the seed has been planted by some hum- 
ble, earnest worker. In every country it has been watered by 
the dews of Providence, and has grown under the sunshine 
of God's grace. And in every land its motto might well be, 

"Not unto us, O Lord, not unto us, but unto thy name 
give glory, for thy mercy and for thy truth's sake." 


Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

A (jospel Boat in FoochoWj 
With Leading Endeavorcrs on Board. 



"In our age we want whole-hearted Christians; we must 
therefore welcome everything which helps to lead youth to a 
living, active Christianity. Now it seems to us that these so- 
cieties help to win young men and women to take a decided 
standing for the cause of the Lord. This will not only be a 
great blessing to the young people themselves, and afford them 
a hold, but also be of incalculable value to the churches in gain- 
ing for them members who know in whom they believe, and 
who take an active part in church-work." 

Count Bernstorff, Berlin. 

HRISTIAN Endeavor is now found in almost 
every land, among people of many colors and 
climes and languages; in some lands just spring- 
ing up as a little tender plant, and in others 
grown into a strong tree deeply rooted in the 
ground. In every land the Society has sprung up to meet a 
need that was felt, and everywhere it has adapted itself to the 
varying needs and circumstances. 

Though conditions are very different in all these lands, 
though languages and customs and manners differ greatly, 
yet hearts are the same all the world over, and the needs of 
those who are young in the Christian life are much the same, 
whatever their circumstances. Many of the methods used in 
these Christian Endeavor societies may differ, but the funda- 


90 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

mental principles are the same in all lands. The trees may 
grow to different heights, may put forth different colored 
blossoms, and perhaps require different care, but the roots are 
the same. In every land the essentials have been preserved, 
while the non-essentials have been varies! to suit the varied 

In stating the fundamental principles which are neces- 
sary to a true Christian Endeavor society perhaps I cannot 
do better than to quote here a part of an address at the 
World's Christian Endeavor Convention in London, in July, 
1900, after a third Christian Endeavor journey around the 


SOME twelve years ago the word of the Lord seemed to 
come to a quiet minister in eastern America, telling him to 
take his pilgrim-staff and scallop, and travel from one end of 
the world to the other in the interest of a new-born move- 
ment called Christian Endeavor. 

He felt that he could not be disobedient to the heavenly 
vision, as he thought it to be; and since then, by sea and land, 
by rail and river, he has been journeying, going thrice around 
"this goodly frame, the earth," and travelling not less than a 
quarter of a million of miles. 

During the last twelve years it has been his privilege to 
visit every State, Province, and Territory in North America, 
almost every country in Europe and Asia, every colony but 
one in Australia, the Ottoman Empire, Egypt, South Africa, 
Mexico, and some of the islands of the East and West Indies. 

He would be a dull scholar indeed, had he not learned 
some things from the book of experience concerning the es- 
sential and non-essential features of Christian Endeavor. 
Pardon him, then, if at this World's Convention, having 

Underlying Principles. 


92 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

completed within the past week a third Christian Endeavor 
journey around the world, he draws upon this experience, 
claiming naught for his opinions but the virtue that they are 
not mere opinions, not theories, but deductions, attested by 
the hallmark of practical experience in many lands. 

One test of a truth is that it is universal. Faith is faith 
in India and Kamchatka. Hope is hope in the New World 
and the Old. Charity is the greatest of the Christian graces 
at the equator and the pole. So it is in all lesser matters that 
have in them the elements of universal truth. Here is the 
test of the value of an idea, of a movement, of an organization. 
Is it a temporary expedient that meets some local, temporary 
need, or is it a satisfaction for a universal need? Is it a post 
to which something may be tied for a little while, or is it a tree, 
with deep-running roots and wide-arching branches, which 
grows with the year, and whose seed takes root in any fertile 
soil? Thus can movements be tested. 

Let us apply this proof to the principles of the Christian 
Endeavor Society, and see if it meets the test. In this cruci- 
ble let us also try the dififerent features of Christian Endeavor, 
and find which are universal, that we may know which are 

In any such movement there must necessarily be many 
things that are local and temporary. Committees that are 
necessary in one society are entirely unnecessary in another. 
Place and hour of service, methods of roll-call, ways of con- 
ducting the meetings, frequency and character of business 
gatherings, all aflord room for an infinite variety of details, 
preventing any dull uniformity of method, and affording op- 
portunity for the utmost ingenuity and resourcefulness. In 
these details societies in dififerent parts of the world will 
surely dififer one from another, and they ought to do so. 
These matters are not the essential, universal principles of the 
movement. It would be the height of absurdity to say that 

Underlying Principles. 93 

because a society in London has its meeting at seven o'clock 
Monday evening a society in Labrador should observe the 
same day and hour; that because a society in Sydney has nine- 
teen committees a society in Shanghai must have just a score 
less one. 

A thousand matters are left free and flexible in Christian 
Endeavor. Personal initiative, invention, resource, the con- 
stant leading of the Spirit of God, are possible. 

The Christian Endeavor constitution is no hard chrysalis 
which forever keeps the butterfly within from trying its 

There is room even for experiments and failures, since 
we will always remember that the worst failure is to make 
no endeavor. 

Yet, while this is true, it is equally true that a universal 
movement must have universal principles that do not change 
with the seasons, do not melt at the tropics, or congeal at 
the poles. A tree puts forth new leaves every year, but it 
does not change its roots. It simply lengthens and strengthens 

The roots of the Christian Endeavor tree, wherever it 
grows, are Confession of Christ, Service for Christ, Fellow- 
ship with Christ's people, and Loyalty to Christ's Church. 

The farther I travel, the more I see of societies in every 
land, the more I am convinced that these four principles 
are the essential and the only essential principles of the 
Christian Endeavor Society. Let me repeat them: — 
I. Confession of Christ. 
IL Service for Christ. 

in. Fellowship with Christ's people. 
IV. Loyalty to Christ's Church. 

With these roots the Christian Endeavor tree will bear 
fruit in any soil. Cut av/ay any of these roots in any clime, 
and the tree dies. 


Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

I. Confession of Christ is absolutely necessary in the 
Christian Endeavor Society. To ensure this are the methods 
of the Society adapted in every particular. Every week 
comes the prayer-meeting, in which every member who ful- 
fils his vow must take some part, unless he can excuse him- 
self to his Master. This participation is simply the confession 
of Christ. The true Christian Endeavorer does not take part 
to exhibit his rhetoric, or to gain practice in public speaking, 
or to show what a logical prayer he can ofifer to God; but he 
does take part to show that he is a Christian, to confess his 
love for his Lord; and this confession is as acceptable made 
by the unlearned, stumbling, lisping Christian as by the glib 
and ready phrase-maker, if the few and halting words of the 
former have the true ring of sincerity about them. 

The covenant pledge is simply a tried and proved de- 
vice to secure frequent confession of Christ. It is essential 
to Christian Endeavor, but essential only because it secures, 
as nothing else has been known to do, the frequent and regular 
confession of Christ by the young Christian. 

It also secures familiarity with the Word of God by pro- 
moting Bible-reading and study in preparation for every 

The consecration-meeting, with its roll-call, is another 
indispensable instrument that makes confession doubly sure 
and doubly sacred. 

The calling of the names at the monthly roll-call de- 
clares the faithful confessor of Christ, and also reveals the 
careless non-confessor and pledge-breaker as no other device 
can do, and confronts each one month by month, with the 
solemn question, 

"Am I on the Lord's side? 
Do I serve the King?" 

This principle of confession in Christian Endeavor, I 

Underlying Principles. 95 

have found all the world around, is not dependent on de- 
grees of latitude and longitude. The societies in Foochow, 
China, have flourished and multiplied because from the be- 
ginning they have observed this essential feature of Christian 
Endeavor. The rude little groups of Christians on the 
Ningpo, just out of rank, crass heathenism, have caught hold 
of this great principle in their societies, and, though they have 
little else, they are worthy the fellowship of any metropolitan 
society in London. In a post and telegraph station in North 
Japan, in the beals of East Bengal, on the ships of the United 
States Navy, in the prisons of Kentucky and Indiana, among 
the rude Islanders of the South Seas, our covenant is kept, 
and the Christian Endeavor Society flourishes because the 
covenant ensures constant confession of Christ, and constant 
confession ensures a good society of Christian Endeavor; for 
it is one of the main trunk roots through which it draws 
nourishment and life. 

In this virtue of free, outspoken confession of our faith 
we Anglo-Saxon Protestants are singularly lacking. I know 
of no race that is so shamefaced about its faith, so unwilling 
to declare its allegiance. The Turk stands five times a day 
and prays with his face toward Mecca, caring not who sees 
him. On the housetop, by the wayside, in the courtyard of 
the inn, when the hour of prayer comes, he unfailingly de- 
clares, "Great is God, and Mahomet is His prophet." I 
have heard the Buddhist mutter half the day long, "I believe 
in Buddha; I believe in Buddha." 

I have seen the Russian soldier in far Siberia face the 
rising sun, and, with half a thousand comrades looking on, 
cross himself and pray as though he were alone with God. 

I have seen at least more outward devotion in a Catholic 
cathedral than in any Protestant chapel I ever entered. 

I have seen a thousand Catholic priests reading their 
Bibles and prayer-books in public cars, but I have seen very 

96 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

few Protestant ministers open their Testaments when any one 
was looking. One cause of the mighty strength of these cor- 
rupt faiths is that their adherents are not ashamed of them. 
One reason for the weakness of our purer and more rational 
belief is that we who profess it are so loath to confess it. 
Christian Endeavor has come to the kingdom to remedy in 
part this defect and to make professors confessors. 

Our form of confession is the prayer-meeting. Here we 
acknowledge our faith. Here we declare our allegiance. 
And in our confession and declaration we renew our love, 
and strengthen our zeal, and brace ourselves against temp- 
tation, and equip our hearts for further conquests. 

Let no one make light of the prayer-meeting, or decry 
our covenant pledge, which makes and keeps our prayer- 
meeting the power that it is. Whoever does this decries not 
a fad, a notion, a temporary expedient, but a universal prin- 
ciple of Christian Endeavor, and, I believe, an important 
principle of the highest Christian attainment. 

n. Another universal principle of Christian Endeavor 
is constant service. If confession is the lungs of the move- 
ment, service is its hands and feet. In no part of the world 
have I ever found a good society whose members were not at 
work. Never have I found a true society that ignored its 
committees ; for our committees make service possible and 
easy, systematic and efficient. The society was not made for 
its committees, but the committees are made for the society, 
to make it a working organization. The most multifarious 
kinds of service have our societies undertaken; but all so- 
cieties, the world round, that are worthy of the name are at 
work in some way. 

What are they doing? Ask the pastors and the Sunday- 
school superintendents in America and Great Britain and 
Australia. Ask the missionaries in the Punjab and among 
the Telugus, among the simple people of the Laos country, 

Underlying Principles. 97 

?mong the Armenians and the Zulus, the Karens and the 
Arabs, and they will all tell you the same story, "In the ideal 
society every member is responsible for some definite, par- 
ticular task." 

This chorus of response is so universal and emphatic 
that it must have a significance that cannot be ignored. This 
feature of our society is not a matter of indifference. 

It is not a late accretion. It is not a question of climate 
or race. From the first day of the first society, during all 
these nearly twenty years, this feature has characterized our 
movement, and, into whatever land it has spread, it has been 
known by this feature of systematic, organized, and individual 

Here, too, I believe, we can see the hand of God in build- 
ing the society on this corner-stone. For various reasons our 
churches have come to contain many silent partners, many 
names of those who do not serve. Social considerations, de- 
cline of early zeal, physical incapacity, have filled our church- 
rolls, and have not multiplied our church-workers. I am 
not finding fault or indulging in a cheap fling at the laziness 
of Christians. I am stating a fact. Some counteracting 
forces were needed. Here is one of them, — a society whose 
ideal, like Wesley's, is, "At it, and all at it, and always at it"; 
a society that finds a task for the least as well as the greatest, 
for the youngest and most diffident, as well as for the few 
natural-born leaders. 

A few weeks ago I visited a strange old Buddhist 
monastery which for three thousand years has been hidden 
away in a valley among the hills of Korea. 

Here live and pray four hundred monks whiD, with their 
long line of predecessors, during these three millenniums, 
have maintained a corporate existence.^ They are recruited 
from the lowest ranks of the people. They are despised and 
hated by most of the Koreans, and yet they have prospered and 

98 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

grown rich and powerful, while the country has grown poor 
and weak. 

What is the secret of their success and long life in the 
land? Listen. To every neophyte some task is given. Each 
has his own office and service. Among the younger ones, at 
least, there are no drones. For three thousand years these 
monastic bees have been making honey, and the hive still 
stands because it is filled with workers. A lesson may be 
learned by every Christian Endeavor society in the world 
from this remote monastery among the beautiful hills of 

IIL Again, I have learned that our fellowship is an es- 
sential feature of Christian Endeavor. This, too, is not a 
matter of zones or climates or latitudes or languages. Our 
fellowship is a universal, God-given, fundamental feature of 
Christian Endeavor. This World's Convention demonstrates 
it. The movement, to-day more emphatically world-wide 
than ever before, emphasizes it. 

In every land I have felt the heart-throbs of my fellow 
Endeavorers. Our Christian fellowship is expressed in dif- 
ferent ways, but it is always the same fellowship. 

In Japan I have prostrated myself on hands and knees 
with my fellow Endeavorers and touched my forehead to the 
floor as they touched theirs. 

In China, over and over again, a thousand Endeavorers 
have stood up as I addressed them, and have shaken their 
own hands at me while I have shaken mine at them. 

In India they have hung scores of garlands about my 
neck until I have blushed for my own unworthiness of such 
a flowery welcome. 

In Bohemia they have embraced me and kissed me on 
either cheek. 

In Mexico they have hugged me in a bear's embrace, 
and patted me lovingly on the back. 

Underlying Principles. 99 

Always I have felt that these greetings were far more 
than personal matters. They represent the fellowship of the 
cause. Always, whatever the form, the loving greeting of 
loving hearts is the same. 

In the Fukien province of China, when we approached 
a Christian village, — where, by the way, there is very likely 
to be a Christian Endeavor society, — we were sure to hear 
in the soft accent of the almond-eyed peoples the greeting, 
"Ping 'ang, ping 'ang, ping 'ang" ("Peace, peace, peace"). 
Perhaps a hundred people, old and young, would utter this 
benediction, as we walked through a single village. 

So it seems to me, as I have gone around the world again 
and again, I have heard the gentle word of fellowship from a 
million Endeavorers, "Peace, peace, peace." 

This fellowship is not an accident or a matter of chance. 
It is an inevitable result of the movement. When the second 
society was formed, nineteen years ago, the fellowship began. 
Then it became interdenominational, interstate, international, 
intersocial, intercontinental, and, as some one has suggested, 

"Part of the hosts have crossed the flood. 
And part are crossing now," 

it has become intermundane. ^yu-^C'trir's,-^^- '^" 

IV. Once more, a universal essential of the Society of 
Christian Endeavor is fidelity to its own church and the work 
of that church. It does not and cannot exist for itself. When 
it does, it ceases to be a society of Christian Endeavor. It 
may unworthily bear the name. It may be reckoned in the 
lists, just as an unworthy man may find his name on the church 
roll. But a true society of Christian Endeavor must live for 
Christ and the church. Its confession of love is for Christ 
the head, its service is for the church. His bride; its fellow- 
ship is possible only because its loyalty is unquestioned. 

loo Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

This characteristic, too, I have found as universal as the So- 
ciety. I have found no real exceptions. In city or country, 
in Christian land or mission field in Europe, Asia, Africa, or 
America, it is everywhere the same. 

Because this is our ideal and our principle and our earnest 
endeavor, let me urge older Christians, however, not to hold 
Christian Endeavorers responsible, as some are inclined to do, 
for every weakness among young Christians, which the Society 
is doing its best to remedy, but cannot wholly overcome. Be- 
cause many young people do not often go to church the So- 
ciety is often blamed. Because some forget their vows the 
splendid fidelity of the rank and file is forgotten. Because 
the church pews are not filled, or the Sunday-school enlarged, 
or the longed-for revival comes not, the Society is made the 
scapegoat by some unthinking Christians for these defects, 
for the very reason that its ideals on these matters are ex- 

Bear with me if I rehearse once more the fundamental, 
necessary features of this world-wide movement, at this 
World's Convention — 

Confession, Service, Fellowship, Fidelity. 

Confession of our love for Christ. 

Proof of it by our service for Him. 

Fellowship with those who love Him. 

Fidelity to our regiment in which we fight for Him. 

Notice that each of these principles is natural and basal. 
No one of them is a matter of mechanism. No one is a mat- 
ter of expediency. Each is a sine qua non. In every con- 
tinent you will find these features of Christian Endeavor are 
necessary. I think you will find, also, that no other roots are 
vital to the tree. 

These principles make necessary the pledge and conse- 
cration-meetings; they justify the systematic work of the com- 
mittees; they explain our unexampled conventions; they re- 

Underlying Principles. loi 

veal the reasons of the rapid growth of Christian Endeavor 
in all the world. To secure constant confession the binding 
force of the covenant pledge is needed, and the monthly roll- 
call cannot be dispensed with; to ensure constant service the 
regularly apportioned work of the committees is essential; to 
give voice to our fellowship our conventions and various 
meetings are inevitable. Our loyal fidelity regulates and 
guards the whole organization. 

But these principles are not for the world-wide move- 
ment alone. Your society, my fellow Endeavorer, needs them 
all. The same principle of gravitation applies to the thistle- 
down fluttering to the earth and the planet whirling through 
space. Your local society cannot grow strong and healthy 
and fulfil its God-given mission unless it stands four-square 
for confession and service, fellowship and loyalty. Come 
nearer home and take the truth to your own heart. You can- 
not be a worthy Endeavorer unless you confess Christ, work 
for Christ, love Christ's people, and uphold Christ's church. 

We have been around the world, but we have come back 
to our own soul's threshold. To your own experience I con- 
fidently appeal when I assert once more what the experience 
of twenty years in all lands has proved, that the fundamental, 
universal, enduring features of Christian Endeavor are con- 
fession, service, fellowship, fidelity. 

In closing this chapter let me also quote a few words 
from the Rev. F. B. Meyer, whose writings have helped so 
many Christian Endeavorers in so many lands to lift their 
ideals higher and to lead a stronger and nobler Christian life. 
Mr. Meyer was at this time president of the British Christian 
Endeavor Union, and the passage quoted from his address at 
this same World's Convention in London sets forth the funda- 
mental ideas of Christian Endeavor as seen by a British leader 
in Christian Endeavor and in all kinds of Christian work — 

"Christian Endeavor stands for five great principles: 

I02 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

(i) Personal devotion to the divine Lord and Saviour, Jesus 
Christ, so that we do not simply rely on His work of propitia- 
tion, finished on the cross, but view Him as our living King, 
whose will is law in every department of life. (2) The cove- 
nant obligation embodied in our pledge, without which there 
can be no true society of Christian Endeavor. COVE- 
NANT, mark you, as the president of Scottish Endeavor in- 
sists, which implicates the help of the Spirit of God as the 
only source and inspiration of our endeavor. (3) Constant 
religious training for all kinds of service involved in the 
various committees, which are, equally with the prayer-meet- 
ing and the covenant, essential parts of every society of 
Christian Endeavor. (4) Strenuous loyalty to the local 
church and denomination with which each society is con- 
nected. (5) Interdenominational spiritual fellowship, 
through which we hope not for organic unity, but to realize 
our Lord's prayer for spiritual unity, that all who believe 
in Him may be one. In these five points the heart and the 
soul of the Christian Endeavor movement are concentrated. 

"Christian Endeavor is a protest against the life which is 
built in water-tight compartments, and demands that Christ 
shall be supreme — over the cricket field and lawn-tennis 
court, over the store and workshop, over the weight in the 
scale and the sentence from the bench, over the drawing of a 
check and the writing of a book." 



" The founders of this society labored in discouragement 
and obloquy often, but they labored with a sublime optim.ism 
and an invincible faith in God that never faltered. They had 
no precedents to guide them, and, vuhile they may have made 
mistakes, I agree with the judgment of the late Dr. C. F. 
Deems, of precious memory: ' No management in America is, 
all things considered, less open to adverse criticism than that 
of the Society of Christian Endeavor.' I know that is a good 
deal to say, but, when I think of the dangers that beset its 
founders and promoters, and of the wonderful success of the 
movement that might so easily have been wrecked upon any 
one of the thousand rocks that lay in its course, I record the 
above judgment as, before God, my deliberate conviction." 

Rev. E. R. Dille, D.D., San Francisco. 

iN Other chapters it has been told how the Society 
began, and how it began to grow in many lands. 
Why it grew is explained more by the princi- 
ples which underlie it, and have given it vitality 
and propagating power. The means of growth, 
the helps and helpers, provide other chapters of interest in 
the history of the Society. 

Chief among these agencies of growth must be reckoned 
the United Society and the different unions, local. State, and 
national, which are all embraced in the World's Union of 
Christian Endeavor. 

We have already seen how the Society grew, at first 


I04 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

slowly and without remark, but soon by leaps and bounds. 
In 1885 there were 253 societies recorded, of which Massa- 
chusetts had more than one-third. Maine came second, with 
less than half as many, while New York had almost as many 
on her list as the Pine-Tree State. Pennsylvania had but five 
societies instead of the nearly five thousand of which now she 
boasts. But even these five indicated a gain of more than 
five hundred per cent over the previous year. 

Though there were rumors, more or less in- 
of"" ' "^ definite, of the formation of one or two societies 
Rapid jj^ other lands, Christian Endeavor was still sub- 

Cirowtn. ' 

stantially confined to New England and New 
York, with one or two outposts beyond the Mississippi River, 
notably in the Pilgrim Church of St. Louis, and still another 
on the far Pacific coast, in Oakland, Cal. 

Comparatively limited, however, as was the field, in- 
quiries were coming from all parts of America, and from oth- 
er lands as w^ell. Unless the new society were to be stifled and 
starved in its cradle, and die, and be forgotten like its ancient 
predecessor already described, some decisive step must be 
taken. Two or three busy men could no longer take care of 
the correspondence involved, much less find the time and the 
money to extend the knowledge of the Society where it was 
most needed. 

In July, 1885, the Fourth Annual Convention of Chris- 
tian Endeavor Societies was held, and on the native soil of 
Maine; for Ocean Park, the Free Baptist Camp-Ground of 
Old Orchard Beach, was the chosen place for what proved to 
be an epoch-making convention in the history of the Society. 
No one realized its importance at the time, for it 
Epoch= h^*^ little in common with the great conventions of 

Making ^ modern days. But an ardent little company gath- 

Convention. : , , ^ 

ered there m the octagonal pavilion under the fra- 
grant pine-trees, by the sounding sea, a little company, to be 

Helps and Helpers, 


Prominent American Endeavorers. 

Rev. S. W. Adriance. Rev. James L. Hill, D. D. 

Rev. Ralph W. Brokaw, D.D., , 
Rev. H. B. Grose. Rev. Nehemiah Boynton, D. D. 

io6 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

sure, but one that had tested Christian Endeavor principles, 
and believed in them, and was ready to take any wise ad- 
vance steps to send them on their mission throughout the 

Here were Dickinson and Hill and Boynton and Grose 
and Blakeslee and Brokaw and Gifford, all of them young 
men who had not then achieved the fame or the semi-lunar 
fardels which now adorn their names. There, too, was 
Adriance, the beloved first secretary of the Society, whose 
church in Lowell, however, loved him as well as the Chris- 
tian Endeavor cause, and therefore would not allow him long 
to continue in the exclusive service of the Society. 

There, too, was Ward, the brilliant young collegian, who 
soon succeeded Adriance in the secretaryship. Shaw was also 
one of the select Christian Endeavor "four hundred" who as- 
sembled at Old Orchard. As treasurer of the United Society, 
a post which he has held almost from the beginning, he out- 
ranks all other Christian Endeavor officials in length of serv- 
ice. Graff, too, had come on from St. Louis as a representa- 
tive of the first society beyond the Mississippi River, and had 
travelled farther than any other half-dozen delegates. Now 
for fifteen years he has efficiently helped the cause in con- 
nection with The Christian Endeavor World or the United 
Society, of which he is now the business manager. 

Mr. W. J. Van Patten, of Burlington, Vt., 
Leaders. ^^^ another young man whose presence made this 
convention memorable. He had already distin- 
guished himself in Christian Endeavor circles, not only by 
forming one of the first half-dozen societies and introducing 
the movement into the State of Vermont, but also by giving 
liberally for the promotion of the cause, circulating gratis 
a whole edition of the first little book* written concerning 
the Society, and advertising widely in secular and religious 

* " The Children and the Church," by Rev. F. E. Clark. 

Helps and Helpers. 107 

papers that, if any one desired to know more about the So- 
ciety of Christian Endeavor and its methods^ information 
would be furnished, free of charge, by W. J. Van Patten, of 
Burlington, Vt. 

Such was the company of young men gathered at this 
small but historic convention. They had an idea which the 
world needed. How should they tell it out so that the world 
should hear? was the great question before them. The an- 
swer was, "We must have a permanent organization, and a 
general secretary, who shall give his time to the work," and 
this answer before the convention was over, was embodied in 
the formation of the United Society of Christian Endeavor, 
with Mr. W. J. V"an Patten for president, the Rev. S. W. 
Adriance for secretary, and Mr. George M. Ward for treas- 
urer. As already explained, Mr. Ward soon succeeded Mr. 
Adriance in the secretaryship, and Mr. Shaw stepped into the 
office for which he was evidently fore-ordained, and which he 
has ever since held, the treasurership of the United Society. 

Though the secretary could not live by bread alone, he 
certainly could not live without bread. It must be provided 
for him, and so, under the leadership of the Rev. James L. 
Hill, in the space of a short half-hour $1,210 was subscribed 
for the modest salary of the secretary, and for the promotion 
of the work generally Eleven societies subscribed no less 
than fifty dollars apiece. Others gave from twenty-five to 
ten dollars, and individuals also subscribed generously. 

Thus was launched the organization which more than 
any other has contributed to the spread of the Christian En- 
deavor cause throughout America, and, we may add, through- 
out the world, since for many years the United Society acted 
in the capacity of the World's Union, sending information 
wherever it was asked for, printing the constitution and other 
literature in scores of different languages, and giving freely 
of its funds for the extension of the cause in all the world. 

io8 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

In 1895, to anticipate a little, the World's 
World's Union was formed for the express purpose of ad- 
vancing the cause of Christian Endeavor through- 
out all the earth; but for years this Union relied upon the 
United Society to furnish it with the sinews of war for its 
undertakings, and only within two or three years past, as its 
needs became greater than the United Society could supply, 
has it collected funds on its own account. 

To anticipate again the history of the United Society, 
it may be as well to state in this connection that two years 
later, in 1887, the writer was chosen president of the United 
Society, when it was made plain to him that he must give up 
his chosen and beloved work as pastor, and devote his whole 
time to the Christian Endeavor movement. Mr. Ward did 
efficient service as secretary for three years, when he was 
succeeded by Mr. John Willis Baer, a magnetic speaker and 
of fascinating personality, who soon won his way into the 
hearts of the young people of America, and became a fore- 
most leader of the Christian forces of the country, while he, in 
turn, was succeeded in 1903 by Mr. Von Ogden Vogt, who to- 
day is winning his golden spurs as an efficient leader in this 
most responsible position. 

One of the most important functions of the United So- 
ciety has been to provide a model for similar organizations 
throughout the world, a model, of course, which is not 
servilely followed, as it ought not to be, for circumstances and 
conditions vary; but in a general way national Christian En- 
deavor unions in all parts of the world have the same duties 
and are managed in much the same way. 

Great Britain and Australia, India, China, and Japan, 
South Africa, Germany, Spain, France, Switzerland, Italy, 
and many other countries now have their United Societies, 
many of them called by that very name, others called "Na- 
tional Christian Endeavor Unions," as in Great Britain. 

Helps and Helpers. 


Leading American Endeavorers. 

Von Ogden Vogt, 

General Secretary of the 
United Society of Christian Endeavor. 

George B. Graff, 
Manager of Publications. 

William Shaw, 

Treasurer of the United 
Society of Christian Endeavor. 

John Willis Baer, 

Secretary of the World's 

Christian Endeavor Union. 

no Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

Another important decision reached in the 


Legislative formation of the United Society was that it should 
unction, assume no legislative functions over the local so- 
cieties. It was to be the freest and loosest possible organiza- 
tion compatible with strength and vigor. It was to promul- 
gate no decrees for the local society, to levy no taxes on 
them, nor was it in any way to seek to regulate their affairs; 

Missionaries and Leaders of Christian Endeavor Work in India. 

for it was recognized as a fundamental principle of the new 
movement that every society must always do and be what its 
local church desired. The United Society did not even re- 
quire societies to register their names with it, or tell of their 
existence unless they desired, but collected its statistics as best 
it could, taking it for granted that every society, by reason 
of its being a Christian Endeavor society, was in sympathetic 
relations with the United Society. 

Helps and Helpers. in 

Since it did not wish to be a financial burden upon the 
local societies, it limited its expenses in every way, having 
only one paid officer, the general secretary, a policy to which 
it has resolutely adhered ever since. At the same time, it 
went to work as quickly as possible to pay its own way, and 
to earn its own living. This it did by establishing a printing 
and publishing department, from the modest proceeds of 
which its expenses have ever since been paid, and the surplus, 
secured by efficient administration of this department, often 
to the extent of three or four thousand dollars a year, has been 
given to promote the spread of Christian Endeavor in distant 

One of the resolutions passed at the Ocean Park Conven- 
tion of 1885 reads as follows: 

"Be it resolved that in every State where there are more 
than two societies this conference recommend that there be 
an annual State convention, that this convention occur some- 
time during the autumn and winter months, and that it re- 
main in session not longer than one day." 

As has been remarked in a former history, "the wisdom 
of at least a part of this resolution is indisputable, for there 
could hardly be a State convention in a State which contains 
less than two societies. . . . But all wisdom is not given 
to any one convention, and the recommendation that this con- 
vention occur sometime during the autumn or winter months, 
and that it remain in session not longer than one day, was soon 
allowed to fall into innocuous desuetude." In its 
J'he spirit and general purpose, however, this recom- 

of mendation was quickly adopted by all the States 

and and Provinces and Territories, and, though no one 

Unions. ^^^" ^^ h^s fondest dreams imagined that the sug- 
gestion would be followed by other countries, it 
was within less than two decades taken up by almost every na- 

112 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

tion in the world, each one of which now has its annual or 
biennial convention. 

Still other and equally important results flowed from this 
example of united Christian Endeavor action; for, as the so- 
cieties began to multiply, the local groups of young people 
began to say to themselves: "Why should we wait for the an- 
nual State or national convention? Why not have a union 
and a union meeting of our own?" The most natural ques- 
tion in the world to ask, and one which could be answered 
in but one way. 

If union is a good thing, let us have more of it. If it 
is worth while for the societies of a State to come together 
once a year, why should not the societies of a county, a city, 
or a village, where there are two or more, also meet for con- 
ference and stimulus and mutual help? It was on November 
1 8, 1885, that an important gathering of the Christian En- 
deavorers of New Haven, Conn., was held in the Humphrey 
Street Church. The call for this meeting was signed by the 
pastors of seven churches in New Haven, and seven presi- 
dents of as many Endeavor societies, who said to their breth- 
ren to whom the notice went: 

"Being greatly impressed with the importance of the 
work of the Young People's Societies of Christian Endeavor 
and the value of mutual consultation concerning it, we would 
hereby invite you to join with us and with the other societies 
of Christian JEndeavor in this State in a State convention. 
We would suggest that each society be represented by the 
pastor of the church with which it is connected, its presi- 
dent, secretary, and treasurer, and one delegate for each ten 
members on its roll. These persons will constitute the voting 
power of the convention, and are cordially invited to the 
hospitality of the Humphrey Street Society." 

This meeting was duly held, and a preliminary organiza- 
tion was formed, which ripened into the Connecticut State 

Helps and Helpers. 113 

Christian Endeavor Union, permanently organized at Bridge- 
port the next year. This memorable meeting in 
in°th? ' New Haven in 1885 had itself been preceded by at 
^*"* least one other informal gathering of New Haven 

Endeavorers called together by Mr. Eli Manchester, one of 
the pioneer Endeavorers of the State, when there were but 
three or four societies in the city. 

In connection with this meeting an interesting story is told 
of the way in which the name now so common throughout 
the world was suggested. Rev. Erastus Blakeslee, a pastor 
in New Haven, who had been a brigadier-general in the civil 
war, and who has since become so famous in the promotion 
of systematic Bible-study in the Sunday-school, was the chair- 
man of this meeting. The delegates who were present were 
somewhat perplexed as to what to call their new organization, 
should they have one. Mr. Blakeslee, we are told, was on 
his feet with a suggestion, when his daughter, who was sitting 
by his side, said, "Why not call it the Christian Endeavor 
Union?" It at once struck him as a happy name, and he 
suggested it to the convention, which adopted it forthwith; 
and the first local union was not only born, but christened. 

Then followed others in quick succession in State and 
county and city. The Nutmeg State has the honor of the first 
State and local unions; but Massachusetts and Maine, New 
Hampshire and Vermont, New York and Rhode Island, and, 
one by one, Boston and Portland and Philadelphia and St. 
Louis, San Francisco and London, Calcutta and Bombay, 
Foochow and Honolulu and Helsingfors and Geneva, have 
taken up the idea and followed in Connecticut's train; and 
now there are but few countries or large cities in the Prot- 
estant world that have not their Christian Endeavor Union. 

Some of these unions are of remarkable size and spiritual 
power, and do an immense variety of work, which will be re- 
lated more in detail in later chapters. In London, for in- 


114 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 




Stance, are found nearly eight hundred societies divided into 
twenty divisions, with their different meetings and 
infinite variety of work, and all meeting occasion- 
ally in a great all-London gathering, which always 
tests the capacity of the Metropolitan Tabernacle, or some 
other of the largest churches in the city. As I have been 
writing this history, news has come from Sheffield that their 
union contains nearly two hundred societies, a gain of more 
than thirty within a year. Chicago and Philadelphia long 
vied with each other for the first place in the number of their 
societies and the variety of their activities. But while Lon- 
don, with its overflowing millions, has naturally the advan- 
tage of all smaller cities, these two great centres of American 
life are still friendly rivals for the second place; and an im- 
mense amount of work they accomplish along missionary, 
evangelistic, and good-citizenship lines, as well as holding 

stimulating and enthusiastic union 
meetings, and frequent executive gath- 
erings which stir into life the pulses 
of hundreds of groups of young peo- 
ple in all parts of their territory. 
Brooklyn, Baltimore, St. Louis, Kan- 
sas City, New York, San Francisco — 
but where shall I stop when I begin 
to enumerate? The small unions have 
done equally good work with smaller 

Some of the State meetings of the 
present day are superlatively strong in 
George w. Coleman numbers, enthusiasm, and stimulus for 

service. A State convention, for example, which assembled 
in Philadelphia brought together more than seventeen thou- 
sand delegates, and was instinct with the same spirit of broth- 
erhood, the same life and color and joyous song, that make 

Helps and Helpers. 115 

the national conventions memorable. Thus was the resolu- 
tion of the little convention of 1885 on the surf-washed shores 
of the State of Maine carried out in State and Province and 
city and nation the world around. 



" The church has yet to measure up to an appreciation of 
the full value of the printing-press as a factor in doing her best 
and largest and most far-reaching work." 

Mr. John R. Clements, Binghafnton, N. Y. 

jYEAR or two ago a bibliography was published of 
American Christian Endeavor books and book- 
lets. It was found that nearly eighty books on 
the subject, larger or smaller, had been pub- 
lished, and several hundred booklets and leaf- 
lets in America alone. Since then a number of others have 
been added. Great Britain has also added very considerably 
to this total in the English language. Germany has an abun- 
dant Christian Endeavor literature of its own, and in many 
other languages there is a beginning of such a library. 

The pioneers of this literature were a short article al- 
ready mentioned, "How One Church Looks after its Young 
People," published in 1881 in The Congregationalist, and a 
leaflet published in the spring of 1882 by the present writer, 
entitled "The Children at the Church Doors"; but the first 
bound volume on the subject did not appear until the year 
1882. It was entitled, 






Helpers in Type. 


American Endeavorers. 

John R. Clements. 

Amos R. Wells. Arthur W. Kelly. 

Rev. John F. Cowan, D. D. 

ii8 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

^ This was the author's first attempt at book- 

First Book making, with the exception of a little volume on 
Christian "Vacations and How to Enjoy Them," published in 
Endeavor, j^.^ theological Seminary days, and a brief biography 
of a gifted young Portland artist.* The book was received 
with unexpected favor by the press and the public, more be- 
cause of its timeliness and the interest aroused in its subject, 
doubtless, than because of any literary merit. Several edi- 
tions were exhausted, one in paper covers being circulated 
gratuitously among the ministers of the country by the Hon. 
W. J. Van Patten, of Vermont. 

This volume has been followed by several others f by the 
same author, which need not be mentioned in detail. 

The most prolific and suggestive writer on Christian En- 
deavor themes is Mr. Amos R. Wells, formerly professor of 
Mr. Wells's Greek in Antioch College, Ohio, but since 1892 
c^ntrib - ^^^ brilliant editor of The Christian Endeavor 
tions. World. A very large number of valuable books 

and booklets have come from his facile pen, including text- 
books for almost every committee, a "Junior Manual," 
"Junior Recitations," and "Oflicers' Handbook," and a yearly 
booklet entitled "The Endeavorer's Daily Companion," 
which has a very wide circulation in all parts of the world. 
Mr. Well's stories, too, have been popular, as have also those 
by Dr. John F. Cowan, another able editor of The Christian 
Endeavor World, whose ^'Endeavor Doin's Down to the Cor- 
ners," a racy dialect story of the influence of Christian En- 
deavor in a country town, telling the interesting experiences 
of "Jonathan Hayseeds, C. E.," was hailed by a large circle 
of readers. 

Chief among the story-writers who have found "green 
fields and pastures new" in tales of and for the Christian 

* William E. Harwood. 

t Among them, " Young People's Prayer-Meetings." " Ways and Means," 
" Christian Endeavor Saints," " Training the Church of the Future," etc. 

Helpers in Type. 119 

Endeavor Society is Mrs. Isabella M. Alden, "Pansy," be- 
loved of so many young people throughout the world. It is 
the fashion in some quarters to decry her books and others 
of like character as being "impossibly good," and dealing only 
with superlative characters; but surely in these days, when we 
have so many novels that are impossibly bad, crammed with 
vulgar and intolerably vicious characters, it is not the worst 
thing that could be said of a book for young people that 
it presents the best side of life, sets up the highest ideals, and 
allows its characters to strive to live up to them. At any 
rate, had the reader's experience been mine, of hearing m 
many parts of the world how Mrs. Alden's Christian En- 
deavor books have aroused interest, stimulated the young peo- 
ple to new zeal, suggested new plans for Christian work, and 
established new ideals in their societies, he would agree that 
such volumes are not to be lightly decried. Scores of so- 
cieties have been started in distant lands because of that in- 
teresting little volume called "Chrissy's Endeavor," and some 
of her other stories have been scarcely less useful along this 

I remember when I was in South Africa a prominent 
politician, who has since become the premier and acting gov- 
ernor of one of the colonies, was more anxious to hear of Mrs. 
Alden than of any other American writer. He told me that 
her books had been very helpful in his religious life, and he 
knew of many young men who had also been helped by them. 
This certainly, so far as it goes, indicates that they have a 
virile quality which young men as well as young 

Mrs. Alden ^ -^ , . 

and women need not despise. 

rs. utz. Another most popular writer of Christian En- 

deavor stories is Mrs. Alden's gifted niece, Mrs. Grace Liv- 
ingston Hill Lutz, whose "Story of a Whim," "Because of 
Stephen," and "The White Lady" are favorites everywhere. 
The Christian Endeavor Society has been particularly 

120 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

fruitful in its output of devotional books for the Quiet Hour 
and of practical volumes for missionary work. The Rev. J. 
Wilbur Chapman, D.D., the Rev. Floyd W. Tomkins, D.D., 
the Rev. F. B. Meyer, the Rev. Andrew Murray, and the 
beloved Clarence E. Eberman, whose short life was so full 
of heroic service for the Christian Endeavor cause, have con- 
tributed most interesting volumes. In the preparation of 
missionary literature Miss Belle M. Brain has been specially 
gifted, and Mrs. Ella N. Wood and Miss Kate Haus have 
helped on the Junior cause by their fruitful pens, while the 
Rev. W. F. McCauley's "Why?" and "How?" have answered 
many important Christian Endeavor questions. Mrs. Fran- 
cis E. Clark has prepared two volumes, which have had a 
wide circulation, "A Daily Message for Christian Endeavor- 
ers — a book for the Quiet Hour, the Prayer Meeting, and 
the Birthday," and the latest and most complete volume for 
Junior workers, entitled "Junior Endeavor." 

In Great Britain the Rev. W. Knight Chaplin,* the sec- 
retary of the British National Union, has wielded a busy, 
forceful pen in the service of Christian Endeavor, as have also 
Miss M. Jennie Street, the Rev. Joseph Brown Morgan, the 
Rev. John Pollock, and many others. In Germany the Rev. 
Frederick Blecher has added most important contributions 
and translations to the stock of Christian Endeavor literature, 
and his history of the movement is one of the most complete 
and valuable in any language. 

When we come to periodical literature, we enter upon a 
wide field, for the Society has been particularly prolific in 
newspapers and magazines. The place of priority must be 
given to The Christian Endeavor World, for as The Golden 
Rule it was for a long time the only advocate and exponent 
of the movement. After a flourishing existence for a num- 
ber of years under the old title, during which it attained a 

* Author of a " Life of Francis E. Clark " and other books. 


ers m 



* * * FEVRIER 1905 * * * 


Rue de la Cite, 4, Genfeve. 
Le journal par ait ie 25 de ckaque mots. 


Suisse, un an . . . . 
Union Postale, un an 

Fr. 2 50 
• 3- 

Pour Christ et pour I'Eglise 

|iar M. M. Lelikvrf., adminisfraleur du Comity International. 

clablisscmenl au sein de nos Egliscs de 
socieles d aclivile chrelienne est un sujct 
de joic el d'esperance pour ceux que 
U prcoccupe I'avenir du christianisme evan- 
gel iqyc dans noire palric. En presence .des progres 
de liiioredulile et de la demoralisation, qui font lant 
de viclimes dans la Jeunessc, nous nous sommcs sou- 
vonl demaude 4vec unc angoisse palriolique: Oil al- 
lons-nous? Que sera I'Eglise de demain si la jeuncsse 
echappe a I'Eglise d'aujourd'hui? Les Sotielcs d'ac- 
livite chrelienne nous repondent: « Hommes de pcu 
de foi, pourquoi avez-vous doute' Hil desperandum, 
Chrislo diice : il n'y a pas lieu de desesp^rer, quand 
on a Jesus-Christ pour chef. Et notre , devise est: 
« Pour Christ et pour I'Eglise!." 

Le succes prodigieux de ce mouvement ddsigne 
cette oeuvre commc une oeuvre de Dieu. Ce succfes 
en effet est d'ordre spiritucl. Partout oil eUfs s'eta- 
blissenl siir leur base normale, les Societes d'aclivite 
chrelienne reveillertT et"vivifient les Eglises. EUes leur 
apporlent un prinlemps SDlriliiel. Jen connais plus 
d'une dont on eut pu dirt. Les elements de telles 
socieles y font defaut, il a'Y a pas de jeunesse. Et 

il a suffi qu'un homme de foi ail dit N importe! es- 
sayons! pour que les Elements dune socieie aient paru, 
et qu'on ail pu dirC de telle Eglise, qui semblail frap- 
pee de sterilite: 

Chers activistes, vous cles I'Eglise de demain, ou 
plutot vous etes I'avanl-garde de I'Eglise d'aujour- 
d'hui. Voire jeune entrain fail tressaillir de joie nos 
vieux coeurs, que les deceptions du passe onl un peu 
dess^ches. Sojez ces jeunes gens forl.s, dont parlc 
sa^■lt Jean, qui ont vaincu le Malin, el Dieu se servjra 
de vous pour rfiveiller nos Eglises. 

Ce qui fail roriginalile et la fecondite de vos asso- 
ciations, c'esl qu'elles font appel a la volenti, el non 
au sentiment cl 4 I'imagination. Laissez-moi, en quel- 
ques mots, vous rendre allenlifs » ce cold ess"euiiel 
de voire programme. 

■Vos socieles, nees en pays de langue anglaise, onl 
pris pour nom Societes d'effort Chretien (Christian 
Endeavour Society). Ceux qui onl importe chez nous 
cette inslituion, en onl change le nom, le trouvanl 
sans doule un peu gauche el pcu clair, el onl sitbsti- 
tu^ Vacjivite a Vefforl. II y a peut-elre la un indice 
du caract^re de noire race, qui rcpiigne un peu i" 
I'efforl, el qui lui prefere laclivite reguliere. Sans 
allacher trop d'importance aux mols, je voy&<iemande 
de vous souvenir que, dans le litre original de vos 
Socieles, se trouve le mot effort. C'esl 1 idee ^ui leur 
a donne naissance, c'esl en quejque soric leur. marque 
de fabrique. 

Facsimile of a Swiss Christian Endeavor Paper. 

122 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

weekly circulation of 100,000 copies, its name was changed to 
^,^g the more distinctive and appropriate one. The 

Christian Christian Endeavor World. It has owed much of 


World. its success to the faithful and brilliant work of its 
managing editor and associate editors, Mr. Amos R. Wells, 
the Rev. J. F. Cowan, D.D., and Mr. Arthur W. Kelly. 

It is perhaps not inappropriate to record here that it has 
for nearly twenty years, in addition to circulating Christian 
Endeavor principles and methods far and wide, furnished the 
whole financial support for its editor-in-chief, who is also the 
president of the United Society; for its business manager, who 
is the treasurer of the United Society, as well as for its other 
editors, whose pens have been busy in preparing Christian 
Endeavor literature of all kinds and for people of many 
tongues Thus it has relieved the United Society and the 
World's Union of large financial responsibility, and has en- 
abled the officers of the Society largely to earn their own 
living, to take long journeys in the interests of the move- 
ment, and to devote the money earned by the publishing de- 
partment of the United Society to the promotion of the cause 
in other ways, and in many lands. 

Mr. William T. Ellis and the Rev. J. L. Sewall also did 
valuable service for The Golden Rule while connected with 
it, and the former has since conducted a press syndicate with a 
Christian Endeavor department. 

Another weekly paper of growing power and influence, 
devoted to the advancement of the cause, is The Christian En- 
deavour Times of London, the chief British representative of 
the cause. This paper, too, has a wide circulation, and has 
contributed in many ways, directly and indirectly, financially 
and otherwise, to the advancement of the Society in the United 

A dainty little monthly printed on pale-green paper is 
The Irish Endeavourer, which is always full of good news and 

Helpers in Type. 123 

helpful suggestions. The Church of England Endeavourer 
represents the growing and vigorous societies in the Estab- 
lished Church of England. 

To return to America, it ought to be recorded in this con- 
nection that many of the States and large city unions have 
their own Christian Endeavor organs,* sometimes of consider- 
able size and with a paid circulation. Most States and cities, 
however, have contented themselves with a comparatively 
small "bulletin" calling attention to coming meetings, and 
recording events of local importance. Some States have 
found to their sorrow that it is easier to start a magazine than 
to keep it up to a high standard of excellence, and some of 
them have unfortunately involved the State unions in a large 
and needless expense, so that the tendency is toward a smaller, 
but none the less valuable, bulletin for the diffusion of State 
news and notices. 

Australian ^^ Other parts of the English-speaking world 

a"^ are published such helpful magazines as The 

European . , . . . 

Endeavor Christian Endeavour Link of Victoria; The Roll- 
apers. ^^^ ^^ Ncw South Wales ; The Christian En- 
deavour News of South Australia, published in Adelaide; 
and The Burning Bush, the organ of the New Zealand En- 
deavorer. The South African Endeavourer looks after the 
interests of the cause among the English societies of its con- 
tinent, while the Dutch Endeavorers also have their own 

On the continent of Europe a leading Christian En- 
deavor paper is Die Jugend-Hilfe, which every month is load- 
ed with solid and substantial material of interest to our Ger- 
man brethren. It has been constantly improving under the 
zealous editorship of Secretary Blecher, and is a real power 

*It is impossible to publish the^names of all in this connection, since many are 
but temporary in their character; b'ut they fill a valuable and increasingly useful 
place. A list of leading State papers published ten years ago is printed in "World- 
Wide Endeavor." 

christian Endeavor in All Lands. 







■'•™,.. (ristuno 

Our Brothers 
in Type. 

for good in the Fatherland. It has lately 
been supplemented by a bright little 
paper for the German Juniors called 
Der Kinderbund. 

L'Activite Chretienne, of Geneva, 
is the principal paper published in the 
French language, and is always fresh 
and interesting. 

Esfuerzo Cristiano is the name of 
an admirable twenty-page Christian En- 
deavor monthly published at Madrid, to 
which Dr. Gulick and leading Spanish 
Endeavorers contribute of their best. 

Another Spanish Christian En- 
deavor paper is published by the Metho- 
dist Christian Endeavorers of Barcelona, 
and still another excellent paper in the 
same language is the organ of the Mexi- 
can Endeavorers. 

In Sweden De Ungas Tidning lends 
its columns to the use of the Endeavorers, 
and in Italy a Christian Endeavor de- 
partment is kept up in the weekly Glo- 
ve ntu. 

Of all the papers published in mis- 
sionary lands India Christian Endeavour 
is said to be the most beautiful in typog- 
raphy and illustrations. The Japanese 
Christian Endeavor paper has fortunate- 
ly two front pages, to use a Hibernicism, 
one at the beginning and the other at 
the end. As the Japanese begin on what 
v/ould be our* back cover, the arrange- 
ment is perfectly satisfactory, since three- 

Helpers in Type. 125 

fourths of the paper is in Japanese, edited by the Rev. T. 
Harada, and one-fourth is in English, edited by the Rev. J. 
H. Pettee, D. D. 

The only paper regularly published in Portuguese is 
the Brazilian monthly O Esforco Christao. 

In many other countries where regular periodicals are 
not sustained, more or less frequent issues of Christian En- 
deavor literature, reports of conventions, etc., are published. 
Thus in China a very influential document, describing the 
last great convention, is w^idely circulated. In Finland a 
number of translations of leading Christian Endeavor publi- 
cations have been given to the public, and in Hungary Pro- 
fessor Szabo's book entitled "Revesetyen Zovetsegek" has 
largely helped the cause. 

The Swedish, Norwegian, Finnish, and Lettish Endeav- 
orers have generous space accorded to them in other religious 
papers, which thus serve for the present the needs of the So- 

In enumerating the distinctively Christian Endeavor pa- 
pers we must not overlook The Christian Endeavour Gem is- 
sued by the Jamaica Union, which is the worthy organ of 
these vigorous and growing societies. 

Nor should we forget European Christian Endeavour, 
edited by Mr. Stanley P. Edwards, and devoted to the inter- 
ests of the Society in all parts of continental Europe. 

There are also a number of denominational Christian 
Endeavor papers, besides The Church of England Christian 
Endeavourer, like The Mennonite Endeavorer, the K. L. 
C. E. Journal, whose cabalistic letters stand for "Keystone 
League of Christian Endeavor," the organization of the 
Evangelical Association churches. 

The Allen Endeavorer and Varick Endeavorer are two 
papers of real value published by the colored people of 
America, representing the two great divisions of the Metho- 

126 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

dist colored churches, while the Welsh people in America 
also have their paper, entitled Y Trysor, which succeeds Y 

For a limited time and for special occasions 
journa'i temporary Christian Endeavor papers are also 
often published ; for instance, the last Australasian 
convention held in Hobart, Tasmania, showed its enterprise 
by publishing a daily during the sessions of the convention, 
while the Leeds Endeavorers, in anticipation of the Na- 
tional British Convention, which will soon assemble in their 
city, has published for months in advance a bright and breezy 
journal relating to the coming convocation. 

In this connection the efforts of many press committees 
connected with local Christian Endeavor unions should not 
be overlooked. They have been invaluable to the cause of 
Christian Endeavor by maintaining columns of Christian En- 
deavor news and notes in local papers, furnishing informa- 
tion for editorial comment and frequently longer articles of 
more permanent value for magazines and newspapers. 

Mr. John R. Clements of Binghamton, N. Y., has been 
especially active and successful in developing this feature of 
Christian Endeavor enterprise. As chairman of the press 
committee of the New York Union, and more lately as secre- 
tary of the press department of the United Society, he has 
greatly widened this field of activity. Every week he fur- 
nishes for the American Press Association a large page of 
Christian Endeavor matter, containing notes on the prayer- 
meeting topic for each week, and spicy bits of information, 
helpful thoughts, and wise plans, which are printed in hun- 
dreds, if not thousands, of daily and weekly papers. The 
prayer-meeting notes are prepared by the Rev. S. H. Doyle, 
and furnish a helpful exposition of each topic, which is wide- 
ly used. Mr. Clements's energy and enterprise also find an 
outlet in other papers, and his practical suggestions in The 

Helpers in Type. 127 

Christian Endeavor World are among the most valuable 
which it receives. 

The Rev. James H. Ross also does much to keep some 
of the leading papers and magazines of the country informed 
in regard to the progress of Christian Endeavor. 

Some of the leaflets and booklets relating to the Society 
have had an enormous circulation. One little booklet of 
some twenty pages, entitled "The Society of Christian En- 
deavor, What It Is, and How It Works," later editions of 
which are called "Christian Endeavor in Principle and Prac- 
tice," has been circulated by the hundred thousand, and has 
been translated into a score of languages. Others relating to 
the different committees, the history of the Society, etc., have 
had nearly as large a circulation. In the aggregate many 
millions of these booklets have been sent forth and very large- 
ly free of all expense to those who have received them, the 
United Society of America having expended thousands of 
dollars in propagating the principles of Christian Endeavor. 

It is not improper to add here that the authors of these 
booklets and tracts have received no royalty or compensation 
of any kind for them, though only a fraction of a cent on 
each one published would have given them comfortable for- 
tunes. It is only on the larger Christian Endeavor volumes 
that the authors have received any royalty, and not always on 
these, for Christian Endeavor in type has been very largely a 
labor of love. 

To all who have had anything to do with the literature 
of the movement it has been enough to know that printer's ink 
and type have been used in a marvellous way in making 
known the principles and progress of the Society in every 
land. If the Society set up patron saints of its own, Guten- 
berg would doubtless be one of the first to be canonized. 
Even the "printer's devil" should hold a warm place in the 
affections of Christian Endeavorers. 



" The great number, the zeal and enthusiasm of these young 
people in their great interdenominational and international 
Christian Endeavor brotherhood should effect much in the 
nature of a good understanding between the young people 
of the world." Sir Henry Bail, 

Acting Governor of Natal. 

N no way has the Christian Endeavor idea been 
'^ spread throughout the world more effectively 
and rapidly than by the great conventions, 
which have been a unique feature of the move- 
ment. It is not too much to say that the Society 
has created a new type of a religious convention. Never be- 
fore in the history of Christianity have such throngs of young 
people come together as now assemble in many lands at the 
annual Endeavor conventions. 

When thirty thousand or more young men and women, 
with a very considerable sprinkling of their pastors and older 
friends, invade a city, and spend a week in prayer and praise 
and conference, it is bound to make an impression upon the 
community and, through the press, upon the country at large. 
People ask: "What is this new thing that compels such en- 
thusiasm and zeal? Is it not something that we need in our 
church? Should we not have part in the fellowship of the 


The Great Conventions. 


130 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

The young people who attend the convention go home 
with new ideas, larger aspirations, and a freshly kindled pur- 
pose to advance the cause which brought them together. 
Their convention rallies and echo meetings are heard in the 
remotest sections of the country, and thus the blessed con- 
tagion of a deeper religious purpose and a more intelligent 
zeal spreads from heart to heart, until millions are affected 
by it. 

To show the influence and power of these conventions in 
advancing the Christian Endeavor movement and other good 
causes I have chosen seven typical conventions in widely sep- 
arated cities — New York, 1892; Boston, 1895; London, 1900; 
Ningpo, 1905; Berlin, 1905; Hobart, 1905; and Baltimore, 

These conventions have been chosen not because they 
were larger and more important than many others that have 
been held, but because it is impossible within the limits of 
this volume to tell the story of all, even briefly, and because 
these show how in different lands the same leaven has been 
at work in the meal, and how the same inspiring thoughts of 
fellowship and service produce the same gracious enthusi- 

In describing these conventions it will be necessary to 
depart from the chronological order of this history, and bring 
in at this early date some of the latest happenings in the So- 
ciety; but they are introduced here in order that the means 
which God has used in promoting the growth of the move- 
ment, the helps and helpers in the advancement of Christian 
Endeavor, may be fully understood. 

ry^^^ The first little gathering in Williston Church 

First in 1882, when the parent society called its friends 

Endeavor and neighbors together, has already been described. 
Convention. ^^.^ ^^^ followed by a convention in the follow- 
ing year in the Second Parish Church of Portland, in 1884 

The Great Conventions. 131 

by a modest gathering in the Kirk Street Church in Lowell, 
in 1885 by the convention already described at Ocean Park, 
where the United Society was formed, in 1886 and 1887 by 
two memorable and deeply spiritual conventions in Saratoga. 
In the second of the Saratoga conventions two thousand dele- 
gates were enrolled. But the tide was still rising, and in 1888 
five thousand Endeavorers gathered in Battery D in Chicago. 
Still larger numbers from the seven thousand societies then 
in existence made a pilgrimage to Philadelphia in 1889. In 
1890 the ever-increasing hosts gathered in St. Louis, and the 
following year the Twin-City Convention of Minneapolis 
and St. Paul registered the high-water mark up to that date 
of Christian Endeavor and Christian Endeavor gatherings. 

Up to this time, however, these gatherings had made no 
very deep impression upon the country at large. The cities 
where they were held were most hospitable and generous in 
their welcome, and the Endeavorers who attended received 
untold spiritual good; but it remained for the convention of 
1892 in New York City really to command the attention of 
the country, and to lead people everywhere to see that a new 
type of religious gathering with new enthusiasms and new 
possibilities had been born. 

New York City was in advance naturally somewhat cyn- 
ical and sceptical concerning the convention, whenever it took 
time to think about it at all. A prominent pastor told me 
that the convention would not make "a ripple of excitement" 
in New York City. "It might attract some attention in a 
small city, but conventions come and go and leave no sign 
behind them in New York." One hotel-keeper told the com- 
mittee of arrangements, when they went to him to seek ac- 
commodations, that he would take in the whole convention, 
since his hostelry would accommodate no less than fifteen 
hundred people. When the committee told him that they 
expected ten times fifteen hundred, he regarded them with 

132 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

pitying incredulity, and most people, except the men of faith 
and works who constituted the splendid local committee, were 
inclined to discount the expectations in regard to the number 
of delegates by at least three-fourths. 

►P^g At first the daily papers were inclined to give 

Wonderful buf little attention, and some of their attentions 

Convention ' . i o j 

in were by no means riattermg. Smce the Sunday 

New Y^orlc 

question was especially prominent just at that time, 
and the Endeavorers had taken a decided stand in regard to 
the closing of the gates of the World's Fair on the Lord's 
Day, one of the leading papers in an editorial paragraph had 
"nothing better to do" than to berate "these beardless enthu- 
siasts who have nothing better to do than to howl for a Puri- 
tan Sunday." 

But when the Endeavorers began to pour into the city, 
ten, twenty, even thirty, thousand of them, when traffic was 
blocked on the railways by the great number of excursion- 
ists; when New York's streets became gay with the fluttering 
badges and bright faces of a multitude of youth they were un- 
accustomed to see, a different spirit was noticed. "Where 
have they come from?" "What are they doing?" "What 
does Christian Endeavor mean?" "What draws so many 
young people together?" were questions that were heard on 
every side. The papers began to give many columns to a 
report of the addresses, and these reports were supplemented 
by generous and kindly editorial words. Madison Square 
Garden, though it was seated for fourteen thousand people, 
was entirely inadequate to contain the throng that wished to 
attend, and thousands of disappointed men and women be- 
sieged the doors at every session. Immense overflow meet- 
ings were held in the open air, while all the churches in the 
vicinity were crowded with similar gatherings. 

A splendid programme had been provided in advance, 
but so many distinguished men, who happened to be in the 

The Great Conventions. 


city, were attracted by the convention, and were called upon 
by the audience for brief addresses, that these interruptions 
and unexpected contributions constituted some of the most 
mert^orable features. 

^'I think one of the greatest surprises you have given to 
this wonderful city," said the Hon. John Wanamaker, at that 

A Typical Christian Endeavor Convention Tent Scene. 

time the postmaster-general of the United States, ',^'is the way 
in which you Christian men and women are taking possession 
of it. Who ever would have believed that you would march 
on the city thirty thousand strong? I think if you were to go 
out into the streets, you would have to add twenty thousand to 
that figure. (I rejoice to-night that the Christian Endeavor 
Mr. movement has brought something to this age, not a 

makeT's local Or temporary thing, but something that com- 
Address. mands the heart and the good opinion of the whole 
world. In the simplest, and in the most practicable, and in the 
most common-sense way, on unsectarian lines, this, the bright- 
est star in the Christian world, has risen, sending out its light 

134 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

and beneficence over the years of this closing century, to 
usher in the dawn of a new century pf the blessedness of 
Christian living all the world around." 

One deep impression that was made by this vast company 
of eager youth was of the enduring character of Christianity, 
its ever-living vitality in adopting new forms of expression 
when old ones are outworn. The venerable Dr. Philip 
Schaflf, the Nestor of church historians, who was upon the 
convention platform (and it proved to be almost his last ap- 
pearance in public), declared that this convention seemed to 
him to open a new era in the history of the Christian church, 
while the Hon. J. W. Foster, the eminent diplomatist and 
then the secretary of state of the United States, in his im- 
promptu remarks, when he was called out by Endeavorers 
who noticed him in the audience, said: "We hear much 
from certain quarters in this day about the decay of evangel- 
ical religion, and of the growth of agnosticism and the vari- 
ous forms of disbelief, which are to sweep off the earth our 
Bibles and our Christianity. Would that these critics could 
stand in my place to-night. They might be led to believe 
that faith in a risen Saviour and in the inspired word of God 
were neither dead nor dying in this land." 

The patriotic and good-citizenship note, which since then 
has always been sounded at Christian Endeavor conventions, 
was struck by the Hon. Whitelaw Reid, the present ambassa- 
dor at the court of St. James, who, when called out from the 
audience, awoke great enthusiasm by saying: 

"Our fathers, who laid the foundations of the civil and 
religious liberty which we enjoy, were men who planted their 
The ^ fortifications on every hillside as they advanced to 
Fort!fic^=^ the conquest of the continent. You know what these 
tions. fortifications were — the schoolhouse and the church. 

Let us guard them as our fathers guarded them, and we shall 
preserve the fair heritage we have received, and transmit it 

The Great Conventions. 135 

in our turn, grand and beneficent, beyond their thought or 
ours, to untold generations of men." 

At this convention, too, for the first time on any extend- 
ed scale the picturesque feature of Endeavorers from other 
lands in their native costume made a deep impression. Mr. 
Sumantrao Vishnu Karmarkar, a native Hindu, of fine pres- 
ence, wearing his turban and silken sash, was given a great 
ovation, and he spoke in excellent English on the subject, 
"Christianity for India." He has since been, and is to-day, a 
prominent leader of the native Christian Endeavor forces of 
India. Mr. Ju Hawk, of St. Louis, a young Chinaman, 
thrilled the audience with his speech on Christian Endeavor 
for China, and Mr. Thomas E. Besolow, a native African 
prince, made a happy address for the Dark Continent. A 
native of Alaska, also, Mr. Marsden, who was then studying 
to go back as a missionary to his people, among whom he has 
since labored, spoke most interestingly. Thus a cosmopoli- 
tan flavor was given to this convention such as no previous 
meeting had had. 

For the first time, too, in the history of these conventions 
denominational rallies were held, to make evident to all the 
world that Christian Endeavor, though an interdenomina- 
tional society, so far from being antagonistic to denomina- 
tional control, oversight, and fellowship, gladly welcomed 
them. Twenty dififerent denominations held rallies in 
churches of their own order, and in almost every case, the 
record says, "the numbers were large, the enthusiasm intense, 
and the spirit of devotion no less marked than in the inter- 
denominational fellowship." 

Here, too, the Juniors first had their innings. For the 
first international Junior rally was held in the Broadway 
Tabernacle, under the lead of Mrs. Alice May Scudder, a de- 
voted Junior worker, who had given much thought to the 
welfare of the boys and girls. 

136 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

I have dwelt at a somewhat disproportionate length upon 
some of the characteristics of this convention because they 
emphasized for the first time certain great features of Chris- 
tian Endeavor, which have been widely copied in other con- 
ventions throughout the world. It is evident that to tell the 
story of such a gathering in a few paragraphs is a difficult 
task, since the records, the pen-pictures, and the addresses of 
each of these great conventions fill a large volume. 

But the history of Christian Endeavor cannot be written, 
its influence estimated, or its growth accounted for without 
making these gatherings prominent in its story. 

A Christian Endeavor Convention Audience in Boston. 

I pass over in this connection the conventions of 1893 ^^^ 
1894, the one held in Montreal and the other in Cleveland, 
not because they were not as memorable and important as any 
in the long series, but because a choice must be made, and 
only a few of the many can be described in any detail. These 
conventions of 1893 and 1894, ^^^o, are alluded to elsewhere. 

In 1895 the Christian Endeavor hosts gathered in Boston. 

The Great Conventions. 137 

For various reasons this was the largest convention held up to 
this date, and perhaps the largest ever held in the 
Boston history of the Society, though it is difficult to say 
o?"i8o5**^" with absolute certainty, since it is impossible always 
to record the full attendance. But Boston was, and 
had been for many years, the headquarters of the United Soci- 
ety. It was the centre of the most thickly settled Christian 
Endeavor district in America; it possessed more attractive 
historic associations than any other city of the continent; 
it enjoys the refreshing breezes of the Atlantic coast; and all 
these side attractions combined to swell the attendance to the 
unprecedented number of 56,425 delegates actually regis- 
tered. Of these just about half, or 28,000, came from outside 
the State of Massachusetts, while the Bay State furnished 
the rest. 

It was known in advance that no hall in the city would 
begin to accommodate the eager throng who would wish to 
attend the convention; and so, though the headquarters were 
established in Mechanics' Hall, with an audience-room hold- 
ing six thousand people, and with numberless side rooms and 
smaller halls for the accommodation of committees and State 
delegations, some other places of meeting, it was foreseen, 
must be provided. For this purpose two enormous tents 
were made, and were christened "Tent Williston" and "Tent 
Endeavor," each of which accommodated fully ten thousand 
people, while two thousand more standing just outside the 
canvas could join in the music, and often hear the addresses. 

The city was gay with bunting by day and brilliant with 
welcomes in electric lights by night. Some merchants ex- 
pended hundreds and even thousands of dollars for decora- 
tions of various descriptions, while the city fathers co-oper- 
ated most heartily with the committee from the beginning. 
The historic "Common," which is so sacred in the eyes of 
Bostonians, was given over to the Endeavorers for the time 

138 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

being, and the great audience-tents were pitched there, with 
other smaller ones necessary to accommodate the press, the 
hospital, etc., near by. The Public Garden was decorated 
by the city gardeners with Endeavor emblems and mottoes, 
and everywhere throughout the parks could be read the le- 
gends, "For Christ and the Church," "Not to be ministered 
unto, but to minister," while festooned archways with the 
words "Welcome to Boston" conspicuously displayed im- 
pressed Endeavorers with the heartiness of their greeting 
from the Hub. 

Even before they reached the city they found 
T^f. the stations for twenty miles around Boston dec- 

Daily ■' 

Papers oratcd in Christian Endeavor colors. The press 
Convention, caught the Spirit of the movement at an early day, 
and in advance devoted, in the aggregate, hundreds 
of columns to the coming convention, while their reports of 
the meetings when they occurred, embellished, as they often 
were, with colored plates and half-tone pictures, as well as 
with a multitude of illustrations of the ordinary newspaper 
variety, went far beyond anything of the kind that had ever 
been attempted by American journalism in the past. 

Not only did Boston papers give voluminous reports of 
the convention, but those outside of "the Hub" evidently re- 
garded it as a great event. One paper published in Chicago 
sent seven of its staff to Boston to report the meetings, and 
gave by telegraph three or four pages each day concerning 
the convention, a marvellous feat in journalism, indeed, when 
it is remembered that it was a purely religious gathering that 
was thus recorded. 

Another Chicago editor, not to be outdone in generosity 
and enterprise, telegraphed to Boston an ofifer of $5,000 each 
year for three years if the United Society would move its 
headquarters to Chicago. For obvious reasons this generous 
of]fer was declined, but if, as the proverb says, "money talks," 

The Great Conventions. 139 

it indicated the wide-spread interest in the convention and 
the movement for w^hich it stood. More than any of its prede- 
cessors the Boston convention of '95 was an "International 
Convention," though for some years this name had been given 
to them because of the hearty co-operation of the Canadians 
with their brethren in the United States. To this gathering 
came a number of accredited delegates from Great Britain, 
among them the Rev. Knight Chaplin, secretary of the Brit- 
ish Union; the Rev. John Pollock from Scotland; Messrs. 
Lamont and Montgomery from Ireland, Burgess 
from^^ ^^ from Wales, and Mursell from England, all of 
Lands!* them, then and ever since, prominent in British 
Christian Endeavor circles, and all of them adding 
eloquence and interest to the convention. 

The president of the New South Wales Union, the Rev. 
W. J. L. Closs, also contributed to the success of the meeting, 
travelling half around the world to be present, and returning 
home the second day after the convention closed. 

Good citizenship and world-wide missions had been 
adopted before as two of the distinctive features of Christian 
Endeavor, much attention having been given to them in the 
president's address at Montreal in 1893; but they were espe- 
cially emphasized at the Boston convention. The historic 
ground on which this convention met made this almost inevi- 
table. Bunker Hill* and Plymouth Rock, Salem and Con- 
cord and Lexington, the old. North Church and the Old 
South, with their thrilling Revolutionary memories, were all 
accessible to the Endeavorers, who to the largest degree 
availed themselves of their privileges. The historic pilgrim- 
ages undertaken the day after the formal convention closed 
were among the most interesting features of all, and the patri- 

* To avoid the appearance of bombast and boasting over old-time enemies, 
mixed with present-day patriotism, British speakers as well as American were 
heard at Bunker Hill and Lexington, and "God Save the King" was almost as 
popular as " My Country, 'tis of Thee." 

140 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

otism of every young American was stirred afresh as he 
looked at the memorable spots where his fathers suffered and 
died. Indeed, the Boston papers acknowledged that in a 
isense the Endeavorers had discovered to Bostonians them- 
selves their own historic sights, for the graves of Otis and 
Adams, and John Eliot, and John Hancock, and many other 
worthies, were sought out with reverent and loving zeal by a 
multitude of eager young people. 

At Salem the delegates saw the church where the first 
American foreign missionaries were ordained, and fired their 
missionary zeal by sitting on the very bench occupied by these 
pioneers of modern missions. 

Among the interested spectators at this convention was 
Dr. Samuel F. Smith, the author of "America," and we may 
well close this chapter with part of the hymn, almost the last 
that came from his gifted pen, which he wrote for the conven- 
tion. As the venerable and revered poet came forward to 
read it, the presiding officer suggested that he be greeted in 
perfect silence with the Chautauqua salute. "It was a won- 
derful white wave," say the reporters of the convention, "that 
the venerable patriot beheld, but the love and enthusiasm of 
the ten thousand Endeavorers gathered in Tent Endeavor 
could not be restrained or be satisfied with anything less than a 
rousing "three cheers." Then in complete stillness he read 
his hymn of greeting, which was sung with tremendous effect. 
The last two verses of this fine hymn are as follows: 

"Onward with purpose brave, 
To seek, to lift, to save, 

For God, for man. 
Not ours to seek delay, 
Nor squander one brief day, 
Not ours to waste in play 

Life's fleeting span. 

The Great Conventions. 141 

"All hail, triumphant Lord! 
Fulfil Thy gracious word, 

And take Thy throne. 
Like watchmen at Thy gate 
Thy youthful servants wait; 
Assume Thy regal state, 

And reign alone." 



" London is boldly summoned this week to think about re- 
ligion, and to think of it as Endeavi . The challenge is a 
good one, and this form of it is admirable. The youthful 
host, whose white tents are now gleaming on the city's north- 
I ern heights, proclaim by their title that Christianity, as they 
' apprehend it, is above all things a call to do something. And 
this is a statement of the case in which the critics will find 
it terribly hard to pick holes. When dealing with religion 
as a doctrine or as an institution, the assailant often enough 
has a task quite to his mind. When he meets it as the sheer 
enthusiasm of goodness, as an organized energy for the world's 
betterment, there is simply nothing for him to say." 

The Christian World, London. 
" It [the convention in Ningpo] was the most wonderful 
sight ever witnessed in China." 

Archdeacon Moule, of the Church Missionary Society. 

F it is difficult to write the story of the conventions 
^ when the delegates are largely the representatives 
of one continent how shall we describe a conven- 
tion which opened its doors east and west and 
north and south to delegates from every conti- 
nent, for "London, 1900," was the first great World's Con- 
vention? The World's Union, to be sure, had been formed 
in Boston five years before, and its first meeting was then 
held, with delegates from many lands present, though no ef- 


London and Ningpo. 143 

fort to secure a world-wide representation had been made in 
advance of the formation of the Union. 

London, however, was in the fullest sense of the term a 
World's Convention, and its report fills a large volume of 
264 double-column pages. Even in this, many of the ad- 
dresses are given but in outline. 

Outside of Great Britain, America, as was natural, sent 
the largest contingent to the convention, though the awtul 
catastrophe which resulted in the burning of the Saale and 
other North German Lloyd steamers, on which most of the 
delegates were to have embarked, interfered with the num- 
ber of those who would otherwise have gone, and prevented 
hundreds of those who had started from reaching London be- 
fore the convention was entirely over. However, it is 
thought that nearly two thousand American delegates were 
present, and a hundred from Australasia; and almost every 
other land was represented by larger or smaller delegations. 

Christian Endeavor work on the continent of Europe, 
except in Germany, was then in its infancy; but the vigorous 
growth in Continental countries since then is one proof of the 
value of the World's Convention of 1900. 

"For the first time in its history," says the official report 
of the convention, "the gray old city of London was deco- 
rated in honor of a religious gathering. Flags and mono- 
grams in red and white — the Convention colors — 
Decorations, fluttered across Ludgate Hill, and showed cheer- 
fully against the grim walls of Newgate, while in 
many parts of the metropolis, from the dignified West to the 
plebeian East, and even in the suburbs, there were Christian 
Endeavor monograms, bright touches of the convention col- 
ors; and here and there a line of flags stretched across the 
road, all speaking mute greetings to the World's Convention. 
To delegates from some less conservative regions these decora- 
tions may have seemed less impressive than they did to Lon- 

144 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

doners themselves, who were best able to appreciate the signifi- 
cance of adornments that have hitherto been reserved for civic 
or royal processions and rejoicings over the success of British 
arms. Amusing stories came to hand of startled non-En- 

London International Christian Endeavor Convention. 

deavorers who asked, 'Has there been another victory?' En- 
deavorers felt inclined to answer in the affirmative." 

Many were the greetings and from many lands. The 
lord mayor of London, the Bishop of London, Dean Farrar, 
beloved of all Americans, Dr. Parker and Hugh Price 
Hughes, "Ian Maclaren," Dr. Alexander McLaren, Presi- 

London and Ningpo. 14^ 

dent McKinley, and Ambassador Joseph H. Choate all sent 
welcomes of the most cordial description. 

The problem of finding audience-room for the vast 
throng was solved by the committee by securing the Alexan- 
dra Palace, whose largest hall was seated for nearly twenty 
thousand persons, while various smaller audience-rooms and 
two large tents accommodated the lesser meetings. 

But, while this was the headquarters of the convention, 
nearly all the other large halls and churches in London were 
used at some time during the meetings. Thus the opening 
welcome meeting was held not only in the Alexandra Palace, 
but in the Royal Albert Hall, which was packed from floor 
to dome; and Exeter Hall, the Metropolitan Tabernacle, the 
City Temple, Wesley's Chapel, and many other famous and 
historic churches and halls were in requisition. 

On the platforms of this convention were heard the great- 
est pulpit orators of three continents. The names of some of 
the speakers need only to be mentioned to prove that this 
statement is no exaggeration. Among them were the Rev. 
F. B. Meyer, the beloved president for that year of the Brit- 
ish Christian Endeavor Union; the Rev. Joseph Parker, D. 
D., Dr. John Clifford, the Bishop of London, the Rev. R. F. 
Horton, D. D., the Rev. Maltbie D. Babcock, D. D., Dr. 
Floyd W. Tomkins, the Rev. George C. Lorimer, D. D., the 
Rev. W. F. Frackleton, the president of the Australasian 
Union — but where shall I stop in this enumeration, for time 
and space would fail me to tell of McNeil and Patterson and 
Spurgeon and McElveen and Barrett and Belsey and Hasse 
and Hill and Baer and Wells and Pollock and Moule and 
Home and Harada and Peloubet and Parr and Smellie and 
Stead, and noble women not a few. 

But, not to make this history simply a chronicle of names, 
let me describe one or two meetings a little more in detail. 
Perhaps the one entitled "The Messages of the Churches" was 

146 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

as characteristic as any. The president of the World's Union 
was asked to preside over this meeting, and British 
Messages representatives of the great denominations were the 
Ch V^hes speakers, the Rev. J. O. Greenhough for the Bap- 
tists, the Rev. Hugh Price Hughes for the Metho- 
dists, the Bishop of London for the Church of England, Dr. 
Joseph Parker for the Congregationalists, and Rev. William 
Watson for the Presbyterians. Seldom have more great pul- 
pit orators been assembled upon one platform, and the audi- 
ence w^as worthy of the speakers. 

The programme committee had wisely arranged for the 
Junior rally to begin in another hall a little later, by way of 
a counter-attraction, but even then these halls would not hold 
half of those who sought admittance, and Tent Endeavor was 
crowded with an overflow meeting addressed by eminent 
speakers from England and America. 

Perhaps I cannot do better than to give a few sentences 
from the message of each of these great representatives of 
the churches. 

The Bishop of London, the scholarly Dr. Creighton, 
dwelt upon the spirit, "the temper," with which we should 
do our work as more important than the acts themselves. 
These were his concluding words: 

"To go back to Christ, to fix our eyes upon Him, to seek 
His temper, to try and make that temper ours — that must 
be the constant thought of one who is striving to do good 
in His name. I would leave with you that message, and 
that message only. I would venture to put it in the simplest 
form of an apothegm: 'Take care of your temper, and your 
energies will take care of themselves.' Not by what you 
deny, not by what you violently assert, but by the spirit and 
temper which you take with you into the small things of life, 
by the grace and the beauty, the humility, the self-sacrifice 
with which you pursue the ordinary current of your daily 

London and Ningpo. 147 

life, will you turn the hearts of others to see not you and your 
objects, but to see shining through you the earnest, the assur- 
ance of a power which the world does not contain. 

" 'Remember, every man God made 
Is different, has some work to do. 
Some deed to work. Be undismayed: 
Though thine be humble, do it too.' " 

Dr. Joseph Parker, in his address nominated 
jo*^eph the President of the World's Union and Dr. C. M. 

Address! Sheldon for president and vice-president of the 
United States* (the presidential campaign of 1900 
was just beginning), and then went on to speak for Congre- 
gationalism as follows: 

"Many a man comes into my vestry after a Thursday- 
morning service, and says, 'I am a High Churchman.' I say, 
'So am I.' No church in the world can be too high for me, 
if by 'high' is meant noble ambition, opportune prayer, faith, 
aspiration after the throne and after the spirit of Christ. 

"He may be succeeded by a man who says, 'I belong 
to the Low Church.' I say, 'So do I.' No church can be 
low enough for me, if it means going out after that which is 
lost until it is found. If it means going down to people for 
the express purpose of bringing them up higher, then the 
lower the better and the more Christlike. 

"Then says a good friend, 'I am a Baptist minister.' I 
say, 'So am I.' You cannot have too much baptism. If you 
are baptized by the Holy Ghost and with fire, all the clouds 
of heaven would be too few for such a baptism as I desire — 
the baptism of the Spirit, not a passionate enthusiasm; an 
utter consecration and dedication to the cross of Christ. 'I 
am a Methodist.' 'So am I' — if by Methodism you mean 
repentance towards God and faith in our Lord Jesus Christ, 

* One of the minor political parties of the United States, which polled a few 
thousand votes at this election (the United Christian party) took Dr. Parker's 
suggestion seriously and literally, and promptly acted upon it ; but Dr Clark and 
Dr. Sheldon as promptly declined by a telegram from London. 

148 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

and even a penny a week and a shilling a quarter. I don't 
mind going in for the whole idea. 

"The idea, therefore, of selecting me to represent any 
one denomination — to represent Congregationalism! There 
is not an 'ism' of a merely ecclesiastical kind under heaven 
that I would get myself wet through for." (It was an in- 
tensely hot day, and he was perspiring at every pore.) 

" 'Endeavorers' is a very good name, but how would you 
represent the opposite and conflicting idea? You will find 
an answer where you find everything that is good — in the 
Bible. We read there of endeavorers and also of devourers. 
That is the antithetic term. You must belong to either one 
class or the other. * * * Resist the devil. Your adver- 
sary, the devil, goes about like a roaring lion, seeking whom 
he may devour. The difference between the Endeavorer and 
the devourer is that the devourer takes the easiest policy. The 
devil always takes an easy course — the course of destruction. 
This sumptuous, if somewhat barbaric, building required two 
years to have the roof put on. I will undertake under given 
conditions to blow it to pieces in five minutes. There is noth- 
ing so easy as destruction. The Endeavorer has taken the 
harder work of building. He is a supporter. Take that great 
Academy in London just now. There are perhaps hundreds, 
if not thousands, of beautiful pictures within the walls of the 
Academy. They took months to paint, and would have taken 
many years if they had all been done by one man. Give me 
an hour, and I, with pail and brush, will blot out your Acad- 
emy, and you will not find it an hour after you have left 
me to my destructive ways. Have nothing to do with the 
destroyer, the dynamitard. Join you the brave, strong men 
who want to make the world better in the name of Jesus 

Here is a characteristic passage from the ad- 
Hugh dress of Dr. Hugh Price Hughes, who was a warm 

H'^'^^hes friend of Christian Endeavor, and who greatly re- 
gretted the departure of some Methodists in Eng- 
land and the United States from the international fellowship: 

"Perhaps you will allow me to give you Wesley's own 

London and Ningpo. 149 

definition of Methodism, which is the best, and, as I am the 
most old-fashioned Methodist extant, I beg to refer you all 
to the original definition. 'A Methodist,' says Wesley, 'is 
one who arranges his life according to the method laid down 
in the New Testament.' So that we are as good as the 
Baptists, after all. And as Methodism did not originate in 
a quarrel, however legitimate (for sometimes you are obliged 
to quarrel), but in an intense desire to become better Chris- 
tians, all true Methodists have always been true catholics. 
We are the friends of all and the enemies of none; therefore 
surely I ought to be at home here to-day. And, in the words 
of John Wesley, 'I desire to form an alliance, ofifensive and 
defensive, with every true soldier of Christ.' This is our 

'Phe Perhaps the man most sought after throughout 

^^^^Z. the convention was Rev. Charles M. Sheldon, 

Sought= . , ' 

After whose remarkable book "In His Steps," of which 

a million copies had been sold, seemed to have been 
read by every man, woman, and child in Great Britain, every 
one of whom w^as anxious to see the author, on this, his first 
appearance before the British public. Wherever he spoke, 
in hall or church, the sidewalk was crowded with disap- 
pointed throngs who could not find entrance. His "workers' 
conferences" and "pastors' meetings," where in the simplest 
way he answered all sorts of questions, were centres of intense 
interest. The questions were of all kinds, from all sorts and 
conditions of men, and ranged from the vast industrial prob- 
lem, "Is it possible to reconcile the teaching of Jesus with 
the competition of business?" to such personal questions as 
"Do you smoke, Mr. Sheldon?" or the domestic query, "Is it 
right for a brother to make his wife stay at home to cook his 
Sunday dinner?" On all of these Mr. Sheldon brought to 
bear his practical, consecrated common sense and Yankee 

The Junior rally was one long to be remembered. One 

150 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

of the newspapers described it as "a daylight fairy tale," and 
the largest hall in the Alexandra Palace was crowded to the 
doors in spite of the other popular meetings that were being 
carried on. The Rev. Carey Bonner, who presided over this 
meeting, has a genius for controlling Juniors, as has been 
well said. They were instantly obedient to his slightest sig- 
nal, though the audience of older people were so uncontroUa- 

The Children's Choir at the London International Christian Endeavor Convention. 

hie in their expressions of appreciation that, to restore quiet, 
Mr. Bonner had to exhibit a great placard on which was 
printed "SILENCE!" 

The praise service, the temperance demonstration, the 
citizenship meetings, the great missionary gatherings, filling 
two tents and two great halls, the national rallies, and the 
mighty evangelistic meetings were all worthy of extensive 

London and Ningpo, 151 

comment; but the report of the consecration-meeting in the 
Central Hall (several others were conducted in other halls 
at the same time) must close the story of this convention. In- 
dividual societies, even unions, could not be represented in 
this vast audience, but only delegates from different coun- 
tries. Even these must be brief, but their responses showed 
the world-wide spirit, cosmopolitan character, and the con- 
secrated devotion of Christian Endeavor as nothing else 
could do. 

^ The delegations arose in their places, now a 

Wonderful p-rcat host of Americans, or Endeavorers from the 

Lonsecra= "^ , ' 

tjon ^ home countries, and now a handful of Spaniards 

or Germans, or a solitary representative of far-ofif 

Australia began w^ith 

. "Blest be the tie that binds 

Our hearts in Christian love;" 

and Canada followed with 

"Nearer, my God, to Thee;" 

the young patriots from the United States sang 

"My country, 'tis of thee, 
"Sweet land of liberty;" 

while the delegates from the West Indies prayed in song, 

"Bind Thy people, Lord, in union 
With the wondrous cord of love; 
Let a spirit of communion, 

Lord, be ours with theirs above!" 

Mexico, South Africa, China, Samoa, Japan, Ireland, Scot- 
land, and England followed as they were called upon. The 
Spanish delegates sang a hymn in their own language. 

152 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

Egypt responded, 

"'The Nile is rising!' the river of the water of life in 

India's delegates, when called upon, answered, 

"The Christian Endeavor Society is, under God, the 
chief hope of India's salvation." 

The Turkish representatives aroused much sympathy be- 
cause of the hard estate of Christians in that land, when they 

"In my distress I called upon the Lord, and cried unto 
my God." 

In Switzerland the work had but just begun, and the ap- 
propriate response of her Endeavorers was, 

"Vois, Seigneur, ma famille est pauvre en Manasse, et 
je suis le plus petit dans la maison de mon pere. Et I'ange 
dit, Je serai avec toi." 

"O my Lord, behold, my family is poor in Manasseh, 
and I am the least in my father's house. And the Lord said 
unto him, Surely I will be with thee." Judg. 6: 15, 16. 

From Germany came the hearty response: 

"The joy of the Lord is your strength." Neh. 8: 10. 
This was repeated, and then the delegation sang: 

"Einer ist's an dem wir hangen, 
Der fiir uns ist in den Tod gegangen, 
Und uns erkauft mit seinem Blut. 
Unsre Leiber, unsre Herzen, 
Gehoren Dir, Du Mann der Schmerzen, gut. 
In deiner Liebe ruht 

Nimm uns zum Eigenthum, 
Bereite Dir zum Ruhm 
Deine Kinder!" 

London and Ningpo. 153 

"One there is to whom we belong, 
Who has gone into death for us, 

And bought us with His blood. 
Our bodies, our souls. 
Belong to Thee, Thou Man of Sorrows, 
In Thy love 
Take us for a possession. 
Thy children." 

The Welsh delegates sang, as only the Welsh can sing: 

"Cyniru i Crist! Hyfrydaf gri, 
Seinied rhwng ei bryniau hi, 
Nes i'r pentref, tref-pob lie 
Dderbyn resol rodd y Ne' ; 
Taener y newyddion gwell, 
Rhwng y Dee a Gowan bell, 
Nes d'wed plant hofif Walia wen, 
'Christ yn Frenin ac yn Ben.' " 

"Wales for Christ — let that glad strain 
Echo through her hills again. 
Till each hamlet, town, and place 
Knows of Christ's redeeming grace; 
From the Dee to Gowan's Head 
Let the blessed news be spread. 
Till each child of Wales shall own 
Christ as King, and He alone." 

And England closed the responses at this glorious soul- 
stirring meeting by singing with the magnificent volume of 
ten thousand voices, 

"When I survey the wondrous cross 
On which the Prince of glory died, 
My richest gain I count but loss. 
And pour contempt on all my pride." 


Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 


It is a far cry from London to Ningpo; but, when we 
reach this typical Chinese city on the river of the same name, 
we find the same spirit, the same warm hospitality, the same 
blessed fellowship, the same deep spirituality, even, to a large 
extent, the same topics discussed, and the same hymns sung. 

"For the first time in the history of Christian work in 
China," says Christina K. Cameron, an American Endeav- 






tv^*-f ' 


-I^^W'-rik^^ ^"^K ^ 


"^^^^^ ^" 

The Ningpo Convention Committee. 

orer who had the privilege of enjoying the convention, "mes- 
sages were received from all eighteen provinces, and more 
than a hundred letters of greeting came from various parts of 
the world. The spiritual tone of the convention equalled, if 
it did not excel, anything of my previous experience. From 
the opening of the welcome meeting till the close of the con- 
secration-service, four days later, there was a deep sense of 
the presence of the Holy Spirit. 

"Those in the home land have no conception of the im- 
pression that was made in Ningpo, a heathen city, by the gath- 
ering together for praise and prayer of fifteen hundred na- 

London and Ningpo. 155 

tive Christians from all parts of this vast empire. Many 
had walked fifty or sixty miles ; others came on house-boats, 
and still others in sedan-chairs or wheelbarrows. It took 
months for some of them to reach the convention, for travel 
in China is slow." 

The convention theme was "The Life, the Work, the Op- 
portunity, of Endeavorers in China;" and their life, their 
work, and their opportunity throughout China were all en- 
larged and improved by this remarkable convention. 

Says the Rev. J. Martin, the principal of the Church 
Missionary Society College, of Foochow: "The convention 
hall from a distance did not seem at all an interesting place, 
and had no artistic beauties. It was an improvised, rough 
building of corrugated iron, wood, and reeds, erected in the 
playground of the Presbyterian Academy. On reaching the 
hall we found it more imposing; and, when we entered, we 
were struck with its beauties and brilliancy. The national 
flags of China, Japan, England, and the United States were 
in profusion, and the Christian Endeavor banners from vari- 
ous districts of China, exhibiting the art and craftsmanship 
of the Chinese, were hanging in all parts of the hall; and 
here and there were some from Japan. Chinese lanterns and 
foreign lamps added to the radiancy. Almost every seat was 
occupied, and there was a reverent and devout congregation 
of about two thousand. 

"When the delegates were asked to stand up, we saw lit- 
tle groups from Japan, America, Honolulu, Korea, from 
nearly every province of China, and one from Paris. The 
Ningpo Christians gave all a very hearty welcome, and it was 
inspiring to hear the delegates replying each in his or her own 
tongue. The principal speeches were delivered in English, 
Mandarin, and Ningponese." 

Some of the most eminent missionaries of many denomi- 
nations in China addressed the convention, among others the 


Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

venerable and venerated Archdeacon Moule, and Dr. Arthur 
^ H. Smith, the most eminent of writers on China 

Remarkable and things Chinese. 

Scene a i i 

in ^ A remarkable feature of this convention was 

the presence of the three leading Chinese officials of 
the province on the platform with their secretaries and other 
followers. These were the taotai, or intendant of the circuit; 
the chi-fu, or prefect; and the hsien, the city magistrate. Dr. 
Arthur Smith gave an address at this session in Mandarin on 
"The Duty of Native Christians to Their Emperor and 
Country." This was keenly followed, we are told, by the 
three mandarins, who each said a few words after Dr. Smith 

The Ningpo Officials. 

was through, exhorting all to conform to the teaching of 
Christianity. "Do what your holy book exhorts, and you will 
not do wrong," was one of the sentences from the addresses by 
these Chinese officials. 

But this meeting had a sequel, for on the last day of the 
convention these mandarins invited the foreign missionaries 
and guests to a Chinese feast, the first time, it is said, that 

London and Ningpo. 157 

such an honor was ever conferred by such officials upon for- 
eign Christians. Mr. Martin's account* of this feast is so 
picturesque that I must quote it entire: 

"Each table was covered with a white linen cloth, and 
every guest was provided with two ivory chop-sticks tipped 
with silver, a silver fork and spoon, with a small silver ladle, 
a paper napkin, and a toothpick. The centre space on the 
tables was left for the courses served up in basins, one at a 
time. The menu was: 

"*i. Birds'-nests soup. 

2. Cold duck. 

3. Sharks' fins. 

4. Fish patties. 

5. Stewed chicken and bamboo shoots. 

6. Meat dumplings, boiled in tea oil. 

7. Fish soup, cod with liver. (A good way of tak- 

ing cod-liver oil!) 

8. The Three Genii, meat balls containing mutton, 

pork, and fish with bamboo shoots. 

9. Chinese cups of boiling tea,' 

"The mandarins, dressed in their official garb, stood at 
the door to welcome each guest, and took up the same posi- 
tion when we departed. 

"Thirteen tables were provided, and some eighty ladies 
and gentlemen partook of the hospitality of the mandarins. 
Dr. Arthur Smith saying grace and at the end suitably 
voicing the thanks of the guests. 

"From the luncheon-room we returned to the hall for 
a consecration-meeting, after which a procession, with ban- 
ners, marched down to the steamer to see the many visitors 

"While waiting for the steamer to leave, the Christians 
on the bund and the delegates on the steamer were singing 
hymns, amongst them being 'Onward, Christian Soldiers,' 
and 'God be with you till we meet again.' Thousands of 
non-Christians were standing by, watching and listening, and 

* Contributed to The Church of England Christian Endeai'ourer. 

158 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

I am sure it was a good object-lesson to them and others. 
During the last three days, we of different nationalities, of 
different churches, and of different societies had been meet- 
ing as one body, united in one Lord and Saviour, the Lord 
Jesus Christ." 

After reading such glowing accounts of the character 
and influence of this convention we cannot wonder that Arch- 
deacon Moule, who has known China for almost half a cen- 
tury in connection with his great work for the Church Mis- 
sionary Society, should say, "It was the most wonderful sight 
ever witnessed in China." 




" Your body stands prominent among the organizations which 
strive toward a realization of interdenominational and inter- 
national Christian fellowship, as well as among those which 
stand for ideals of true citizenship." Theodore Roosevelt. 

" The more I have to do with Christian Endeavor, the 
more I believe in its great value to India, and the more I am 
ready to push it." Rev. Robert A. Hume, D.D., 

Ahmednagar, India. 

VEN the briefest account of Christian Endeavor 
U conventions would be incomplete if no allusion 
were made to the great Australasian assemblies, 
for in the lands of the Southern Cross they have 
attained in some respects their highest perfection. 
To be sure, the Endeavor constituency is not there so large as 
in America or Great Britain; but the audiences often num- 
ber thousands, and, as in other countries, the largest buildings 
that can be obtained are packed to their utmost. Seldom 
have I seen such magnificent gatherings of young people as 
it has been my joy to greet in the beautiful town halls or ex- 
position buildings of Sydney and Melbourne and Adelaide and 
Brisbane. Earnest, unconventional, highly intelligent, deep- 
ly spiritual companies of Christian youth are they, who are 



Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

laying well the foundation-stones of the commonwealth of the 
southern seas, the true Pilgrim Fathers and Mothers of a 
great, new nation, who some day will be looked 
upon as are the pilgrims of Plymouth Rock and 
the Puritans of Boston and Providence. 

At one of these conventions, held in the city of 
Adelaide, this idea that the Australian youth of to-day are the 
architects of their country's future was well illustrated in the 
Junior rally entitled "The Building of a Commonwealth." 

The Build= 
ing of a 

The Town Hall, Sydney, Australia, Where the Christian Endeavor 
Convention Was Held. 

Before the great audience was a huge model of Australia 
made of tin, some ten feet in diameter. The different states 
were marked ofif according to their boundaries, Western Aus- 
tralia, South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales, and 
Queensland, with little Tasmania below and the Bass Straits 
running between. With songs and recitations one Junior 

Gatherings in Australia and India. i6i 

after another came forward, and placed upon the map a char- 
acteristic virtue, for which each state should stand — 
"Strength," "Purity," "Honor," "Gentleness," etc., and the 
whole exercise with picturesque force told these thronging 
Juniors how they must build these virtues into their new com- 

Of course many of the features of the Australian conven- 
tions are much the same as those in other English-speaking 
lands, but sociability and good fellowship are provided for as 
in no other country by the "tea-meetings," which in these 
Christian Endeavor conventions have passed all records, 
claiming the largest halls in the city for their own, and often 
furnishing refreshment and kindly entertainment for thou- 
sands of delegates at a time. 

These tea-meetings, sometimes called "tea-fights" or 
"bun-struggles" by irreverent young Australians, are as a rule 
most delightful gatherings; but one that I remember in Ade- 
laide surpassed all records so far as my experience goes. 

The town hall was given up to it, and twenty- 
A Tea eight large tables, representing: different countries, 

Meeting in f . , ^ • j j.^r 

Adelaide. which Were assigned to ditrerent societies, were 
spread with tempting viands, beautiful flowers, and 
the delicious fruits for which South Australia is famous, as 
well as meats and cakes and sweets of all kinds, and the inevita- 
ble tea. 

The tables were filled and cleared, and filled again and 
again, until nearly two thousand people had sat down to a sub- 
stantial repast. But the chief interest of this meeting lay in its 
cosmopolitan significance. It represented an "international 
tea-meeting" for an international society. India had its table, 
decorated with the products of that vast peninsula. The Chi- 
nese table had its characteristic features, with waiters in Chi- 
nese costume serving the viands. Japan was dainty and beau- 
tiful, as Japan always is. Ceylon and Burmah and Asia Mi- 

i62 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

nor had their characteristic features. Scotland was represent- 
ed there, too, and Ireland, and England, of course. The Cape 
Colony table had for its centre piece of decoration a great bank 
of white flowers representing Table Mountain at Cape Town; 
Egypt had a model of the Pyramids. New Zealand's table 
was decorated with a Maori house. Spain, France, Germany, 
Canada, and Mexico were all there, and all unique, character- 
istic, and beautiful. 

Of American cities, Chicago, Boston, and Philadelphia 
were specially honored by having tables named for them. 
The decorations of the Philadelphia table were very quiet and 
subdued, mostly of drab, as becomes a Quaker city, but withal 
very charming and tasteful, while the waiters, who looked out 
from under demure Quaker bonnets, were gracious and comely 
to look upon in their sober gray. Chicago was brilliant and 
bright; Boston, sedate and intelligent, complete in every re- 
spect, except that I saw no pot of baked beans displayed. 

The Commonwealth of Australia was represented by vari- 
ous characteristic features, chief of which were a little kanga- 
roo and an emu and other Australian birds and animals, sur- 
rounded by a wealth of Australian flowers. 

. The Williston table had the place of honor at the head of 
the room. It was beautifully decorated, and the fair waiters 
each wore a white sash with the words "Williston Christian 
Endeavor" painted upon it. 

Together with the other invited guests I sat at the Willis- 
ton table, and can assure the original Williston Christian En- 
deavorers that they never in their own beautiful church spread 
a more hospitable and generous board than that which was 
named for them in Adelaide. 

The very spirit of international fellowship and good will 
reigned supreme. How could it be otherwise? The genius of 
a world-wide fellowship was represented there; happy faces, 
sparkling eyes, and glowing words of greeting met us every- 

Gatherings in Australia and India. 163 

where; and in the deeply devout and religious atmosphere 
we had a little foretaste of the time when every nation and 
tribe and kindred and tongue shall sit down at the marriage- 
supper of the Lamb. 

But it must not be supposed that the social fea- 
Fervor^ tures by any means monopolized the attention of 
'" ^ ,. Australian Endeavorers. In no part of the world 

Australia. _ ... 

are the meetings more full of genuine spiritual fer- 
vor than in the great island continent. The sunrise prayer- 

In the Australian Bush. 

meetings, the vigorous and eloquent addresses, and especially 
the crowning consecration-meetings, which are nowhere sur- 
passed, give their own tone to these mighty gatherings. 

A personal letter from the treasurer* of the Australasia 

* Mr. J. B. Spencer, of Sydney. 

164 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

Union, just received as I write, tells of their last national con- 
vention. It w^as held in Hobart, in Tasmania, and a w^hole 
steamship was chartered by the Endeavorers of the larger 
island to take the very considerable journey which separates 
old Van Diemen's Land of former days from her great brother. 
The steamer vv^as decorated from stem to stern, and in spite of 
rough and stormy seas the Endeavorers arrived in good time 
in the beautiful harbor of Hobart. 

"It is impossible to describe," writes my correspondent, 
"the signs of God's grace which are manifest in every meeting 
from morning till night, and this power increases day by day. 
I wish I could fully describe our council meeting. It was a 
time of joy. Every eye beaming with tearful gladness, and 
the hearts so full, too full often for speech. This was closed 
with a consecration council meeting in fullest surrender to 

"The closing meeting of the convention was most glori- 
ous, and many confessed Christ. All I can say is, the Holy 
Spirit was manifestly present at all our meetings. Often 
there have been brief pauses when heads have been bowed, 
faces covered, hearts broken, and glad and peaceful souls look- 
ing up in calm wonder." 

Such are the impressions made upon one of the leading 
architects of Australia by the latest Australasian convention. 

India's Christian Endeavor conventions are 
Convention unique and in some respects the most interesting of 
all. When we remember the comparatively small 
Christian population, the overwhelming preponderance of 
idol-worshippers, and the vast distances that separate the dif- 
ferent missions, we can only wonder and rejoice that God is 
using this instrumentality in the land of the Brahman in so 
conspicuous a measure for the display of the power of Chris- 

Most of the conventions, owing to the distances and the 

Gatherings in Australia and India. 165 

poverty of the people, must necessarily be confined to limited 
localities, but they are none the less striking and impressive on 
this account. In Madura and Bombay and Ahmednagar and 
Calcutta and Lahore and Allahabad most helpful, pictur- 
esque, and remarkable meetings have been held. The India 
Christians like to impress the eye and the ear as well as the in- 
tellect, and their conventions are gayest of the gay w^ith ban- 
ners and decorations, and triumphant with the notes of the 
"cornet, flute, harp, sackbut, psaltery, dulcimer," or whatever 
the curious-looking and odd-sounding instruments are that In- 
dian Christians use. Perhaps the writer cannot do better than 
to describe a typical convention which he once attended in 
eastern Bengal.* 

It was far away from the centre of the population, and 
the delegates were a somewhat rude and primitive people; but 
the convention showed, even better than one held in one of the 
great cities of India could have done, the importance and pow- 
er of these gatherings. I had travelled all day and nearly all 
night on the Ganges River and some of its numerous tributa- 
ries with one of the most eminent Baptist missionaries, the 
Rev. William Carey, whose field is the very same as that so 
heroically cultivated by his great-grandfather, William Carey, 
the First, the pioneer of modern missions. 

Very early in the morning, long before day- 
Bheei^ light, we reached the little convention village of 

^ some forty mud and straw houses in the very heart 

of the rice-fields of Bengal. We crawled on all 
fours under the low doorway of one of the houses belonging to 
a Christian family, for about half the inhabitants of the village 
were Christians, and threw ourselves down on a heap of straw 
for a little rest. But even then the delegates had begun to as- 
semble, for many of them had walked all night from their dis- 

* The story of this convention is also found in the author's book entitled 
" Fellow Travelers." 

i66 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

tant villages to reach the town of Chabikharpar, and we could 
hear the sounds of the cymbals and the tom-toms and the sing- 
ing as each society arrived. At daylight we arose and went to 
the chapel, which the people had built with their own money 
— the best building in the village — with a good thatch roof 
and walls of wood reaching nearly to the roof. 

The road to the chapel was gay with plantain stalks and 
red Christian Endeavor banners, for each of the fifty-two 
societies represented had brought at least one banner, and 
some of them four or five — not very expensive flags, to be 
sure, usually only a yard of red calico with a Scripture verse 
in Bengalee characters upon it; but they all added to the pic- 
turesqueness of the scene. 

But look! look! Of all the extraordinary scenes ever wit- 
nessed at a Christian Endeavor convention, that is the most ex- 
traordinary! With brass cymbals clanging, and native drums 
beating, and hands clapping, a society from a neighboring vil- 
lage comes dancing up to the chapel, with half a dozen red 
banners streaming before it. The leader, one of the territorial 
Christian Endeavor organizers, goes before to lead the proces- 
sion, dancing backward, which is a very perilous operation on 
the narrow, uneven road, beating time, and singing a Christian 
hymn at the top of his lungs. 

"Jesus, O Jesus, come into my heart; 

The sight of Thy beautiful face drives trouble away. 

O Jesus, come into my heart. 
"Jesus, O Jesus, come into my heart; 

When thou comest in, it is heaven on earth. 

O Jesus, come into my heart. 
"Jesus, O Jesus, come into my heart; 

Seeing thee, it is cool; seeing thee, it is cool. 

O Jesus, come into my heart." 

We should say, "Jesus warms my heart." In this hot 
clime He cools it. But, if their hearts were cool, their faces 

Gatherings in Australia and India. 167 

did not show it; for tiie perspiration dripped from the dancers 
as they reached the chapel. 

Within the chapel the dance waxed warmer and more 
vigorous. Two Endeavorers, facing each other and flinging 
their arms in the air, would spring from side to side with mar- 
vellous agility, but never losing their self-poise or "the power" 
in all the excitement. Now the tune changes, and they sing, 

"The stream of love is flowing by. 
The stream of love is flowing by," 

and by a wavy motion of the line they indicate the "stream of 
love." Again a change and they cry out, 

"There are heaps of love at the foot of the cross; 
There are HEAPS of love at the foot of the cross. 


and with arms outstretched and arched over they show how it 
is "heaped up." 

At last the song is over, and the dancers sink upon their 
mats, squatting upon their heels, where they will remain im- 
movable for the next three hours. 

The leader then goes out, and dances another society into 
the chapel in the same vigorous way, and then another, and 
another, until the chapel is full. 

Does any one object to this vigorous Terpsichorean type 
of religion? I can only say that as actually witnessed I saw 
nothing objectionable in it, though perhaps my clumsy de- 
scription may seem gross and uncouth. There was no "pro- 
miscuous mingling of the sexes," for all who danced were men. 
It seemed a real devotional act; and I understood as never be- 
fore how David "danced before the Lord." 

It is sufficient to say, perhaps, that the conservative Bap- 
tist mission of Bengal, the mission founded by William Carey, 
sees nothing to disapprove in the service. 

After all were seated, and the little chapel was crowded 

i68 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

full of squatting figures, packed like sardines in a box, the ban- 
ners of each society were presented, with a short address from 
the president of each. Some of the inscriptions on the ban- 
ners were very significant, though I cannot give them here; 
but all told of faith, love, and hope. Then followed addresses 
on different features of the pledge, for the Christian Endeavor 
covenant is found as indispensable in Bengal as in America. 
Songs were often interspersed, and there was a prayer chain in 
true Christian Endeavor fashion, and many little seasons of 
quiet devotion were enjoyed. Thus passed five or six hours of 
almost continuous service, when the hungry delegates took a 
recess of an hour in order to get something to eat. But they 
soon reassembled for another session that lasted till dark. 

There was not a little object-teaching by the 
Chain missionaries throughout the convention. For one 

Love exercise. Scripture verses bearing upon "love" were 

called for. They came thick and fast from the au- 
dience — "God is love," "God so loved the world," etc. As 
fast as uttered they were written in Bengalee characters upon 
slips of colored paper, red, blue, and green. These slips were 
then deftly made into a "chain of love" with the help of a little 
paste. Then a swarthy brother, a deacon in the Chabikharpar 
church, of deep mahogany color, who was arrayed in his 
"birthday suit," and little besides with the exception of a gir- 
dle about his loins, came to the front, and with all the dignity 
of a full-dress ceremonial he put the "garland of love" about 
my neck. Had I been able to return the compliment with a 
Christian Endeavor pin, I could hardly have fastened it to him 
anywhere without hurting him. But what a beautiful sym- 
bolic lesson my brother in brown taught me! His chain of 
love I cherished for many a long day. 

Hundreds had come to the meeting who could not get into 
the chapel, or indeed anywhere near an open window; so the 
closing service was held in a wide rice field near by. The 

Gatherings in Australia and India. 169 

170 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

closing consecration-meeting was tender and solemn, and a 
time of great spiritual refreshment. 

The fire kindled by the Endeavor convention 
Persian idea has spread to Ceylon and Burmah and Persia 
onven ion. ^^ ^q\\ Jj^ Persia, though the Society is still young, 
the conventions seem to have the true Endeavor flavor. An 
interesting account comes concerning the third annual conven- 
tion, held in the village of Geogtapa in the Urumia plain of 
northwestern Persia. "The roll-call and consecration-service 
was a season of heart-searching and inspiration," says my cor- 
respondent, a few lines from whose interesting report I quote 

"One society reported having organized a society in both 
the Russian church and the Roman Catholic church of their 
village. Another village, which has societies for all classes 
except the old women, is expecting to organize another for 
their especial benefit. 

"One of the old white-headed preachers arose in the 
convention, and exclaimed in amazement at the marvellous 
changes that have been wrought since his youth. Then, no 
woman would have thought of participating in a public meet- 
ing; the young men were silent unless called upon by their 
elders; but now 'both young men and maidens, old men and 
children, praise the name of Jehovah,' and do active and 
efficient service in the Christian Endeavor society. 

"An increase of several hundred in membership was re- 
ported, and a sum about equal to fifty dollars for the year's 

"The village of Geogtapa. is built upon an ash hill of 
the ancient fire-worshippers, and many relics of their pot- 
tery, coins, etc., have been found here. The crown of the 
hill, which is several feet above the streets, is occupied by the 
Syrian cemetery, many hundreds of years old. On one side, 
where the earth has been washed or dug away, a section of 
the cemetery, showing the narrow, stone-lined graves, one 
above another, and many of them containing skeletons, is ex- 
posed to view. A grewsome sight! 

Gatherings in Australia and India. 171 

"As I looked upon this host of intelligent, enthusiastic 
young people gathered on this hill, the accumulation of cen- 
turies of the ever-burning fires of those ancient inhabitants 
of the land, it seemed to me that in Christian Endeavor a 
truly heaven-kindled flame is burning, before whose purify- 
ing and energizing influence the dead Christianity and the 
false religions of this land must soon yield. 

"The convention closed with an earnest and inspiring 
sermon by Kasha Isaac Yonan. The delegates returned to 
their villages over roads flooded by the heavy rains, in some 
places wading through, or riding over on a man's back, a 
not unusual method of conveyance here. All returned filled 
with new inspiration, new ideas, and an earnest desire to go 



" The wonder is that one societj', with fifty members only, 
in a little over twenty 3'ears, should expand into more than 
sixty-four thousand societies, with nearly four million members. 
There is no doubt that God's blessing is on the movement." 

Sir Harry Raivson, 
Governor of Neiv South Wales. 

'T was thought at first that these conventions repre- 
sented but a temporary phase of Christian life, 
that, as they blazed up so suddenly, the fire would 
die down with equal rapidity. 1 even remem- 
ber one religious paper some years ago that quite 
rejoiced in this prospect. The American convention of that 
year, owing to its locality, numbered only some 40,000 in at- 
tendance, whereas the convention of the previous year, in a 
more eligible city, had reached more than 50,000 in attend- 
ance. This religious editor, moved by his unfriendliness to 
the general cause, took this as a sign of imminent decay, and 
thanked God devoutly that the organization was waning, and 
would soon be heard of no more. But his rejoicings were 
premature, for reports from all over the world at the end of 
the first quarter-century of the Christian Endeavor movement 
show that the convention idea is not outworn. How could 


The Best Yet. 173 

it be, when it stands for fellowship and devotion, for con- 
secration and religious stimulus, and for a blessed interde- 
nominational brotherhood which the Protestant world has 
been so long trying to realize? 

To be sure, a great Endeavor convention is not so novel 
and striking a thing as it was fifteen years ago, because there 
are so many more of them. It may not attract so much notice 
in the newspapers, because the novelty always gets the largest 
"write-up." But in all essential features the conventions show 
no signs of diminution or retrogression. 

Indeed, so common is the advance made by each one 
upon its predecessors, whether the convention be of a local, a 
State, or a national character, that "the best-yet convention" 
has become almost a stock phrase in Christian Endeavor 

In the twenty-fifth year of Christian Endeavor Japan re- 
ported the "best-yet convention" in Okayama, and Mexico 
held in the city of Guadalajara "one of the best yet," and 
Brazil's national gathering in Sao Paulo was "the best yet," 
and the All-Europe Convention in Berlin was surely "the best 
yet" held on the continent of Europe, while many declared 
that the American convention in Baltimore in not a few re- 
spects was unsurpassed by any of its predecessors. 

One of the most significant conventions ever held was the 
one that convened in Berlin in July, 1905, the first conven- 
tion of the All-Europe societies held upon the Con- 
AnAii tinent, though the European Union had been or- 

Conventron. ganized the year before in London, where the first 
convention of the sort was held in connection with 
the British national convention in 1904. 

The significance of this convention lay in part in the con- 
trast presented to those who remembered the small beginnings 
of the work in Germany. Ten years before, the wildest an- 
ticipations of those who gathered for the first little Christian 


Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

Endeavor conference in Berlin could not have compassed the 
thought of a great gathering in the same city in but little more 
than one decade attracting to the Circus Schumann six thou- 
sand persons from all ranks of society, including even a repre- 
sentative of the imperial court. 

Mexican Endeavorers. 

The convention was welcomed by the highest church dig- 
nitary of Berlin, and with true German tirelessness the dele- 
gates made long sessions, morning, afternoon, and evening; 
meeting from eight to one in the morning, ready for another 

The Best Yet. 175 

long session in the afternoon after a brief hour for lunch, and 
rarely concluding the meetings before ten o'clock in the even- 
ing. There was no eight-hour day for these delegates, and 
they desired none. National rallies of the representatives of 
many European nations were held, the Hungarian rally being 
specially well attended. 

Dr. Torrey, the American evangelist, was one of the 
speakers at the convention. His address was very impressive, 
we are told, and then followed one of the most remarkable 
of all the convention sessions. ''Pastor Paul, the president of 
the German union, was in charge of the meeting, which pro- 
ceeded to prayer. But prayer, once commenced, was not to 
be restrained ; and for a full hour the meeting went of its own 
accord, prayer following prayer, two or three sometimes pray- 
ing at the same time, until almost half the entire audience 
seemed to be praying audibly, confessing their sins and seek- 
ing fuller blessing. Time and again the meeting would swell 
up into song, prayer being continually renewed as a verse 

It might seem from such an account that the meeting was 
confused and disorderly, but we are told that no such impres- 
sion was made upon those who were present. It was simply 
the outpouring of full hearts, desirous of a blessing, an out- 
pouring which could not be restrained. That the convention- 
goers and their leaders were as sane and level-headed as could 
be desired is shown by the business meetings and the "schools 
of methods," by the educational features of the convention, 
and by the genuine spirituality of the services, removed in the 
furthest degree from mere emotionalism. 

The evening meetings were held in the open air under 
the trees, and the largest of all the gatherings, the conven- 
tion praise service, was held on Sunday afternoon in Circus 
Schumann, seating six thousand persons. Says Mr. Stanley 
P. Edwards: "The building itself was greatly impressive. 

176 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

and the whole service was followed closely by the entire audi- 
ence. Greetings having been given, the representatives of 
each country in Europe responded in their own tongue, rais- 
ing at the same time a banner, representing their own country, 
around the centre ring of the building. The circle having 
been completed, Rev. Horace Dutton on behalf of the World's 
Union raised a large banner in the centre of the circle, bearing 
a red cross on a white background, with the words 'Christ All 
and in All.' The choir was composed of the joint choirs of the 
State church. Baptist church, Methodist church, and Inde- 
pendent churches, twelve hundred voices in all, with three 
hundred trumpets in the orchestra, each choir taking part in 
the services separately, and then all in concert, strikingly rep- 
resenting the denominational loyalty and interdenominational 
fellowship of Christian Endeavor." 

To hold a great convention where Endeavorers 
A Typical are numerous, and come from many lands, is not 
Convention. Surprising; but to hold a "best-yet" convention in a 
city without a single Endeavor society is a feat that 
was reserved for Spain when her Endeavorers invited their 
fellows to assemble in the city of Madrid for the second na- 
tional convention in 1902. But the Protestant churches were 
all hospitable; and the English Baptists, and the United Pres- 
byterians, the Spanish Episcopalian church, and the German 
Lutheran all opened their doors for different sessions of the 
convention, and, strange to say, these churches were always 
filled, for the Endeavorers had come in considerable num- 
bers from all parts of Spain, desiring to make an impression 
for their cause upon the capital. The native leaders were 
so eloquent, and Dr. and Mrs. Gulick, who largely had charge 
of the preliminary preparations, were so efficient and hos- 
pitable, that the convention went off with as much vigor and 
eclat as if Madrid were the very centre of the movement; and 
though, to be sure, this second convention had not many prede- 

The Best Yet. 


cessors to compare itself with, it certainly went down into 
history as the "best yet" in Spain, and I can testify to a genuine 
spiritual uplift and heart-warming which I myself expe- 
rienced as I met with my Spanish brethren, though the war 
which had robbed Spain of all her colonies had then but just 
passed into history. 


Even war's alarms seemed to have little effect on the en- 
thusiasm of convention-goers, for the war-time conventions in 

Christian Endeavor in Japan. 

Delegates Who Attended the National Japanese Christian Endeavor 
Convention at Okayama. 

Japan have been the "best yet." "Simply to have held a pub- 
lic annual meeting," says Dr. Pettee, "amid the distractions of 
the war year, when many similar gatherings were omitted, 

178 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

would have been satisfactory. But to have succeeded in the 
face of many obstacles in holding one of the best of the whole 
series of Christian Endeavor conventions in Japan was cer- 
tainly cause for profound gratitude and renewed devotion. A 
special collection was taken up for sending Christian En- 
deavor and other literature to the Endeavorers who 
War had gone, or yet may go, to the front. It was de- 

Convention cidcd to urgc all members of Christian Endeavor 
societies also to pray for the soldiers every morning 
before or immediately after rising." 

The patriotic note is always struck at these conventions in 
Japan, and another feature which makes them highly pictur- 
esque and beautiful is the display of handsomely wrought ban- 
ners from societies in all parts of the empire. In this respect 
Japan far exceeds any other country, and many of her most 
beautiful banners have been sent to America after being first 
displayed at the Japanese conventions, and have been given 
to the States which have distinguished themselves in the In- 
crease Campaign. 

Notable and characteristic meetings have been held in 
other European countries, which space does not allow me to 

But a few lines must be given to the ''best yet" in Mexico, 
the best being also the last. A Mexican Endeavorer thus tells 
of the opening session of the convention of 1905 in Guada- 

"The meetings were held in the spacious patio of the 
Adventist Sanitarium, over which had been stretched a can- 
vas roof, making an ideal auditorium, with seating-capacity 
for more than eight hundred people. It was thronged to the 
doors at nearly every meeting, and the convention was evi- 
dently the 'best yet' in every sense of the word. 

"Delegates came from all over the country and from 
every denomination, making it a most representative gather- 

The Best Yet. 179 

ing. One gentleman came representing the Mexican Pres- 
byterian congregations in southern California, having trav- 
elled 2,203 miles in order to be present. Others came from 
the centre of the state of Sinaloa, journeying several days 
on horseback before reaching the railroad, and then mak- 
ing a detour through the State of Arizona by way of El Paso. 
Others came from the almost equally distant state of Yucatan, 
after journeying by sea as well as by land. The larger part 
of the delegates present were from the populous and busy 
state of Jalisco, of which Guadalajara is the capital, and 
which is known by the name of the 'Pearl of the Occident.' 

"Although the Catholic religion has a very strong hold 
in this state, and much fanaticism is encountered, we being 
welcomed with strong tirades, protests, and vituperations in 
their daily papers, the delegates kept coming in from the 
congregations in dozens of towns and villages where a vigor- 
ous forward evangelistic movement is in progress." 

As is entirely natural, such great gatherings 
Aroused!'^^ naturally stir up religious animosities, where any ex- 
ist, as they do in Mexico and Spain, whose first con- 
vention, which I had the privilege of attending in Saragossa, 
was threatened with all sorts of dire calamities by Catholic 
priests and Catholic papers. This "latest and worst propa- 
ganda of the Protestant faith" was intolerable in their view. 
But the bitter editorials and denunciations had little elTect, ex- 
cept to advertise the meetings and increase the audience, 
though a few small boys shied some ineffectual stones at the 
"American pigs" who had presumed to hold a meeting in the 
"City of the Sacred Pillar."* 

It may be interesting in this connection to notice some 
of the contrasts and some of the similarities between these great 
religious gatherings in the two chief branches of the English- 
speaking world. These contrasts and likenesses were noted by 
the writer at the close of one of the British national conven- 

* The stone pillar which the people of Saragossa believe came down from 
heaven to furnish a pedestal for a statue of the Virgin. 

i8o Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

tions, and are recorded here for what they are worth. Pos- 
sibly they will be of interest hereafter as cosmopolitan Chris- 
tian Endeavor unites more and more those who speak the same 
tongue, reducing their differences and emphasizing their re- 
semblances. In these matters each side of the sea has some- 
thing to teach the other. 

Contrasts ^^^^ American Side. First, the American con- 

and ventions are larger than the British, as is natural: 


for there is, as yet, a far larger Christian Endeavor 
constituency to draw upon ; the Americans are more given to 
travel; and our railway companies make larger concessions 
in the way of cheap railway fares and special excursions, 
Not that the British conventions are not mighty gatherings 
from the mere numerical point of view, ten thousand people 
often being reached at a single session; still, as is natural with 
our larger constituency, larger numbers attend our American 

Second, the convention city as such seems less moved by 
the convention in Great Britain than in America. You see 
few banners and little bunting except over the places of meet- 
ing, and we do not often see flower mottoes in the parks, 
telling every spectator that the society stands "For Christ and 
the Church," for "Brotherhood" and for "Peace." 

Third, the press pays much less attention to a convention 
than at home, but that is also true of all great religious gather- 
ings. The British papers give paragraphs to such meetings 
where American papers would give columns, and columns 
where they would give pages. 

The British side. First, the British audiences are usually 
more enthusiastic, or at least much more demonstrative, than 
American. They will clap and cheer their favorite speaker 
for nearly five minutes at a time before he can begin his ad- 
dress. They interrupt him with applause twice as frequently 
as do American audiences. They show their approval with 

The Best Yet. i8i 

many a "Hear, hear!" "Good!" "True!" and sometimes 
"Praise the Lord!" They are much easier to arouse to eager 
enthusiasm, to provoke to smiles or tears. They lift a speaker 
up on the wings of their own interest, and make his task far 
lighter than before the average American audience. The 
"Kentish fire," a steady, rhythmical, united clapping of hands 
after the first volley of applause, was one of the (to me) novel 
features of "Manchester, 1902." To be sure, Christian En- 
deavor audiences in America are the most enthusiastic of all 
American audiences, and give the speaker more support than 
any other on our side of the sea, but even they might take a 
leaf out of the note-book of their British brothers. 

Second, the singing in British conventions is better than 
ours. They sing a better class of music, and sing it with more 
expression and more vigor. It is perhaps partly due to the 
fact that our congregational church singing ever5rwhere is in- 
finitely below the English, and we do not get the every-day 
training of our friends on the other side of the water in wor- 
shipful praise. 

Third, with some diffidence I would say that the British 
Junior Endeavor rallies surpass ours, at least, our average 
rally. We have no such continued "hundred-night success" 
as "The Building of the Bridge" by Mr. Hope, the pontifex 
maximus of Christian Endeavor, or his "Globe Exercise," in 
which children from every nation come out of a huge wooden 
globe, arrayed in their proper costumes, and teach their les- 
son of world-wide fellowship. 

For both sides. After all, the resemblances are far 
greater than the dififerences, and in many respects, as Presi- 
dent Lincoln said of the two hats presented to him by rival 
hatters, they "mutually surpass each other." On both sides 
of the water the speaking is of an equally high order. 

The "Quiet Hour" sei-vices seem more largely attended 
in America, and the spiritual tone is quite as high. 

i82 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

The hospitality is equally generous on both sides of the 

water, and on both sides the delegates "pay their own scot," 

as independent Christian Endeavor delegates have learned to 

do everywhere. The improvised inns or "hostels" 

Common -^ ^ 

Features in the Sunday-school rooms of some of the churches 

Enjoyed. . . . . n • • i 

are unique features of entertamment at British con- 

The topics discussed are very much the same. Stress is 
put upon International and Interdenominational Fellowship, 
upon Christian Missions and Christian Citizenship, upon the 
deeper life of the individual soul, and upon the distinctive 
principles and practices of the Christian Endeavor Society. 

On both sides the denominational rallies are great, en- 
thusiastic meetings, showing the unswerving loyalty of Chris- 
tian Endeavorers to their own churches. 

In the New World as well as the Old the committee meet- 
ings are bright, instructive, stimulating gatherings, which 
show how much alive the young people are down to their 

In the Old World as well as the New the conventions are 
deeply spiritual gatherings, whose whole trend is to deepen 
the religious life of all who attend, and to send them home 
more earnest and consecrated Christians than when they came. 

The resemblances are far, far more than the dififerences; 
for the spirit and purpose, the aim and method, of these meet- 
ings in every land are the same. 

The story of these conventions, however fragmentary, 
should not be concluded without some reference to the inter- 
national convention of 1905 at Baltimore, the last convention 
of the first quarter-century, for then was inaugurated the first 
efifort to put upon a permanent financial basis the 
1905!"*^*^^' World's Christian Endeavor movement. Hitherto 
the advancement of the Society in many lands had 
depended largely upon the precarious earnings of the United 

The Best Yet. 


Society in Boston, or upon the gifts which could be raised by 
its president and treasurer by personal solicitation. 

In "Baltimore, 1905," however, was started the Me- 
morial Fund, concerning which it is fitting that the present 
writer should say but little, because of its personal relations 

Baltimore Convention Building. 

to him and the great honor it does him; but, if it succeeds as 
its projectors and promoters hope, it will enable the World's 
Union to provide the little help that will be necessary to es- 
tablish and confirm the Christian Endeavor movement in 
every continent and country. 

In many another way was this convention memorable. 
"Never have I witnessed anything to compare with it," says 
a writer in The Moravian. 

"It was great in numbers," writes Professor Wells,* 

* In the Christian Endeavor annual of 1906. 

184 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

"crowding the largest meeting-place ever used for our conven- 
tions. It was great in enthusiasm, rivalling in that particular 
any gathering of our host in all the past. It was a young peo- 
ple's convention, the delegates being noticeably younger than 
those of several years past. It was great in its evangelistic 
spirit, producing more conversions than any Christian En- 
deavor convention ever held. It was great in its new emphasis 
on noble and uplifting music. It was great in its practical 
results, sending the Endeavorers home to do better work for 
Christ and the church. It proved many things about Chris- 
tian Endeavor that its friends had never doubted, but that 
others had, among other things, its perennial youth." 

With this sentence wc may close this chapter, for these 
"best-yet" conventions in all parts of the world have made evi- 
dent this truth, that the movement is no ephemeral affair, the 
expression of "the transient enthusiasm of beardless youth," as 
it used to be called, but an abiding factor in the life of the 
church, an organization that has about it, as The Missionary 
Herald declares, "the marks of perpetual youth, increasing in 
numbers and in vigor as it increases in years." 



" Let us all rejoice that this great idea of union has dawned 
upon the church as well as the state. Let us all rejoice that 
this glorious organization of Christian Endeavorers, delegated 
from the Protestant organizations of every Christian land, is 
the blossoming of a new and brighter hope for greater victories 
than were ever won before by the soldiers of the cross." 

Gen. Robert L. Taylor, 

Nashville, Term. 

|S they have been reading these accounts of multitu- 
dinous conventions, some of my readers may have 
been inclined to ask: "What is the use of it all?" 
"Do they really pay, spiritually and intellectual- 
ly, for the outlay involved of time and money and 

I cannot believe that any one who has actually attended 
such a convention seriously asks this question, but it may well 
have occurred to those who have not experienced their glow 
and contagious enthusiasm. The leaders of the movement 
have not been allowed to rest in the fancied Elysium of uni- 
versal approval, for the critics of the Society have not been 
slow to say on more than one occasion, especially in the early 
days: "To what purpose is this waste? This ointment 
might have been sold for three hundred pence and given to 
the poor." 


1 86 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

The expenses of the convention have more than once been 
reckoned up, not only the initial expense of some fifteen or 
twenty thousand dollars to the city inviting the gathering, but 
the much larger sum spent by the delegates for car-fares, hotel' 
Do the rates, and other incidentals, which has been esti- 
Conventions mated bv some for such a convention as the one held 

Pay r 

in San Francisco or Boston to be not less than a 
million dollars. "Why could not this enormous sum be given 
to missions?" it has been said. "Why should not the 
Christian Endeavorers deny themselves their journey and their 
fellowship, and give the sum they would spend, for the con- 
version of the world, which they claim is the object of their 

But those who reason in this way forget one or two im- 
portant facts. 

The money expended in attending these conventions is 
the holiday money of the delegates. They usually pay their 
own expenses, and instead of going to the seashore or the 
mountains, or idling away their vacation fortnight at some 
summer hotel, they spend the time in the uplifting, spiritual 
atmosphere of a great religious convention, where heart and 
mind are equally stirred to larger and nobler things. It is 
not missionary money that goes into the railroad or hotel cof- 
fers, but the personal earnings set apart for the holiday which 
has become so inevitable a feature of strenuous modern life. 
In fact, the missionary societies and kindred good causes are 
great beneficiaries of these conventions; for the missionary 
spirit is always stirred, much time and attention are given to 
the great theme of the world's evangelization, and the dele- 
gates go home to give as well as to pray more than ever for 
these interests. 

Dr. Wayland Hoyt, in one of his most efifective addresses, 
speaking of the value of Christian Endeavor conventions, 
compares the penny-wise and pound-foolish objections to their 

Cui Bono? 187 

expense, in his own dramatic way, to the stingy farmer who 
was carrying home a jug of molasses slung on his 
SimUe*^^'* back. He saw a pin in the road, which his eco- 
nomical habits would not allow him to pass by; 
and on his stooping down to pick it up the molasses poured 
out, covered his head and shoulders, and left his back hair in 
a terrible condition. He saved the pin, to be sure, but — he 
lost the molasses. 

But to refer to the more positive effects of these conven- 
tions, while they cannot be formulated or exactly valued in 
dollars and cents, it is not difficult to show their enormous 
worth. Their educational value, for instance, though in some 
sense a side issue, can scarcely be reckoned. It is thought, 
for example, that in 1897 some twenty-five thousand young 
people went to California to attend the convention in San 
Francisco. Many of them travelled three thousand miles ; the 
low railroad fares, the lowest ever granted up to that date, 
made it possible for many to take the journey who otherwise 
would never have seen the Pacific coast. In three weeks these 
twenty-five thousand young men and women learned more 
of the geography of their own country than they could learn 
in three years at home. Her great cities, her boundless 
prairies, her snow-capped Rockies, her fertile fruit farms of 
the farther coast, all became realities to them instead of the 
vague hearsay of others' lips. Their patriotism was aroused, 
their love of country stimulated; and, as never before, when 
they reached San Francisco, and on their return home, they 
could sing, 

'T love thy rocks and rills. 

Thy woods and templed hills; 

My heart with rapture thrills 
Like that above." 

Add to this educational and patriotic value of such an 
excursion the never-to-be-forgotten memories of those days on 


Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

the way, the evening prayer-service in each Pullman car, 
where the voice of praise and thanksgiving, though dulled by 
the rattle of the train and the roar of the engine, were not by 
any means silenced; the wayside meetings for train men and 
platform loafers when the train stopped for coal or water; the 
joyous fellowship and good cheer that prevailed throughout 
the bright days, when one car-load in fantastic garb and with 
improvised songs would go through all the other cars of the 

Ute Indians Going lu a Lhri.-Lian Endeavor Convention 
in Colorado. 

long train, carrying sunshine and jollity with them — a visit 
jy^^ that must be repaid by each of the other cars in 

Educational rCtum. 

of the There are, too, the reunions of the travellers m 

onven •**"^- jjfYej-gnt; cars and different trains, which take 
place for years afterwards, while "California, '97," or 
"Nashville, '98," or "Denver, 1905," are recalled, and the 
happy days are lived over once more. 

When the convention attracts many visitors from other 
lands, the educational value is, of course, enlarged. "Lon- 
don, 1900," gave to hundreds of Endeavorers their first and 
only view of the long-dreamed-of wonders of the Old World. 

Cui Bono? 189 

It took them back to their ancestral homes. It enormously 
widened their horizon; it weakened the spell of provincialism, 
and gave them a new sense of the glory and majesty of God 
in His world on sea and shore. 

But these advantages are in a sense only incidental and 
casual. The conventions would be well worth while, a hun- 
dred times over, if only because of their religious value, which 
of course is chiefly to be considered. They are the great 
promoters of interdenominational fellowship. Nothing like 
them from this standpoint is held from year's end to year's 
end. Never less than twenty denominations meet together in 
cordial and hearty brotherhood at every national convention 
in America, while the world's conventions, doubtless, bring 
The together twice this number of denominations. 

Wonderful gyen the State conventions often have representa- 

rellowsnip ^ 

of the tives from a dozen or more different denominations, 

Conventions. , , , , . ^ , . 

and those who thus meet m fraternal mtercourse, 
singing together, praying together, journeying together, 
comparing notes, discussing plans and ways and means 
for the advancement and betterment of their work, can never 
again look askance at one another. The demon of sectarian- 
ism, w^hich has so embittered the church history of the past, 
receives a telling blow at every great Christian Endeavor con- 
vention. This dragon is by no means dead, but the St. 
Michael of Christian Endeavor has dealt him in these con- 
ventions many a swinging blow. 

At the conventions, though they are full of life and color, 
and sometimes even of noisy gayety, the yery highest emo- 
tions of the human soul are touched, in the morning "Quiet 
Hours," for instance, when such a man as Dr. Floyd Tom- 
kins, with quiet restraint, but with intensest earnestness, points 
the young people to their "Best Friend," and shows them the 
supreme joy of personal communion with Him. The inspir- 
ational value of such an hour cannot be reckoned in figures or 

190 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

told in words; and such hours are frequent at every great 

In mission lands, where such gatherings are more un- 
common than in Christian America, and where the joys of 
fellowship are necessarily more restricted, these efifects are 
even more noticeable. One Chinese Christian, we are told, 
who attended the recent national convention at Ningpo, from 
an out-station where there were only ten Christians, had once 
before enjoyed a gathering of a hundred believers; but, when 
he came to this larger gathering, where he met with more than 
a thousand of his own faith, he broke down and wept, for he 
said that he had never before realized that there were so many 
Christians in China. Many of the Chinese delegates went out 
from those meetings to feel that they were part of a great army. 

Whatever the country where the convention is held, the 
patriotic note is always struck. Even in China, where there 
is thought to be less patriotism than in any other country in 
the world. Dr. Arthur H. Smith spoke, as we saw in a recent 
chapter, on "The Duty of the Christian to His Country and 
His Emperor." 

At a recent British convention held in the city 

Patriotism .... - 

at of London a great demonstration m the mterests of 

onven ions. ^ purer patriotism was held in Hyde Park, where 
from the improvised platform of large drays such men of 
national repute as Dr. John Clifford, Silas Hocking, and 
others spoke to great throngs on the burning British questions 
of the day, and stirred thousands of Endeavorers to a new 
purpose to defend their country from the insidious evil of the 
saloon and the artful wiles of the demagogue. 

It was in 1893, at the important convention in Montreal, 
the first international gathering outside of the United States, 
that the president of the United Society proposed, as one of 
the advance steps that Endeavorers should take, the culti- 
vation of a larger and more intelligent spirit of patriotism and 

Cui Bono? 


Dr. Clark's Five Christian Endeavor Journevs in Europe, 
Januar3'-September, igo2. 

First Journey — Boston to Naples, Rome, Florence, Munich, Berlin, Copenhagen, Stockholm, 
Orebro, Gottenborg, Christiania, Trondhjem, Gellvare, Stockholm, Helsingt'ors, St. Tetersburg, 
Warsaw, Vienna, Venice. 

Second Journey — N'cnice to Prague, \'ienna, Budapest, Sofia, Samokov, Philippopolis, 
Salonica, Monastir, \'enice, Florence. 

Third Journey — - Florence to Venice, London, Liverpool, Manchester, Burnley, Hull, New- 
castle, Bath, Cardiff, Camborne, Plymouth, Paris, Madrid, Lisbon, i'aris. Lucerne. 

Fourth Journey — Lucerne to London, Uddington, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Reikiavik, London, 

Fifth Journey — Geneva, London, Liverpool, Boston. 

192 christian Endeavor in All Landso 

of good citizenship. This suggestion was received with great 
applause, and ever since in every great meeting, whether of 
State or of nation, this has been made prominent. ''How 
shall this spirit of patriotism be aroused?" was asked. 

"By all joining, as a society, some one political party? 
Not unless we know of some party that embraces all of the 
saints and none of the rascals, one that is always right and 
never wrong. But whether you are a Democrat or a Repub- 
lican, a Third-Party man or a Populist, a Liberal or a Con- 
servative, a Blue or a Grit, it can be done by bringing your 
vote and your influence — for your influence, fair Endeavor- 
ers, is often as powerful as your brother's vote — to the su- 
preme test of the Christian Endeavor covenant. 

"You have promised in that 'to do whatever He would 
like to have you do;' then vote as He would like to have you 
vote. Then you will not knowingly vote for a bad man or a 
bad measure; and, if need be, you will sacrifice your party 
rather than your principles. 

"When politicians realize that men with principles are 
watching their nominations, they will not dare to put up a 
bad man for your suffrage, for they will realize what so many 
of the secular papers expressed last summer, after that won- 
derful convention in New York City, that there is a new 
moral force in this country that must be reckoned with. Go 
to the primaries of your party, and take your Christian En- 
deavor covenant with you. Go to the caucus; get into your 
legislature; stand for Congress or for Parliament; but, when 
you get there, for God and your church and your country 
do what He would like to have you do."* 

►P^g The efifect of the convention on the delegates 

Effect who attend has been dwelt upon, but the effect on 

on the ^ ^ ' 

Convention the City where It is held is a no less notable and 

' ^' striking feature of such a gathering, and answers 

the '^Cui bono?" in emphatic terms. For once, and 

for perhaps the only time in the history of some American 

* From the presidential address of Rev. F. E. Clark in 1893. 

Cui Bono? 193 

cities, religious themes have been uppermost, and religious 
motives in the ascendancy for a week at least. The sight of 
the thousands of delegates, the thronging attendance in the 
great halls, the mere sight of the thousands who cannot get 
within their doors and are clamoring for admission, all im- 
press the city of the convention with the fact that religion is, 
after all, the greatest concern of human life. 

"Talk about questions of the day; there is but one ques- 
tion, and that is religion, and it is best solved by work among 
the young," said Dr. Hill in giving his impressions of the 
Baltimore convention. Seeing the throngs and the anima- 
tion and the enthusiasm, he continues: "You would suppose 
that these young souls had come upon something new, but you 
find only the doctrines of grace, the cross, and youths brought 
to it, and, as the Salvation Army people say, 'properly saved.' " 

When the convention met in San Francisco, more than 
one minister who had spent years upon the coast said to me, 
"For the first time in my life I feel here that Christian people 
are in the majority." Every church was thronged on Sun- 
day. Overflow meetings, sometimes two or three of them, 
were held in vestries and chapels to accommodate the people 
who could not get into the main church buildings. Thou- 
sands sought the sanctuary who never thought of going on or- 
dinary Sundays. The convention and the great themes which 
the convention discussed were upon every tongue. For a 
whole week the daily papers of San Francisco agreed to leave 
out all details of murder, suicide, divorce, and revolting crime. 
The columns, often thus occupied, were given over to the ad- 
dresses on the high moral and religious themes discussed in 
the convention, and the papers for a week took on the appear- 
ance of distinctively religious journals. 

The evangelistic features of the conventions are always 
marked, and there is an effort, not only to educate and inspire 
the delegates, but to carry the blessing of Christ's salvation to 



Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

every part of the convention city, reaching the shops and the 
great factories wherever it is possible, and the slums as well. 
Even the State conventions often make this in these days 

^ IRELAND =^^^ 

Christian Endeavor in Ireland. 

Cui Bono? 195 

a great feature of their gathering, and what is often accom- 
plished is represented in a concrete way by the story of a re- 
cent Ohio convention held in the city of Dayton. Here is 
the interesting story as told by an Ohio pastor:* 

"At the very beginning of the planning for the conven- 
tion it was agreed that great emphasis should be put on evan- 
Evangeiistic gelism, and that this should be a soul-saving con- 
Convention vcution, that theory should be re-enforced by prac- 
*"'^^' tice, that the young people might not exhaust their 
time talking about how to save souls without going out to 
save any. 

"A committee on evangelistic work was early appointed, 
and got to work. The evangelistic work was to take three 
directions; first, noon meetings for men in the great shops; 
second, open-air meetings on Market Street in the "red-light 
district," which is an almost solid row of saloons, gambling- 
houses, and places of ill repute; and, third, one evening of 
the convention was to be given entirely to evangelistic work, 
with one great meeting for men only and one great meeting 
for women only. The results exceeded our most hopeful ex- 

"A young minister in attendance at the convention, when 
asked to go and speak in one of the noon shop-meetings, 
hesitated because he had never tried such work before. But 
he went, and the men were so impressed by his services, and 
so expressed themselves, that he will go back to his own city 
to use his new-found gift in the shops. What a blessing for 
this convention to set him to work where the gospel is so much 
needed! From this time on the shop men of Dayton will 
know what Christian Endeavor stands for, and something of 
its power. 

"The open-air meetings on Market Street were a revela- 
tion and they were a prophecy, a revelation of how much the 
worst types of men and women appreciate the chance to hear 
the old gospel of warning and love, a prophecy of what 
Dayton Endeavorers will try to do in the future to reach 
those who have never been reached. The men swarmed out 
of the saloons and gambling-places at the first sounds of the 

* Rev. Frederick N. McMillin in The Christian Endeavor World. 

196 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

little portable organ played by an Endeavorer; and, though 
Dr. Work and the other speakers told them in no uncertain 
tones where their sin would lead them if they refused their 
Saviour, there was no resentment, no scoffing; the men stood 
and listened as reverently as though they had been in a storied 

"An old woman who had been through many hardships 
broke down and cried; men hung their heads, convicted of 
their sin. What power save God's can tell the good results 
from such work as that?" 

Temperance is always a burning theme in Endeavor con- 
ventions in English-speaking countries, and sometimes prac- 
tical temperance measures are taken, as when the Endeavorers 
of Boston, seeing that one of the rumsellers, like most of the 
other shopkeepers of Boston, had hung out the sign, "Wel- 
come, Endeavorers!" took him at his word, went into the sa- 
loon, and held a prayer-meeting before the bar. He could 
hardly do otherwise than allow them to have their little meet- 
ing there, when he had invited them so cordially. 

Many after-effects of the conventions could be 
Meetings, noted if Space allowed. Echo meetings are held all 
over the country, and indeed all over the world, af- 
ter a world's convention. Wherever it may be held, India 
hears of it, and China, and Alaska ; and before long echo meet- 
ings are held in the islands of the South Seas. On their way 
from the convention at Berlin, for instance, two Spanish En- 
deavorers* in going home took several weeks for their journey, 
and told the story of "Berlin, 1905," in San Sebastian, Santan- 
der, Bilbao, Logrono, Pradejon, Pamplona, Saragossa, and 
Valencia. In all these towns the delegates received a most 
hearty welcome, and in some places members of the young peo- 
ple's and Junior societies came to the railway station to receive 
them and to express their joy and good will. The meetings 

* Don Carlos Araujo, and Don Vincente Mateu, reported in European Chris- 
tian Endeavour. 

Cui Bono? 197 

were enthusiastic, and the Endeavorers listened with keen in- 
terest to the story of the Berlin convention. 

Many are the delightful acquaintances made on these 
convention journeys, as can well be imagined. Indeed, Mr. 
W. T. Stead once declared that the chief value of the Chris- 
tian Endeavor convention is that it brings so many strong 
young men and fair young women together, giving them a 
chance to get acquainted, and resulting in so many congenial 
and happy marriages. However this may be, it is very cer- 
tain that "local unions" of this sort are not uncommon, and 
the writer has never known one that turned out badly. 

Reunions of those who are thus thrown together on the 
steamer or railroad train are often held for years after the 
journey is over, and around the festive board, as the anniver- 
sary returns, year after year the delegates who thus came to 
know each other gather to compare notes and to enjoy the 
reminiscences of past delights. 

At the time of the World's Convention in 1900, 
uitonians. on account of the burning of the steamers on the 
very day before they were to sail, a large company 
of Boston Endeavorers chartered at the last moment the large 
new freight-steamer Ultonia, which was hastily fitted up for 
their accommodation. But the delay in sailing and the slow- 
ness of the steamer prevented these hundreds from reaching 
London before the last benediction had been said, and most of 
the other delegates had scattered to the ends of the earth. 
However, the Uitonians, as they call themselves, do not con- 
sider their time or money wasted. They had a ten days' con- 
vention of their own, and one three thousand miles long; for it 
extended across the Atlantic, and year after year they have met 
for an annual banquet to recount the joys that they ex- 
perienced in 1900 and to pledge one another anew their 
friendship and their fellowship in service. Occasionally, 
when they can so arrange, the captain of the Ultonia meets 

198 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

with them; for he declares that there was never so royal a 
ship's company as that which sailed with him to Liverpool 
in the summer of 1900. 

Dr. Conant, the eminent Baptist minister and editor of 
The Examiner, has thus summed up in a few words the bene- 
fit of these great conventions in his summary of Baltimore, 
1905, for The Examiner. 

"And now what beneficial result may be expected from 
this great gathering? Much every way. The fires of en- 
thusiasm for Christian work were kindled anew. The thou- 
sands who were there will go home to their little circles 
carrying a fresh inspiration for missions at home and abroad, 
a new loyalty to the home church, a spirit of deeper conse- 
cration to the service of the Master. Christian Endeavor 
stands for loyalty to Christ, loyalty to the local church, loy- 
alty to world-wide missions; and the great host represented 
at Baltimore will be re-invigorated by the reports of all that 
was seen and heard in this great gathering of 1905. A 
mighty influence for good cannot fail to be exerted by these 
meetings among the four millions of Christian Endeavorers 
representing nearly every body of Christian believers through- 
out the world." 



" I feel that this movement amongst j'oung people is full of 
promise for the future. So many lives consecrated to Christ at 
an early age must have a great effect in Christianizing the 
world, and thus prepare for the second coming of our Lord." 

The Marquis of Northampton. 

" The most precious thing to any church is a throb of life, 
a spark of fire, a grain of poetry, a gleam of the dawn. Vision, 
enthusiasm, courage, power, these are the greatest things that 
can come into any church, and they come with the young." 

Rev. W. L. JVatkinson, England. 

HE Christian Endeavor Society does not indorse 
the extravagant boast that is sometimes made for 
it by enthusiastic friends that it has discovered 
the young people ; but it is not perhaps too much 
to say that it has sometimes discovered young 
people to themselves, and sometimes to the church with which 
they are connected, revealing their possibilities, showing them 
the deepest things of their own natures, and indicating to 
themselves and others capacities for service and devotion 
which no one suspected. 

Our subject has led us to consider the means used by 
Providence, often without any human foresight or planning, 
for the rapid development and spread of the Society in its 
early years. These are the fundamental principles on which 



Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

it rests, simple, comprehensible, adaptable to all; the printing- 
press ; and the convention, which have had their great share in 
this development. But the seed must have good soil, or it will 
not germinate; and this soil, as has before been said, is none 
other than the warm and fruitful heart of youth. It may be 
said, indeed, that young men and women are not only the ma- 
terial with which Christian Endeavor has to work, but that 
they have been the chief means of its establishment and de- 
velopment; and a chapter concerning them and their work in 
and for the Society seems appropriate at this point. 

Abstract principles, however simple and easy of applica- 
tion, are, after all, but cold and lifeless things. Printer's ink 
means only so many black marks on white paper, and is but 
slightly effective without a living personality. But when 
large-hearted, whole-souled, vivacious youth take up a move- 
ment; when they transmute its principles by some living al- 
chemy into action ; when they crowd the convention halls with 
their eager presence, and make the roof ring with their ap- 
plause for the right and their songs of Christian victory, then 
a movement has a most irresistible means of propagation; for 
it has young life in it, and young life is irresistible. 

The Society of Christian Endeavor has been 
Men"^ notable from its earliest days for the number of 

Sodef young men it has enrolled. It has been a standing 

refutation of the pessimistic wail that the young 
men are deserting the church and that the gospel is losing its 
power over them. 

"The first society in Williston Church had within its 
ranks quite a number of young men and big boys who were 
just developing into manhood. The first and second presi- 
dents of the first society were not children by any means, but 
bearded men, young, to be sure, in years and young in heart, 
but men who were already fighting life's battles and winning 
life's bread. From that day to this the Society has attracted 

Young Men and Maidens. 


Endeavorers of Many Lands. 

J. E. Randall. Jamaica. A Nestorian l%^%Js.IeTJyi, 

fcharles Briquet, Geneva. Endeavorer Secretary for Italy 

An Endeavorer of Vodena ^'Te^.^r Rev Henr MeArd'Aubiene, 

m the costume of the city. Persia. President French C. E. Union. 

202 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

an increasing number of these stalwarts, and it has been a 
source of pleasure and just pride to all interested in the move- 
ment to be able to point to the splendid specimens of young 
manhood, which in almost every city and country of the Unit- 
ed States are looked up to as the local leaders of these youth- 
ful hosts."* 

The paragraph just quoted was written more than ten 
years ago, but its statements may be made to-day with greater 
emphasis and truth than then. Young men have been com- 
ing increasingly to Christian Endeavor standards. The con- 
ventions have been conspicuous from the beginning for the 
number of young men who attend them. Many times the 
young men in a great convention audience have been asked 
to arise, and though sometimes, when seated, they seem to 
be outnumbered by their sisters, perhaps only overshadowed 
by the picture hats, when they rise to their feet, it seems as if 
fully half the convention were standing. 

In this connection I will quote another paragraph from 
the earlier history, because with these doubled years of ex- 
perience in conventions and union gatherings and local so- 
cieties from one end of America to the other, and in almost 
every foreign land, the writer can repeat with renewed empha- 
sis what he then said: 

"Some years ago a distinguished clergyman of the Church 
of England, who desired to know more about the Christian 
Endeavor movement, after listening patiently to an explana- 
tion of the principles and plans and methods of the Society, 
looked up into my face, and said with a somewhat super- 
cilious rising inflection, which perhaps was simply his English 
way of expressing dissent from the principles I had been ad- 
vocating, T suppose that your society raises up no end of 
prigs, doesn't it?' 

♦"World-Wide Endeavor." 

Young Men and Maidens. 203 

The "I was glad to be able to say to him promptly 

Conspicuous and unreservedly: 

Absence •' 

of, " 'It certainly does not develop the prig or the 

religious freak. I have been privileged to meet 
many of the young people who are connected with 
this movement in almost every large city in America. I can 
call to mind young men in Boston and Chicago, in New 
York and San Francisco, in Baltimore and Denver, in New 
Orleans and Omaha, in Philadelphia, in Portland, Me., and 
Porland, Or.; and I cannot recall among them all a single 
prig, a single smug and self-conceited 'cad,' as you would 
call him in England; but they are strong, manly, devout, 
wide-awake young men; young men who are influential in 
public afifairs, in state and church alike, and will be more so; 
young men whom you would not be ashamed to own as your 
brothers.' '! 

From the earliest days to the present it has been a source 
of delight, and often of surprise, to see the unselfish expendi- 
ture of time and money which these young leaders have given 
to the cause. With no emolument or hope of personal pre- 
ferment, with little honor accruing to them, except the honor 
of doing a hard and self-sacrificing task, thousands and thou- 
sands of young men in every part of the world have been will- 
ing to serve as presidents or secretaries of societies or unions, 
or as chairmen of laborious committees. There come before 
me, as I write, the names and faces of hundreds of these 
young men, among the brightest and best in their community 
and their generation,who, while earning their own living in 
office or store, or in some exacting profession, have taken time 
out of business or professional hours, and devoted it ungrudg- 
ingly to the service of their Master through the Christian En- 
deavor Society, because in this way it seemed to them to count 
the most for His cause. 

One of the ways in which the favor of Providence seems 

204 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

to have been bestowed most signally on the Society is in the 
character of the young men who have been called to places 
of especial responsibility in connection with the United So- 
ciety and its work. To them have been due its prosperity 
and its influence. Their whole-hearted consecration to the 
work, their business sagacity, their shrewd common sense and 
genuine intellectual ability, have made the Society the power 
that it is, and have made its influence felt to the ends of the 
earth. It is not invidious, I think, to mention the names of 
William Shaw and John Willis Baer and Amos R. 
vvorkers Wells and Von Ogden Vogt and George B. Grafif 
Among ^^^ Jq^j^ P Cowan and Arthur W. Kelly and 
Young George W. Coleman and Charles S. Brown and 


John R. Clements, who in the United Society or on 
The Christian Endeavor World, by their business 
acumen or literary or musical ability, often throughout a long 
series of years have given themselves heart and soul to the 
advancement of the cause of Christ among the youth of the 

When I think of other lands, names equally prominent 
rise to my mind; for what would the Christian Endeavor 
cause be in Germany without Frederick Blecher, or in Swit- 
zerland without Charles Briquet, or in Finland without Emil 
Saxback, or in Hungary without Professor Szabo, or in Spain 
without William H. Gulick, or in Europe generally without 
Horace Dutton and Stanley P. Edwards, or in Great Britain 
without Knight Chaplin and John Pollock and J. D. La- 
mont, or in Australia without J. B. Spencer and F. E. Harry 
and George Walton; or in South Africa without Polhemus 
Lyon and— but I cannot go on with the enumeration. 

I find it difficult to restrain my pen when it comes to 
the record of such names. There would be literally no stop- 
ping, were justice done to all, without making the book a mere 
catalogue and directory of Christian Endeavor. These names 

Young Men and Maidens. 


2o6 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

are not always the most conspicuous before the world in the 
work of Christian Endeavor; but they are in every case the 
names of men of young hearts, though sometimes of gray 
beards, of men who are thoroughly typical and representative 
of the stalwart and unselfish character of hundreds of thou- 
sands of others, who during the five and twenty years past have 
been enlisted in the Christian Endeavor movement. 

But the glory of the Society is that it is not merely a young 
men's society. Were it so, it would be robbed of fully half its 
power. It is a young people's society. Young men's or- 
ganizations have a vastly important work to do, but it is not 
the work of the Christian Endeavor movement; for its mis- 
sion in part is to bring the sexes together in whole- 
Each some activity, in generous helpfulness, each sup- 
|yp jg^g^jgplementing the other's work, and together doing 
the what neither could alone accomplish. 


Great as has been the number of young men 
in the Society, there have doubtless been enrolled 
considerably more young women. This could hardly be 
otherwise, since in the majority of churches the women out- 
number the men two to one; and what shall I say concerning 
the whole-hearted devotion which the young women have con- 
tributed to the strength as well as the grace and beauty of the 
movement? It used to be said by Miss Willard that it was 
the duty of women to be strong as well as attractive, and of 
men to be attractive as well as strong. An organization that 
brings the sexes together in natural intercourse, that places 
them upon the same committees, gives them equal responsi- 
bility for the same meetings, allows them equally to lead and 
to be led, and gives them official positions regardless of sex, 
cannot but promote and develop in each the strength and 
beauty which only when combined make the perfect man or 

These natural and friendly relations also make greatly for 

Young Men and Maidens. 207 

purity and true manliness and womanliness. It is an evil 
thing often for a boy to be brought up among boys only, or a 
girl among girls only. In the ideal family there should be 
both brothers and sisters. Each helps the other to strengthen 
the weak spots or rub off the rough corners of character. In 
the church family it is quite as important that the boys and 
girls should be brought together without: artificial restraints, 
but actuated by one supreme purpose to do right and serve 

It must not be supposed that this victory for modern and 
Occidental ideas regarding the sexes has been won all at once. 
In fact, in some countries, or perhaps it would be more fair 
to say in some portions of some countries, it is still impossible 
for the young men and young women to meet together in the 
normal and simple relations which Christian Endeavor fos- 
ters. But even in Oriental lands, where the binding force of 
custom is most relentless, old ideas are giving way, and it is 
beginning to be seen that naturalness, effectiveness, and purity 
are all fostered by thus bringing together the sexes in their 
religious work. 

At a recent convention In Persia, where probably the tra- 
ditions in regard to the separation of the sexes have been most 
inveterate, one of the old white-haired preachers arose in the 
convention and exclaimed, in amazement at the marvellous 
changes that have been wrought since his youth: "Then no 
woman would have thought of participating; the young men 
were silent unless called upon by their leaders; but now both 
'young men and maidens, old men and children, praise the 
name of Jehovah,' and do active and efficient service in the 
Christian Endeavor Society." 

Still, it is not possible fully to accomplish this in every 
land, and some excellent Endeavor societies are composed en- 
tirely of young men, and others entirely of young women in 
the same mission station; but occasional union meetings are 


Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

held, and in other ways they are brought together under the 
supervision of the missionary, so that the Christian Endeavor 
idea is carried out even by these single-sex societies. 
Many were the objections that were levelled at 
the Society in its early days because of the loosening 
of women's tongues in the prayer-meeting, and St. 
Paul's denunciation of women who presume to "teach," 

St. Paul 
and the 

M ^H^^^BW%^ ^ffl^f J ^M 

Some Presidents of Christian Endeavor Societies in Persia. 

and do not ask their husbands at home when they 
wish for information, was often hurled at the Christian En- 
deavor movement, which it was said would make women for- 
ward and mannish, and brush off the bloom of modesty and 

No such dire results, however, have followed, for the 
most active of the young women are also the most modest and 
teachable ; for are they not all humble learners in the school 
of Christ? Even St. Paul is now almost never quoted against 
the Christian Endeavor movement, for it has come to be seen 
very generally that Paul was misinterpreted when it was sup- 
posed that he was aiming his denunciations at the modern 

Young Men and Maidens. 209 

Christian Endeavor meetings, and that it is quite as modest 
and womanly a thing for a young lady to offer a sentence of 
prayer, or to repeat a verse of Scripture, or to give a sincere 
word of testimony, as for her to teach in the Sunday-school or 
public school, to sing in the choir or concert, or to occupy any 
one of the thousand places which the Christian women of the 
most advanced civilization have opened to her. 

No one has done more to place the position of women In 
the Christian Endeavor prayer-meeting in the right light than 

Dr. Wayland Hoyt,who at one of the early conven- 
New tions gave an address on "The New Prayer-Meet- 

Meettne i'^S'" ^^^ words havc been quoted elsewhere, but 

they are worth repeating. Speaking of that early 
prayer-meeting recorded in the second chapter of Acts, he 

"That old typical New Testament prayer-meeting was 
a prayer-meeting which gave holy speech to women. 

"Look there! What is that, that strong, celestial, waver- 
ing, gleaming tongue of flame? Behold it! It is on the 
head of Peter! Yes, it is on the head of James! Yes, it is 
on the head of Matthew! Yes, it is on the head of the son 
of Alphaeus! Yes, it is on the head of Mary! Yes, it is on 
the head of Salome! Yes, it is on the head of Mary Magda- 
lene! Yes! Yes! 

"In all that company there is not a single head unmitred 
with the celestial fame, as much on women's heads as on the 
heads of men. In the prayer-meeting women prayed for the 
gift, or they would not have received the gift; and, when the 
gift came, it came to woman just as much as to man ; for the 
shining, wavering flame was on the heads of all of them. 

"Paul says, 'Let the women keep silence in the churches.' 
Yes, Paul does say that; and, if I believed that Paul meant 
what is understood by many as the common interpretation of 
his meaning, I would submit to the apostle. I believe in im- 
plicit and accurate submission to inspired authority; but be- 
cause I am sure that the usual interpretation of that Scripture 


2IO Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

has been a huge misconception and blunder I declare that the 
new prayer-meeting of Christian Endeavor is in close accord 
with the old typical prayer-meeting of the New Testament, 
because it gives to women holy speech ; for do you know what 
the meaning of the words 'keep silence' is? 

"Paul says, 'Do not let the women lall, lall, lall.' Don't 
you see what he means? That is the Greek word lalein, 
which means to chatter, make a disturbance, a contention. 

"Paul says, 'Never let a woman do that' The men had 
better take that to themselves as well. But Paul does dis- 
tinctly say, 'When a woman prayeth or prophesieth, let her 
do it with her head covered;' that is, according to the custom 
of the times, 'in decent fashion.' 

"Why, a woman may pray in the church. Why, proph- 
esying is simply forthsaying your faith in Jesus and your 
love for Him, and exhorting others to come to Him; and 
Paul distinctly allows that women find tongue for praying 
and for prophesying in the meetings of the church. 

"Therefore I declare that the new prayer-meeting of 
Christian Endeavor is in exact accord with the old typical 
prayer-meeting of the New Testament, because it does give 
to women, and insists on giving to women, holy speech. 
These miserable padlocks on the gracious lips of women 
ought to be unlocked, and broken ofif, and flung away for- 

But, while all this is true, and while Christian Endeavor, 
along with other movements of the day, has done something 
to unlock the chains that bound the tongues and the activities 
of women, it is also true that it has never unsexed either sex, 
or sought to make them alike in all their activities. 
D _ There are some things that women will al- 

Koom o 

for All ways do better than men, and some forms of Chris- 
Every tiau work in which men will always excel. There 

is room for them all in the infinite variety of Chris- 
tian Endeavor service. At the convention rallies 
special meetings are often held for men and for women, when 
truths that each distinctively need to hear are forced home. 

Young Men and Maidens. 211 

But it yet remains true that in the great majority of the meet- 
ings and in far the largest part of the service the men and the 
women together can do the best work. This was never put in 
better form than by America's most-gifted and best-loved 
woman, Frances E. Willard, who at the Cleveland Christian 
Endeavor convention of 1894 spoke the eloquent words with 
which this chapter shall be concluded. 

"There is no competition between men and women — or 
there ought not to be. Whoever speaks of competition has 
breathed out a curse upon the race; whoever speaks of co- 
operation has breathed out a blessing. If one eye should say 
to the other eye, 'Let me do your seeing;' if one ear should 
say to the other ear, 'You can just shut up shop; I will look 
after your hearing;' if one foot should say to the other foot, 
'I will outdo you in a walking-match,' then might man say 
to woman, or woman to man, 'We will see which one will 
get ahead.' But God was before us in the matter; and in 
His blessed gospel — one of whose splendid object-lessons, one 
of whose brightest blossoming flowers, is this convention — 
He has taught us that 'there is neither male nor female in 
Christ Jesus.' 

"The old English law said, 'Husband and wife are one, 
and that one is the husband.' The modern unwise agitator 
says, 'Husband and wife are one, and that one is the wife.' 
Christian Endeavor, and the Woman's Christian Temper- 
ance Union, and the church of Christ, whose children we are, 
say, 'Husband and wife are one, and that one is — husband 
and wife.' And this is said because 'it is not good for man 
to be alone.' I believe the welcome of the power and pres- 
ence of women will be the touchstone of the survival of the 
fittest in the age that is soon to dawn. I believe that the in- 
stitution, the custom, the party, that cannot bear the clear day- 
light of a good woman's presence deserves to die and will 




" A boy is valuable now because he is a boy, in addition to 
the possibilities of manhood in the da3^s to come. Boys as boys, 
and girls as girls, are not only making a place for themselves, 
but are given their place in Christian Endeavor. The boys and 
girls of to-day, the Juniors, are the flower of Christian En- 
deavor and the trustees of the future of the movement." 

John Willis Baer. 

IN the afternoon of March 27, 1884, at the close of 
school hours a certain brick building in a certain 
Western town poured its usual noisy crowd of 
^^ happy, careless children into the streets. And 
yet not quite its usual crowd, for a few had re- 
mained behind, and with serious faces were gathering at that 
moment in one of the upper rooms with their teacher and the 
pastor and the Sunday-school superintendent of the church to 
which all but one of them belonged. There were eleven 
children present, and their ages ranged approximately from 
ten to fourteen. After preliminary devotions the pastor ex- 
plained to them why they had been asked to remain, and ended 
by reading the constitution of an organization which he pro- 
posed to form. ... It was indeed hardly expected that 
it would seem best to organize at all that day, but the children 
seemed fully ready for it. They listened with the most 
thoughtful attention to the explanations given, and seemed to 


The Junior Army. 


214 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

be deeply impressed with the responsibility of the step they 
were taking. But, when the vote was taken, and, for greater 
freedom of expression taken by ballot, every vote but one 
was for immediate organization, and, when the pledge was 

Some Junior Endeavorers of Harpoot, Turkey. 

passed from hand to hand, every name but one was promptly 

This is the story of the formation of the first 
Junior society as given by the pastor, the Rev. J. 
W. Cowan,* and it is the very same story in all 
essential particulars of humble, inconspicuous hu- 
man effort directed by the Spirit of God which had been en- 
acted some three years before in Portland, Me., when the first 
Endeavor society was formed. 

* In 1884 pastor of the church in Tabor, Iowa. 


Young Men and Maidens. 215 

The writer has some hesitation in declaring without 
qualification that this was absolutely the first Junior society 
of Christian Endeavor, since he has been seriously taken to 
task more than once for such an assertion by other claimants 
for this honor. It is undoubtedly true that several Junior 
societies were formed about the same time, one of them by 
Mrs. Slocum, a pastor's wife in the same State of Iowa, and 
one in Berkeley, Cal., by the Rev. Charles Savage. Indeed, 
the Junior idea was wrapped up in the very germ of Chris- 
tian Endeavor, and the first society might have been called a 
Junior society with almost as much propriety as a Young Peo- 
ple's society, for it had within its membership many boys and 
girls, who were at once set at work as vigorously and effi- 
ciently as their elders: 

Indeed, if the whole truth should be told, it should be 
said that the first Junior society preceded the first Young Peo- 
ple's society, and that its originator was the good lady to whom 
I, at least, owe more for Christian Endeavor suggestions and 
encouragement than to any other one. For before the second 
day of February, 1881, there had been formed in Williston 
Church a "Mizpah Circle" of boys and girls, whose chief ob- 
ject, to be sure, was to work for missions, but who did much 
besides for their own church as a handsome stained-glass win- 
dow in the Williston Church testifies to this day. These same 
^. ^ . . boys and girls had also been brought together in a 

The Origin , , fe & 

of the pastor s class with a pledge which reads m the same 

pVedge. "^^y i" which the pledge of almost every Junior 
society begins to-day. 

"Trusting in the Lord Jesus Christ for strength, I prom- 
ise Him that I will strive to do whatever He would like to 
have me do, that I will pray and read the Bible every day, 
and that, just so far as I know how, I will endeavor to lead 
a Christian life." 

In these classes children who had already, as they hoped, 
given their hearts to God, were fitted for church-member- 

2i6 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

ship ; and, when the first Endeavor society was formed, they 
were all ready, by reason of this instruction in the pastor's 
class and practical training in th^ Mizpah Circle, to enter 
actively upon their distinctive duties as Christian En- 

At that time it was felt that they could be trained with 
equal effectiveness in the same society with their older brothers 
and sisters. But, as that society and others grew larger, it 
was found that the boys and girls were overshadowed by the 
more experienced workers, and that in the general society they 
did not get the training that they should receive. 

Thus the credit for the formation of the first distinctively 
Junior society that survived the perils of infancy, to the best 
of my knowledge and belief, falls to the modest Iowa pastor 
whose simple story I have already quoted, and who has never 
claimed any special honor for himself. 

The spread of the Junior Society has been scarcely less 
remarkable than that of the Young People's Society, and the 
reason is the very same. It had life in it. Many an organiza- 
tion for children has been started under apparently more fa- 
vorable auspices. Other features of the Christian Endeavor 
movement itself have been proposed with much more appar- 
ent promise of success, but they have failed, because in some 
way they did not meet the need of the times, because they had 
not that marvellous something, often indefinable, which bi- 
ologists would call, perhaps, adaptation to their environment. 
They were not quite fitted to the life of the day. 

About the same time a titled Christian lady of lofty lin- 
eage, whose name ranks with the highest, started an organiza- 
tion on somewhat similar lines. It had apparently much 
more chance of success than that of the quiet Iowa pastor, for 
her name and that of her gifted and noble husband were be- 
hind the movement, and she had the wealth and opportunity 
to travel in many lands to tell of the society. But for some 

The Junior Army. 


reason, though a very admirable children's organization it 
has never accomplished what the Iowa idea has done; and 
some of the societies she has formed have been merged into 
the Junior Endeavor movement. 

There is only one way to account for the twenty thousand 

Chinese Christian Endeavor Juniors, Foochow, China. 

times multiplication of that first Junior society. God had a 
use for it, and it was adapted to the needs of the children. 

Before we leave the society of Tabor it is interesting to 
record that Raymond C. Brooks, the first signer of this first 
The Junior society, and the son of the president of Tabor 

f"'*"^.* College, graduated with honor from Yale Divinity 

Junior & ? fc) 

Endeavors. School, and has become an honored pastor on the 
Pacific coast, while all the living members of that first little 

2i8 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

band of ten, when last heard from, were doing honest, faithful 
Christian work. 

At the Twelfth International Convention, Mr. Brooks, 
then a theological student, responded to the address of wel- 
come at the Junior rally. His words were appropriate, and 
were heard with great interest, especially as he predicted in 
the following sentences what has become more and more true 
of the Junior Society from that day to this. 

"Within the Junior Society to-day are the future presi- 
dents and statesmen, the earnest preachers of the gospel mes- 

Some Spanish Christian Endeavor Juniors. 

sage, the consecrated missionaries of the cross, and those 
who shall make the homes that shall determine in great 
measure the character of the next generation. 

"Within this company you have welcomed to-day are 

The Junior Army 219 

those who represent in good measure the best of the manhood 
and womanhood of the next generation. Some will follow 
the cross of Christ into the utmost parts of the earth, and will 
live themselves the Christlike life before those who have not 
heard of Christ. Many more, it may be, will tell the story 
of Jesus, the Saviour of men, once again to those who are 
perishing in our own land. But perhaps the greatest com- 
pany of us, unnoticed by the world, in the humblest stations 
to which God may call us, will live that life of earnest con- 
secration and true Christian Endeavor which alone can pre- 
pare us for the greater privilege, the larger responsibilities, 
which God will call us to by and by. 

"Let that inspired and inspiring faith in God, and that 
consecrated courage which, we have learned in this conven- 
tion, is so characteristic of the young life never forsake us." 

^. But little need be said in this connection about 

1 he 

Progress the progress of the Junior movement. It has kept 
Junior pace with the growth of the older society, and in 

Movement. ^^^^ places, indeed, has outstripped it. Junior 
contingents are found to-day in almost every country where 
there are older Endeavorers. Indeed, the Junior society often 
paves the way for the young people's organization; and, as 
the Juniors grow older, they naturally graduate into the young 
people's society, and make the very best Christian Endeavor- 
ers. A modern church is scarcely felt to be well equipped 
to-day that has not a Junior society, or something correspond- 
ing to it, for the training of the boys and girls. 

At the convention in Baltimore, in 1905, an Interna- 
tional Junior and Intermediate Union was formed, with the 
Rev. George F. Kenngott, of Lowell, Mass., for president, and 
Miss Kate H. Haus, of St. Louis, another eminent Junior 
worker, for secretary. This Union will, doubtless, largely 
promote the growth and discipline of the Junior army. The 
Mothers' Societies may be made a great and increasing power 
for good in connection with the Junior Societies. The writer 

220 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

hopes to live to see this branch of the society greatly enlarged, 
and the Junior movement vastly strengthened thereby. 

The Junior rallies at the great conventions in England and 
America and Australia are often the most intensely interest- 
ing of all the meetings, and attract the largest throngs; for the 
Junior movement has not only won the children, but has been 
equally efifective in interesting the parents and in training a 
great host of superintendents, tens of thousands of them, who 
in all parts of the world are learning Christian truth and 
developing Christian character in that best of all schools, the 
teacher's school. For there is no more efficient, consecrated, 
and resourceful body of Christian Endeavorers, take them all 
in all, than the Junior superintendents. What the Juniors 
have found to do and actually are doing will be told in later 

The fundamental idea to be borne In mind in a 
Training= Junior socicty is that it is a training-school. The 
fdea^' most common mistake is that of making it merely 

a teaching-school. It is not a second primary Sun- 
day-school class. Most churches have one. There is no need 
of another. The primary Sunday-school is doing its work 
for the most part effectively and well. But there is need in 
all our churches of another school, where children shall learn 
to work by working. This, after all, is the fundamental truth 
of Christian Endeavor, whether Junior or Senior. The 
painter can learn to paint a picture only by taking brush and 
colors and palette in hand, and making, at first, perhaps, un- 
sightly daubs. He can never be an artist merely by reading 
books of art, or by studying its technique, unless he puts brush 
to canvas. The carpenter cannot become skilful by reading 
the best treatises on architecture or house-building. He must 
take into his own hands the hammer and nails, the chisel and 
plane; and, though he may be awkward and blundering in his 
first attempts, there is absolutely no other way of learning his 

The Junior Army. 


trade. He must have instruction, to be sure; but instruction 
without practice is even less effective than practice without 

So it is in religious work. The law is as inevitable in 
the church as in the machine-shop, in the prayer-meeting and 
missionary society as in the artist's studio. The only way to 
learn to work is to go to work. The Rev. J. F. Cowan, D.D., 
in an admirable address at the Montreal Christian Endeavor 

Bridge Built by Juniors at Melbourne Convention, 1904. 

convention well applied this thought to Junior Endeavor soci- 
eties when in the course of his address on the subject he said: 

''Were you not asking the professor of music the other 
day at what age he would prefer to begin with his pupil on 
the piano? And what did he say? At eighteen or twenty- 
five? By no means. He said, Tf my pupil is to be really a 
fine pianist, I must begin with him while he is yet a child — 
about as soon, in fact, as he is able to sit on a piano-stool.' 
And are the spiritual muscles and tendons so much less sus- 
ceptible than the physical, and so much less swiftly develop- 
ing into form and permanency that they can be neglected 

222 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

through all the plastic years of childhood, and no priceless 
advantage be lost? Before the child sings he thinks. Long 
before he begins to ask about chords and melodies he begins 
to question about God. The religious nature is often ripe 
while as yet the body is in all the greenness and callowness 
of unformed youth. Train the muscles later on if you will. 
But, if you would train the soul, you must take it at the start. 
And, since the grand aim of Christian Endeavor is to train 
Christian workers, it seems to me that the grand mission ot 
Christian Endeavor is to the children."* 

^j^^^ Who can estimate the blessings that have come 

They to children from an early acquaintance with Christ, 

Saved and an early effort to serve Him? It is not always 

'^*""* what the boys and girls accomplish, but also the ex- 

periences of sin and sorrow from which they are saved, that 
counts. This was well put by a convention speakert who said : 

"An old sailor once told me that he never knew a boy 
to get washed overboard at sea. A heavy man might, for a 
man weighs so much that, if he catches hold of a rope, he 
cannot sustain his own weight as a boy can. A boy is light 
and wiry, and tenacious if he gets hold. Simply because he 
is a boy he can keep hold. He has less to sustain. So it is 
with the boy who by faith lays hold on Jesus; he has not the 
weight of so many habits and thoughts to drag him down. 
This is the work we want to do among the Juniors. There 
is a redemptive work, but we emphasize to-day the preventive 
work. There is a work of reformation, but formation is bet- 
ter. We want every little Junior to some day thank God, 
like David, for what he has been kept f rom."t 

This same speaker in the same address admirably ex- 
pressed the Junior idea when he said: 

"If I were asked to compress the most significant thing 
I know about Junior societies into a word, it would be this: 

* From the official report of the Twelfth International Christian Endeavor 

t Rev. James L. Hill, D.D., at the Thirteenth International Convention. 

The Junior Army. 


Let the Juniors do the work in their own society. Do not 
lecture them. Let the organization be an autonomy. Let 
the chairman read reports which their mothers can help them 
write. Let them feel a personal responsibility, like the little 
girl who came to the leader after the meeting and said, 'Two 
girls got my chance, and I almost didn't say my verse.' Cul- 
tivate such a spirit of esprit de corps that all will feel it a 
privilege to belong to such a society.* 

Representing the Growth of the Christian Endeavor Movement in China. 

As we see the Junior army in every land 
marching with bright banners and brighter faces; 
as we see them in their conventions, greeted with 
the applause of ten thousand spectators, to whose 
eyes their promise of future victory brings tears 
of joy; above all, as. we think of them in their score of thou- 





of the 


* Rev. James L. Hill, D.D., at the Thirteenth International Convention. 

224 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

sand of little societies in every land beneath the sun, quietly, 
unostentatiously, ploddingly, doing their little best, learning 
to pray, to work, to give ; learning to be obedient and reverent, 
and gentle and kind, we can echo the earnest words that were 
spoken at a Scotch convention by one of the earliest friends* 
of the Junior movement when she said: 

*'An old Roman warrior dreamed that he saw an army 
of veterans, who shouted as they marched past, 'We have 
been brave!' Behind them came the present strong stalwarts, 
who were fighting the battles of Rome, and they shouted, 
*We are brave!' Then came troops of young men, who said, 
'We will be brave!' The old warrior awoke from his dream, 
exclaiming, 'There's hope for Rome yet!' And, as we see 
the grand army of Junior Endeavorers learning lessons of 
truth and purity, growing familiar with their Bibles, learn- 
ing to delight in goodness for its own sake, putting their 
brightness and hopefulness into loving deeds and kindly 
words, we, too, can say in a far truer and higher sense, 
'There's hope for the world yet;' and the far-reaching in- 
fluence of the young members of more than thirteen thou- 
sandt Junior societies scattered over the world promises great 
things for the future of our great human family. It prom- 
ises to elevate and purify our political, social, and commer- 
cial life, our industrial and professional life, and, beyond 
and above all, to stir up and brighten our church life." 

* Mrs. A. W. Potts, of Crewe (whose husband formed the first British so- 
ciety), speaking at the British National Convention, Glasgow, 1898. 
t This number, at this writing, is nearly doubled. 




" The Christian Endeavor is a good object-lesson as to the 
value of giving adolescents untrammelled opportunity to serve 
God and perform religious duty. The Christian Endeavor 
movement is a great witness to the fact that religion without 
particular denominational creeds meets the needs of young peo- 
ple. If the religious emotions are thus cultivated until estab- 
lished, the particular forms will adjust themselves with little 
harm to the individual." Prof. E. G. Lancaster, Ph.D., 

in " The Religious Tendency of Adolescents to Dogma." 

7URING the last quarter of a century attention has 
been turned to the study of the child mind as 
never before. It has been sounded with all sorts 
of philosophic plummets, to discover its hidden 
depths. Ponderous tomes and many of them 
have been written on the subject, some of them profoundly 
suggestive and of great value. Especially have the phe- 
nomena of adolescence been studied until it has seemed to many 
that undue emphasis has been put upon the merely physical 
side. A reaction from this over-emphasis is seen in some 
quarters, but it is undoubtedly true that great benefits have 
come from the clear recognition, on the psychological side, of 
the immense importance of this period of life. 

One of the most eminent of the students of the child mind 
says : 

15 225 

226 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

"During the next three or four years (after the age of 
twelve) there is to come a transformation of the mental as 
well as of the physical organism, more profound than any 
other between birth and death. New kinds of sensations and 
emotions, new modes of thought, new attitudes of will, new 
problems of duty, new kinds of temptation, new mysteries of 
religion, all these come in a flood over the young adolescent. 
. . . If there be a heavenly Father who yearns for fellow- 
ship with His children, what more effective method could 
there be of satisfying that yearning than to attach to adoles- 
cence an appetite for the Infinite, the infinitely true, beauti- 
ful, and good? As a matter of fact such an appetite for the 
Infinite is just the most characteristic part of mental adoles- 
cence." * 

The truth of this statement is amply borne out in the bi- 
ography of Christian men who relate the experience of their 
conversion or their earliest interest in religious things. 

"I have during the last year," once wrote the Rev. Charles 
H. Spurgeon, "received forty or fifty children into church- 
membership ; among those I have had at any time to exclude 
from the church, out of a church of 2,700 members I have 
never had to exclude a single one who was received while yet 
a child." 

On two separate occasions I have made a canvass of some 
of the best-known Christian men of America, ministers and 
laymen, in order to determine how many of them dated their 
religious experience in their early years, and also 
Age of to find their opinion in regard to the expediency of 
' ' * church-membership for the young. The questions 

asked were : ( i ) "At what age did you become a Christian?" 
(2) "At what age did you make a public confession of 
Christ?" (3) "Does your personal opinion incline you to the 
belief that it is well for children about the age of twelve years 
to make a public confession of Christ by uniting with His 

* Coe, " The Spiritual Life." 

The Junior Army. 


Such men as the late Dr. John Hall, Dr. Abbott E. Kit- \ 
tredge, ex-President Warren of Boston University, President 
Angell of Michigan University, Dr. A. J. Gordon, Dr. Wash- 
ington Gladden, the Hon. S. B. Capen, and others of like 
standing and the greatest usefulness in the Christian church, 
responded. Almost without exception they replied that they 
became Christians very early in life; most of them joined the 
church before they were seventeen years of age; and all em- 
phatically advised the admission of children to the church 
at the age of twelve, or even earlier, if they gave evidence of 
being truly Christ's disciples. "There are risks attending this 
early membership," wrote Dr. Gladden, "but the risks of per- 
mitting children to go away from the church are far greater."* 

President C. F. Thwing, of Western Reserve University, 
once addressed a letter, similar to the one I have referred to, 
to a picked company of conspicuously useful Christian men. 
They were the corporate members of 
the American Board of Commissioners 
for Foreign Missions. Of the one 
hundred and forty-nine who replied, 
every one was a tower of strength in 
later life in some church of Christ. 
Nine-tenths of them believed that they 
experienced conversion before they 
were twenty, while only fourteen were 
more than twenty. All but thirty had 
joined the church before they were 
twenty. Twenty-nine declared that 
they became Christians when "very 

young," or so young that they did not remember when they 
were not Christians. Twenty-one others were younger than 
twelve when they intelligently made the great decision, and 

German Boy Who Formed 
a Society in a Grammar 

* These testimonies and others are given at length in the author's book 
entitled " Training the Church of the Future." 

228 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

one hundred and five of the one hundred and forty-nine made 
it before they were eighteen years of age. 

These practical investigations in w^hat may be called bio- 
graphical psychology were made, and this information was 
gathered, before the first Endeavor society was formed, and 
it was the startling truths here revealed that called for the 
practical efforts in Christian nurture which later took the 
name of "Christian Endeavor." 

Says Dr. E. D. Starbuck: "Conversion does 
starbuck's ^^^ occur with the same frequency at all periods of 
striking jjfg_ jj- belongs almost exclusively to the years be- 

Testimony. =• . 

tween ten and twenty-five. The number of in- 
stances outside that range appear few and scattered. That is, 
conversion is a distinctively adolescent phenomenon. It is a 
singular fact, also, that within this period the conversions do 
not distribute themselves equally among the years. In the 
rough we may say they begin to occur at seven or eight years, 
and increase in numbers gradually to ten or eleven, and then 
rapidly to sixteen ; rapidly decline to twenty, and gradually 
fall away after that, and become rare at thirty. One may say 
that if conversion has not occurred before twenty the chances 
are small that it will ever be experienced."* 

This conclusion of the psychologist has been abundantly 
confirmed in many a Christian Endeavor convention, where, 
for the sake of showing the possibility and importance of early 
conversion and early religious training, those who were con- 
verted before twelve and after twenty had been asked to rise. 
In audiences of thousands only a scattering few have re- 
sponded to this request. But when those converted between 
twelve and twenty have been asked to indicate it, almost the 
whole audience has risen to its feet. 

The Christian Endeavor Society may also fairly claim 
from the beginning to have put into practical operation the 

* Starbuck, '' The Psychology of Religion." 

The Society and the Psychologist. 229 

psychologist's dictum already quoted, "No impression with- 
out expression." Long before psychology was studied except 
by the learned few, long before it had become a fad in certain 
quarters, the Society attempted to put into practice its latest 
philosophy, and recognized the vital importance of religious 
activity to supplement and round out religious instruction. 

"The cure for helplessness that comes with storm and 
stress in the period of adolescence," says Professor Starbuck, 
"is often found in inducing wholesome activity. 'Faith with- 
out works is dead.' Let us call to mind the fact that storm 
and stress and doubt are experienced sometime during youth 
by something like seventy per cent of all the persons studied. 
On the other hand, heightened activity, which is characterized 
not only by interest in religious matters, but by engaging in 
actual religious work, was experienced by only about twenty 
per cent of all these persons. This is doubtless very much 
out of proportion. Many persons have found the solution 
of their difficulties by actually setting about doing things." 

This is exactly what the Christian Endeavor Society seeks 
to do for every one of its members. It sets them about doing 
things, and thus tides them over the critical period of adoles- 
cence, the years of storm and stress and doubt. 

Professor Coe confirms Professor Starbuck in prescribing 
the same treatment for those who are distressed by doubts and 

"The youth should by all means be induced to 
Religious be active in those forms of religious living that still 
aCure?' appeal to him at all. . . . Religious activity 
and religious comforts may abide at the same time 
that the intellect is uncertain how this fits into any logical 
structure. Thus it comes to pass that the greatest thing we 
can do for the doubting youth is to induce him to give free 
exercise to the religious instinct. Let him not say what he 
does not actually believe; let him not compromise himself 

* Starbuck, " The Psychology of Religion." 

230 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

in any way; but it is always certain that he still believes and 
feels and aspires enough to give him a place among religious 

It is just this normal, healthy, necessary activity, which 
the scientific psychologist recognizes as so important in the 
period of adolescence, that the Young People's Society of 
Christian Endeavor and the Junior Society attempt to supply. 
The philosophy of its success, so far as the Society has been 
successful, is that it fits the need of the young soul. The 




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Junior Christian Endeavor Music Band, Konigsberg, Germany. 

author may perhaps be pardoned for quoting here a few para- 
graphs from an earlier work, written nearly twenty years ago, 
before much was popularly said about scientific psychology, 
but which shows the principles upon which the Society went 
to work in its earliest days. 

"The cord that draws the young soul upward toward God 
is a threefold strand. He must know what Christ's will is 

t Coe, " The Spiritual Life." 

The Society and the Psychologist. 231 

through the instruction of parents and Christian teachers; he 
must publicly acknowledge that Christ's will is his will; and 
then he must do that will. Instruction, confession, activity — 
these three elements entering into the young life, when pre- 
ceded by a complete heart-surrender, cannot fail to develop 
the strong man, 'complete in Him.' 

'*It is just as unreasonable to expect the child to grow 
strong of muscle and supple of limb while strapped to a bed 
and never allowed to rise and run about, as to expect the young 
disciple to grow 'strong in the Lord' while never exercising 
his spiritual faculties. 

„ . "The instruction of the pulpit and Sunday- 

Exercise . r r J 

a school may well be likened to the food provided at 

the family table. It is, very likely, abundant in 
quantity and nutritious in quality, but food without exercise in 
the family circle makes the sickly, dyspeptic child. Food 
without exercise in the church is too apt to produce no better 

"Even the horses in our stables cannot long live without 
exercise. Fill their cribs ever so full of the best feed, they 
must yet do something to keep healthy. This is a natural law, 
which is imperative in the spiritual world. There are a great 
many dyspeptic Christians in all our churches. They are bil- 
ious and disappointed and hopeless and useless, except as they 
become by their continual growling and faultfinding a means 
of grace in the form of chastisement, to the pastor and other 
workers. In fact, they have all the symptoms of spiritual dys- 
pepsia. Now the only remedy is spiritual activity. 'Go to 
work,' said the famous English doctor to his rich, dyspeptic 
patient, 'go to work. Live on sixpence a day, and earn it.^ "* 

Professor G. Stanley Hall in his monumental work on 
"Adolescence" speaks of the Christian Endeavor Society as 
practically "the first of a new type of religious organization 

* Clark, " Young People's Prayer-Meetingfs." 

232 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

for both sexes." He then goes on to criticise the Society at 
some length, especially the pledge. Here is one paragraph 
that apparently gives the gist of his objection to the Society. 

"To do such things (the duties enjoined in the 
Dr. Hall's pledge) because they have been vowed is to act 
Criticism. fj-Qjyj a relatively low motive. This obscures 
higher motives, and robs these acts of the spontaneity that is 
half their charm and all their virtue. ... As I have 
observed the working of the Junior pledge, it seems some- 
times a cheap and easy and almost cowardly trick to ease 
the conscience of parent or religious teacher by devolving 
on the child what they should do themselves by higher but 
harder motives; and the smug complacency of adults at hav- 
ing secured and counted these pledges as if they had thereby 
discharged in any sense their duty seems a pious delusion that 
veils a partial abdication of the highest functions of parent- 
hood. For the young child it is giving his religious life and 
nurture precociously over into his own keeping at the very 
age when he most of all needs constant adult aid, and is least 
able to assume responsibility for the keeping of his own 

The distinguished author seems to the writer, at least. In 
these criticisms to underestimate several important considera- 
tions. In the first place, probably not one-half of the members 
of Christian Endeavor societies are from distinctively Chris- 
tian homes, and of the other half fully one-half more of the 
parents would in any event give but little attention to the re- 
ligious training of the children. We must take things as we 
find them, seeking to make them better, to be sure, but not 
ignoring the plain facts of the case; and these facts are that, 
whether there were any Christian Endeavor societies or not, 
three-fourths of the children and youth who are influenced by 
them to-day would receive little or no religious training at 

* Hall, " Adolescence." 

The Society and the Psychologist. 233 

This same objection has been raised against the Sunday- 
school, and more than once; but where would millions of 
children to-day receive instruction in the Bible, were it not 
for the Sunday-schools? 

Moreover, the "constant adult aid," for which President 
Hall pleads at this critical period, is the very thing that is 
given to the Juniors, usually in the wisest and most effective 
way, by their superintendents. 

The other objection, that these religious duties are per- 
formed because of the pledge, "a relatively low motive," 
while the higher motives are "obscured," is contradicted by 
the practical testimony of tens of thousands of Endeavorers 
that the lower motive has led to the higher; that, beginning 
from a sense of duty, and in part because they had promised 
themselves and God to read the Bible, and to pray, and to 
acknowledge Him before men, they had gone on to a larger 
conception of the privilege of these duties, and to a greater 
and greater delight in them. So far from the pledge "ob- 
scuring" the highest motives, and rubbing "some of the bloom 
oflf of these solemn exercises," these higher motives have been 
revealed and these more exalted experiences reached only 
through the performance of what was at first a task and a 

Such testimonies have come not occasionally, or as the 
result of some unusual experience, but over and over and over 
again have they been given in prayer-meetings and conven- 
tions, in frequent conversations and in letters sent to the au- 
thor, which he cherishes as among the most delightful 
expressions that have come to him during all these years in 
regard to the value of the Christian Endeavor. 
„, , Dr. Hall does not seem to remember that these 


All pledges are taken voluntarily, and except in rare in- 

un ary. g|-^j^^.gg without any undue pressure. They are 

taken because the young soul feels the need of them himself, 

234 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

and because the experience of others shows that he will be 
helped by them. The author of "Adolescence" also appa- 
rently leaves out of consideration altogether the fact that these 
promises are made not to the society or to the church, but 
primarily to God. It is a contract with Jehovah as much as 
the Jewish dispensation, and is more properly called a cove- 
nant than a pledge. "Society and business rest upon trust and 
confidence and the fulfilment of promised obligations," he 
says. But these obligations are usually put in writing, for 
every deed and promissory note and check is a financial pledge. 
Every marriage is solemnized by a vow as serious and binding 
as words can make it, and church-membership is accompanied 
by a covenant which is as solemn and far more comprehensive 
even than the Christian Endeavor pledge. 

What Dr. Hall calls, not very graciously, "the religious- 
oath craze" he applies to the "Comrades of the Quiet Hour," 
the "Tenth Legion" and "the Home Circle," outgrowths of 
the Christian Endeavor movement which have been adopted 
by many thousands of the strongest men and women in our 
churches, pastors of experience, laymen of influence and honor, 
and not by "girly boys," for whom the author seems to have, 
and rightly, a special contempt. If I read Dr. Hall's con- 
clusions aright, he would seem to substitute such an organiza- 
tion as he describes in the following paragraph for the Chris- 
tian Endeavor and other similar societies. 

" Satur= "Every adolescent boy ought to belong to some 

Ucen'se" ^^^^ ^r society marked by as much secrecy as is 
and compatible with safety. Something esoteric, mys- 

cMsSr terious, a symbolic badge, countersign, a lodge and 
Instinct." its equipment, and perhaps other things owned in 
common, give a real basis for comradeship. This permits, 
too, the abandon of freedom in its yeasty stage, which is an- 
other deep phyletic factor of the social instinct. Innocent 
rioting, revelling with much saturnalian license, vents the 

The Society and the Psychologist. 235 

anarchistic instincts in ways least injurious to the community, 
and makes docility and subordination more easy and natural 
in their turn. Provision of time and place for barbarisms or 
idiotic nonsense without adult restraint helps youth to pass 
naturally through this larval stage of candidacy to humanity." 

We doubt whether most practical Christian workers 
among children, the most intelligent and well versed in 
psychology of them all, would deem it best to cultivate "the 
deep phyletic factor of the social instinct" with "much satur- 

Christian Endeavor Juniors in Bebek, Turkey. 

nalian license," or whether they would think that the "an- 
archistic instincts" and "barbarisms" need provision of time 
and place especially provided for them, in the church, at 


No one has a greater respect for the immense research 
and learning of the eminent author above quoted; but he does 
not seem to provide for the religious instincts of the child, 
which are quite as important as the "anarchistic instincts." 

After all, in such matters experience has some right to be 
heard. The Christian Endeavor movement is not a fledgeling 

236 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

of a year. It has passed its majority and outlived its callow 
youth, and the diseases of infancy. It is not a local 

Experience -^ . 

has a movement adapted to some particular sect or race. 

fo^bl It cannot be called a "fad," nor are its organiza- 

Heard. ^-^j^g managed by simpletons or religious freaks. 

The outcome and results of its work in all lands should be 
allowed by psychologists, as well as by practical Christian 
workers, to have weight. 

The homely old proverb applies to religious organiza- 
tions as well as to gastronomies, "the proof of the pudding is 
1 in the eating." The proof of the Young People's Society is 
I in what it does. The proof of the covenant is in the results 
^ that it accomplishes. From all parts of the world the testi- 
mony is practically unanimous that the Christian Endeavor 
covenant does not develop a forced and constrained piety, that 
it does not "obscure higher motives" or "rob religious acts of 
spontaneity." Young people's societies of former generations 
have failed largely because of the lack of some such simple, 
definite, openly expressed determination and promise to do the 
ordinary duties of the Christian life. 

Not only from cultured churches in America and Great 
Britain, but from the jungles of India, from the few and scat- 
tered Christians on the banks of the Ningpo, who have just 
come out into the light of the gospel, from philosophic Ger- 
many, from practical Australia, from people of every race and 
color, has come the concurrent testimony, "A promise to do 
my duty is a help to duty-doing." "The covenant that I 
voluntarily make with God helps me to help my fellow men." 
The largest practical activities; work for seamen and 
soldiers, for prisoners and for slum dwellers; fresh-air enter- 
prises and practical philanthropies of all kinds, have been 
fostered, and greatly increased, as succeeding chapters will 
show, by "the society of the covenant," the society whose mem- 

The Society and the Psychologist. 237 

bers promise to do what they think Jesus would like to have 
them do. 

They have not expended their energies in empty vapor- 
ings; they have not developed the glib and precocious type of 
unpleasant young saints which some have feared, but have 
developed into strong, efficient, practical, every-day Chris- 
tian men and women, whose purpose is to put their religion 
first, and who have apparently not been harmed by not having 
a society provided, in the church, at least, for "innocent riot- 
ing and revelling with much saturnalian license," for venting 
of "barbarisms" or "idiotic nonsense." If by these somewhat 
lurid expressions Dr. Hall simply means that children should 
have opportunity to give free play to their animal spirits, to 
"let off steam," to be children while they are children, every 
one will agree with him. Indeed, this very element of child 
nature is often provided for in Junior sociables and romps and 
excursions; but does any one seriously believe that the average 
child, especially in America, will not find or make opportuni- 
ties for the healthful development of these instincts? Is there 
any danger that he will not let ofif sufficient steam? We cer- 
tainly do not want him to sow wild oats "with saturnalian 
license," for, if any idea has been thoroughly exploded, it is 
that men and women are better in their age for being bad in 
their youth. 

Child Nor must it be forgotten, as it often seems to be, 

?*^^Vh^ that there is a genuine craving on the part of the 
Religious normal, healthy child for religious life and religious 
exercises. If psychology has made anything plain, 
it is this most important truth. But, if it had never been con- 
firmed scientifically, the experience, I venture to say, of my 
readers is that one of the deepest yearnings of their hearts when 
young was for God and for heavenly things. The distrac- 
tions of later life, the influence of evil companions, may have 
obscured and befogged this longing until it has almost been 

238 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

forgotten; but that it was a genuine and real thing few will 

In the fascinating life of Lord Randolph Churchill, Eng- 
land's great but erratic statesman, recently written by his son, 
the Hon. Winston Churchill, we are told that there was a boy 
at Eton when Lord Randolph was there, who used to read the 
Bible and pray with a little coterie. "Churchill was one of 
the band, and I can see him now," says a schoolboy friend, 
"kneeling by the bed with his face in his hands resting on the 
white coverlet, leading us in fervent prayer." Who will say 
that that was not as natural and normal a thing for young 
Churchill as a football game or a cricket match? 

Just here it may be well to refer to the all too prevalent 
idea that compulsion in early life makes religious duties irk- 
some in later life. Once in a while this may be true, but the 
danger is infinitely greater on the other side, that laxness in 
early life will lead almost certainly to indifference and care- 
lessness in later years. Especially if the compulsion to per- 
form religious duties is self-imposed, as in the Christian En- 
deavor Society, how infinitesimal is the danger of a disastrous 
reaction! Even if imposed from outside by parents or teach- 
ers, the danger is but very small, as all experience shows. 

The writer once made some inquiries of the leading Chris- 
tian business men in Portland, Me., relating to early church- 
going and its effect upon their later life.* My questions were 
^^g as follows : 

Effect of "Dear Sir:— 

Early ^t-n • • • <■ 1 1 i- • 

Church= Desirmg to learn if the present declme m 

°'"^' church attendance, so often complained of, is a reac- 

tion from Puritanical strictness in the past, as is frequently 
alleged, or is due to laxity of parental authority, will you be 
so kind at to tell me 

* The results of this investigation were published at length in the author's 
first book on Christian Endeavor, " The Children and the Church." 

The Society and the Psychologist. 239 

"i. Whether in early life you were required to attend 
church regularly? 

"2. If so, did such compulsion render churchgoing irk- 
some or repulsive to you? 
*'Any other facts from personal experience or from 
that of others bearing upon this point will be 
gratefully received." 

Of the 50 persons to whom I sent these questions, 45 
replied. They represented different denominations, and em- 
braced a large proportion of the most prominent men in the 
churches. Of these 45, three were not required to go to 
church when young, and 42 were. Of these three who were 
not required to go, two went of their own accord. Two 
others of my correspondents make a distinction between being 
required to go and being solemnly and earnestly urged to go, 
that is, between physical and moral compulsion. But that 
kind of compulsion came within the intent of my inquiry. 
Where it is the regularly expected thing for children to at- 
tend church, as much as to attend school, that is the best kind 
of compulsion. 

Of those 45, then, from whom I received answers, 42 
were required to go to church as children, two were not re- 
quired to go, but nevertheless went. Forty-two did not con- 
sider churchgoing irksome or repulsive, one did consider it 
irksome, but not repulsive; one considered it irksome, but not 
because of the compulsion, and one did not go, and so, of 
course, did not find church-attendance repulsive. 

Thus the testimony of these forty- five representative 
Christian men, obtained without collusion or knowledge as 
to the use to which their testimony would be put, almost with 
unanimity tells that their early training required church-at- 
tendance, and that such attendance did not drive them away 
from church, even for a time. 

In view of these facts, what becomes of the threadbare 

240 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

and sickly objection, "I am afraid to require any religious 
duties of my child lest he acquire a distaste for them"? Just 
exactly as sensible would it be to say, "I am afraid to require 
any ablutions of my child lest he acquire a distaste for a clean 

Now what do these statistics show us in regard to the 
probable efifect of churchgoing upon boys and girls of to-day? 

So far as this testimony goes, we learn that the chances 
that the boys and girls of the present generation will become 
eminent and useful Christians are as 44 to i in favor of those 
who attend church, as 42 to 3 in favor of those who are re- 
quired to attend, and the chances that they will be repelled 
and disgusted by such requirement are only as i to 45. 

Or, to put the matter in still another way, so far as these 
testimonies prove anything, they prove that, of those who be- 
come particularly eminent and useful in the church In mature 
life, nearly 98 per cent went to church regularly as boys, 94 
per cent were required to go, and 96 per cent were not repelled 
from church even for a little while by such requirement. 



" There are only three sentences in our Christian Endeavor 
pledge. There are only 178 words, and five-sevenths of these 
are words of only one syllable. When before in the world's 
history have three sentences gone so far, traversed the globe so 
quickly, penetrated into so many lands, and influenced so many 
lives? So mighty are they that it is worth while to study 
their power ; so helpful are they that it is worth while to fasten 
them into our minds." Prof. Amos R. Wells. 

NDER almost every figure of speech has the 
Christian Endeavor covenant pledge been de- 
scribed. It has been called the "backbone" of 
Christian Endeavor, the "sheet-anchor" of Chris- 
tian Endeavor, the Christian Endeavor "Magna 
Charta," the Christian Endeavor "tonic," and I do not know- 
by how many other forceful and suggestive names. 

These many titles show from how many points of view it 
has been regarded, and it is doubtless true that it has had a 
greater influence upon the movement in all parts of the world 
than any other one feature. It has also aroused greater oppo- 
sition than any other feature, but this is entirely natural, for 
the citadel is always the target for the enemy's fire. 

The most serious of these objections have been inciden- 
tally considered in the last chapter. Many others are entirelv 
puerile and childish, like the objection of the young lady in the 
16 241 

242 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

early days of the Society that the pledge would always pre- 
vent her from going away on a summer vacation, since she 
could not attend and take part in every meeting unless she 
stayed at home every week of the year. 

Other objections were as amusing as they were absurd, 
like that of the brother in Australia who objected to it on the 
ground that it was unscriptural, and went on to prove the 
somewhat astonishing statement by saying that the Bible said 
that there was silence in heaven by the space of half an hour, 
whereas the Christian Endeavor pledge did not provide for 
any silence in a Christian Endeavor meeting. This gentle- 
man was answered by a young man who remembered Solo- 
mon's injunction to "answer a fool according to his folly," and 
who very quietly remarked that doubtless the angels in heaven 
had an excuse which they could conscientiously give to the 
Master for their silence, and this excuse was specifically ad- 
mitted to be a good one in the very heart of the pledge. 
Moreover, he went on to say, "As half an hour is to eternity, 
so the silence allowed in the young people's prayer meeting 
should be to the whole hour devoted to the meeting." 

Most of the objections, however, were neither 
and^^*"*"^ frivolous nor foolish ; but they were often the result 
Misappre= of misapprehension of the real meaning: and pur- 

hensions. ^ "^ or 

pose of the covenant. One of these misapprehen- 
sions is that it is a mere pledge, the covenant idea being 
forgotten. It would have been much better, had it been 
called a "covenant" from the beginning, for it is not a nega- 
tive promise to abstain from something harmful, like the tem- 
perance or anti-profanity pledge; it is a positive agreement 
with Christ, the Master, in whom we trust for strength. A 
pledge may have but one side ; a covenant must have two sides, 
and two parties in agreement. The Christ in whom we trust 
furnishes the strength; we promise obedience. "Trusting in 
the Lord Jesus Christ for strength, I promise Him." This 

The Christian Endeavor Covenant. 


covenant is that which has differentiated the Society in a large 
measure from previous attempts to train the young people for 
Christ. This has made the Christian Endeavor prayer-meet- 

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"iBcrtraucn auf fetnc ^raft: 

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ber id^ angel^ore, nadj Krdften 3U unterftii^en unb ifjre 
rccjelinagigen (Sottesbicnftc 3U befudjen. 

Jpa% id? als aftices ITTitglicb meinc ppic^ten gegen 
- ben Terein getciffenl^aft erfiiUen roiU. 

lpa% id? in ben (Sebetscerfammlungcn bis Dercins 
iinmer anipefenb fcin unb an bcnfelben nid?t nur burd? 
<5efang, fonbcm c^ud? in anbcrer IDeife tljdtigcn Jlnteil 
ncliimen w\U. 

I^ag mid? nur fold?e (Sriinbe non bem Befuc^e ber 
regelmdgigcn (Sottcsbienftc unb ben (Sebetsperfammlungen 
bes •J^ercins abl^alten fonncn', bie id? por mcinem f^errn 
unb nieiffer mit gutem (Setpiffen reranttrorten fann. 

>§oUte id? bei einer monatIid?cn Konfefrations=Der» 
fommlung burd?aus nid?t attroefenb fein fonncn, fo njill 
id?, roenn irgenb "moglid?, einen Sprud? l^eiliger Sd?rift 
einfenben, ber beim ilufruf meines 21amcns oerlefen 
roerbcn foil. 

SRome: _ _ 


Facsimile of a Christian Endeavor Pledge in German. 

ings distinct in their type and in their results from former 
young people's meetings. 

Objections would often be dispelled, too, if it were always 
borne in mind that the covenant is entirely a voluntary one, 

244 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

assumed usually without any undue urging, after a full con- 
sideration of its weight and meaning. So far as its specific 
obligations relating to the society are concerned, which are the 
only ones ever objected to, they may be terminated at the will 
of the member. When other duties press upon him, when 
cares of family and church make it impossible for him longer 
to perform the duties of an active member, he can withdraw 
without incurring any reproach from his own conscience or 
from others, for the only lifelong part of the pledge is that 
involved in the very essence of the Christian life, to strive to 
do what Christ would like to have us do. 

The provision so plainly stated and twice repeated in the 
covenant is also sometimes forgotten. These promises are 
made with the proviso that we have no reasonable excuse for 
not performing them that we can give to the Master. This 
is just as important and forceful as any other clause in the 
pledge; and was meant to provide, and does provide, all neces- 
sary and reasonable relief from its requirements when in spe- 
cific instances they cannot be fulfilled. ''This leaves one's 
religious duties," it has been said, "where they ought to be left, 
a personal matter between one's self and one's Saviour." It 
brings everything to the touchstone of conscience; it leads the 
young Christian to ask, 'What would Jesus have me do?" 
It afifords a constant and much-needed stimulus for the con- 
science, and in it will be found no word or suggestion that is 
unreasonable or freakish. 

The covenant has thus been analyzed: 

''First, I will read the Bible. 
''Second, I will pray. 
"Third, I will support my own church. 
"Fourth, I will attend the weekly prayer-meeting 
of the society. 

^^Fifth, I will take some part in it, aside from singing. 

The Christian Endeavor Covenant. 245 

^^Sixth, I will perform a special duty at the consecra- 
tion-meeting if obliged to be absent."* 

Each one of these promises has a reason and a special 
reason. No one of them is an unnecessary or an arbitrary vow. 
Each one has its purpose and important design, and, as ex- 
perience has proved, has been successful in accomplishing its 

This whole matter has been put in a forceful and pithy 
way as follows : 

^^^ "Don't believe in daily prayer and Bible-reading? 

Analysis "Don't bclieve in taking part in prayer-meetings? 
Covenant "Don't believe in going to church? 

"Don't believe in supporting your own church? 
"Don't believe in doing Christ's will? 

"Don't believe in leading a Christian life? 

"Don't believe in trying to do all these things? 

"Don't believe in promising to try to do them? 

"Why, of course you do when it is put that way! This is 
all you promise in the pledge— just to try to do them; and the 
pledge expressly says that you are not to do them whenever you 
think Christ would excuse you from them. Certainly no less 
excuse should satisfy you, pledge or no pledge, "t 

It should also be remembered that no absolute uniformity 
of phraseology is demanded in the covenant. In fact, many 
forms of the pledge are now in use, though the spirit and pur- 
pose and the general idea in all are the same; in all is the 
covenant idea that the Master promises the strength and we 
promise the obedience. 

The Junior covenant, for instance, is shorter and more 
simple than the one generally used by the older society. There 
is no child who cannot intelligently and honestly promise to 
strive to do what Christ would have him do, to pray and read 

* " Training the Church of the Future." 

t Amos R. Wells, in " The Endeavorer's Daily Companion." 

246 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

the Bible, and to be present and take part in each meeting in 
the simplest possible way "when I can;" and this is all that is 

The sailors evidently cannot promise to sup- 
Different p^^j. ^i^g-j. Q^j^ church, for they have none to sup- 

2!. ^}^^ port; but thev have a covenant which is just as 

Pledge. r 5 ^ j 

forceful and helpful to them in their Floating socie- 
ties as any that is taken by those who do business on the land 
instead of on the great deep. 

In some places in India are Christian Endeavor societies 

The Christian Endeavor Covenant in Armeno-Turkish. 

composed wholly of heathen children. They cannot honestly 
promise to pray to the God whom they have not yet learned 
to love, or to serve Him ; but they do promise to read the Bible 
and to learn about Christianity. Such are the flexibility and 
the complete adaptability to the most diverse circumstances of 
the Christian Endeavor movement and its covenant. 

The Christian Endeavor Covenanto 247 

Some pastors do not find enough in the ordinary cove- 
nant, and they are entirely at liberty to put in whatever they 
choose. Some have availed themselves of this liberty, and 
have prefaced the pledge with something of a complete creed 
and confession of faith. 

"Surely, if there is any feature of the whole movement 
which has scriptural warrant, it is the pledge. The Bible is 
a book of covenants from beginning to end. The New Testa- 
ment is the 'New Covenant in His name,' and every specific 
promise in its essence and spirit in the Christian Endeavor 
covenant is commended by Christ Himself."* 

A most interesting study would be the story of 
Influence Covenants in all ages, and the tremendous influence 
o* they have had upon the history of the world. 

Covenants. _^ • i /• t ^;o i t t ^ 

Ihmk of the bolemn League and Covenant of 
the Scottish martyrs! There is no more holy spot than the 
flat tombstone in Greyfriars' churchyard, in Edinburgh, 
where with the blood drawn from their own veins they signed 
and sealed the covenant which ensured Scotland's liberties 
and made Scotland great. 

The covenant signed by the Pilgrims in the cabin of the 
Mayflower has had perhaps more to do with the prosperity and 
moral vigor of America than any other document, not except- 
ing even the Declaration of Independence, which is only an- 
other covenant, which the signers pledged their names, their 
fortunes, and their sacred honor to sustain. 

Every church and body of Christians that has made any 
deep impression upon the world has had its own covenant, 
though some have repudiated all creeds. Some standard of 
living which binds its members together, sets before them 
ideals, and gives a definite aim must exist in all organiza- 
tions. This is what the Christian Endeavor covenant pledge 
has done and is doing to-day in every part of the world. 

* " Training the Church of the Future." 

248 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

A witty writer has written at length of the pledge as a 
tonic,* in which on analysis he finds the following ingredients: 

"Chloride of gold, ' Trusting in the Lord Jesus 
Pledge as Christ for strength.' Iron, 'I promise Him that I 
a will strive to do whatever He would like to have 

^°"'*^* me do.' Chloride of sodium (salt), 'As an active 

member I promise to be present at, and to take some part, aside 
from singing, in every Christian Endeavor prayer-meeting.' 
Quinine, 'Unless hindered by some reason which I can consci- 
entiously give to my Master.' Ammonia, 'If obliged to be ab- 
sent from the monthly consecration-meeting of the society, I 
will, if possible, send at least a verse of Scripture to be read in 
response to my name at the roll-call.' The balance of the 
tonic consisted of water, used to unite these various elements." 

fpol^haje V Spasitele sv6ho JeiiSe Krista, jakoSto svoji posilu slibuji 
Jeniu, ie se budb snaiiti abych dinil v5e, co se Jemu Hbf; ddle ie se 
.budu kaSdodennS tnodliti i Cfsti p(smo svat^ a pokud mi nio2no bude po 
cel^ svfij iivot po kfesfansku 2fti. Jakoito £inn^ ilen slibuji b^ti pHtomnu 
a uiastnu v ka2d£ 3chuzi nenaskytne-li se mi nSjaki pfek^ika, kterou bych 
se mohl svfidomitfi omluviti pfcd sv^m P4nem, JeifSem Kristem. Bude-li 
mi nemoino dostaviti se do posvScujkf m£s(£nf schOze, chci poslati oniluvu 
svojf nepHtomnosti dozorCfmu v^boru. 


Ihu, .18 Adreta 

The Christian Endeavor Covenant in Bohemian. 

Then the writer, after analyzing the tonic, goes on to tell 
how he entered into an agreement with his friend "Dr. Cure- 
all" to try the efifect of his tonic upon his patients; and he, the 
doctor, was simply to watch results, unless they were liable to 
prove fatal. These patients were all in the "church ward of 
the hospital." The first young lady suffered from Sunday 
headache; another, from palsy of the will, which prevented 

* " The Christian Endeavor Pledge as a Tonic," by C. F. Baker. 

The Christian Endeavor Covenant. 249 

her from making up her mind to do difficult duties; a young 
man had a severe chill at times, which changed to a fever 
of religious excitement at others. Other cases of partial par- 
alysis of the tongue, hand, or foot, which prevented the pa- 
tients from doing the work of the Master or speaking in His 
behalf, were treated. Tendencies to fast living, flightiness of 
mind and purpose, delirious talk of philosophy and science 
by patients who understood nothing about either, were all 
treated by the same tonic, which according to the doctor and 
his fellow physician, Dr. Cureall, was effective in every case. 

The fame of the tonic spread, we are told, and orders 
came for it from all parts of the world. "In view of this 
fact I do not think I should be treating you right," says the 
author, "if I did not give you some of the testimonials regard- 
ing its efficacy, from those who have tried it. The first is 
from a missionary in Africa: 'Having taken this tonic faith- 
fully, I wish to testify to its efficacy in making me useful 
among the heathen on the upper Congo. I have not had a 
touch of fever since I came to this field, but am able to help 
in saving the souls of the natives by introducing the use of the 
tonic' The next from a pastor in Sydney, New South Wales: 
'We have been using the tonic since it was first introduced 
here, and find it the best thing we have ever seen to keep up 
the strength, courage, and vim of our workers,' etc." 

Genuine quotations might be given by the thousand, and 
from many lands, to show what the covenant has actually ac- 
complished for those who have taken it and honestly tried to 
live up to it. It would require volumes far larger than this 
to give all these testimonies. Many have been printed else- 
where, and it is noticeable that they tell in almost every case 
of the practical help afforded by the pledge in sweetening 
and brightening the life and in making it more helpful to 

In this connection I can give but a few from many testi- 

250 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

monies that are before me. These come from young men and 
women in very different circumstances, and are 
Testhnony. fairly characteristic of all. "The covenant pledge 
has brought me from the place of simply a mem- 
ber of the church to the place of a working Christian, and 
taught me that there is something for me to do; besides get- 
ting I must give." 

"It has made me a more faithful and earnest Sunday- 
school teacher, more loyal to my Saviour and church and 
pastor, and more interested in all other Christians." 

"In striving to do whatever He would have me do my 
every-day life has been changed; it helps me to control my 
temper, to put away troubles, to overcome trials, temptations,, 
and the fear of ridicule, to put self in the background and 
bring before my companions the One whose love is boundless 
and free." 

"The pledge has helped me by lubricating the clasp of 
my purse." 

"The pledge is a beautiful bridge of duty over the chasm 
of indifiference." 

"It has helped me to be more conscientious in the dis- 
charge of all my duties, more honest and truthful in my 
'reasons' for either doing or not doing those specified in the 
pledge. It has made me more prayerful, more earnest, more 
reverent, and has made me a daily searcher of the Scriptures; 
and because that 'whatever' means not to do, as well as to do, it 
has given me courage to say, "No," and stand by it where it 
cost something to do it. It has strengthened my faith, and 
increased my love for Christ and the souls He died to save. 
It has made me a better Christian, consequently a better daugh- 
ter, sister, friend, and neighbor. In short, it has put more 
of Christ into my life." 

The following forms of the covenant pledge are used, 
and many others embodying the same idea. It will be seen by 

The Christian Endeavor Covenant. 251 

these forms that it is flexible enough to be adapted to differ- 
ent circumstances, but it is earnestly hoped that its provisions 
will not be weakened in any society that calls itself "Chris- 
tian Endeavor" so as to become meaningless, but that it will 
always stand in every society for whole-hearted consecration 
to Christ, regular participation in the meetings, and loyalty 





(1) Noho ny fahatokiako any Jesosy .Kraiety 
Mpamonjy ahy sy ny fitiavako Azy dia luanolo-tena 
ho mpanompony aho ka manaiky hanao izay tiany 
hataoko mandrakariva. 

(2) Manaiky haraaky ny Soratra Masina sy hiva^ 
yaka amin' Andrfamanitra-isan-andro aho, 

(3) Manaiky Jianao- izaiy aaoko atao aho hitaona 
ny sasany ho Kr^stiana, ary hitady izay asa ho any 
Jesosy K.rai3ty Tompoko tandrifin' ny ho any ny 

(4) Satria voaray ho isan' ity Fikambanana ity 
aho. dia manaiky ho tonga amy ny fotoain-pivava- 
bana isan-kerinandro ka hahavita izay tokony ho 
anjarako amin' izany, raha tsy misy sampona lehibe 
izay ataoko ho ampy hahafa-tsiny ahy aminy Jesosy 
Kraisty Tompoko. Ary raha misy mahasampona 
ahy, dia manaiky hampandre ny sekretary aho. 



The Christian Endeavor Pledge in Malagasy. 

to the local church. More societies have failed because of 
a weakened pledge than for any other reason. 

The form used in most societies is as follows: 

ACTIVE member's PLEDGE. 

"Trusting in the Lord Jesus Christ for strength, I promise 
Him that I will strive to do whatever He would like to have 

2^2 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

me do; that I will make it the rule of my life to pray and to 
read the Bible every day, and to support my own church in 
every way, especially by attending all her regular Sunday and 
midweek services, unless prevented by some reason which I can 
conscientiously give to my Saviour; and that, just so far as I 
know how, throughout my whole life, I will endeavor to lead a 
Christian life. As an active member I promise to be true to 
all my duties, to be present at and to take some part, aside from 
singing, in every Christian Endeavor prayer-meeting, unless 
hindered by some reason which I can conscientiously give to 
my Lord and Master. If obliged to be absent from the 
monthly consecration-meeting of the society, I will, if possible, 
send at least a verse of Scripture to be read in response to my 
name at the roll-call." 

A simpler form used by many societies on the continent 
of Europe and in mission lands, and that answers all the re- 
quirements of many societies in all lands, is as follows: 

"Trusting in the Lord Jesus Christ for strength, I promise 
Him that I will strive to do whatever He would like to have 
me do; that I will pray and read the Bible every day; and that, 
just so far as I know how, I will endeavor to lead a Christian 
life. I will be present at every meeting of the society, unless 
prevented by some reason which I can conscientiously give to 
my Saviour, and will take part in the meeting, either by prayer, 
testimony, or a Bible verse. As an active member of this soci- 
ety I promise to be faithful to my own church, and to do all I 
can to uphold its work and worship." 

The sailors' pledge is much like the above, except that 
a promise of purity and temperance is substituted for the last 

The usual Junior pledge reads: 

"Trusting in the Lord Jesus Christ for strength, I promise 
Him that I will strive to do whatever He would like to have 
me do ; that I will pray and read the Bible every day ; and that, 
just so far as I know how, I will try to lead a Christian life. 

The Christian Endeavor Covenant. 253 

I will be present at every meeting of the society when I can, 
and will take some part in every meeting." 

In the pledge of the "preparatory" Junior members they 
simply promise to come to the meetings and to be quiet and 
reverent in them. 

The following is the covenant of the prison societies of 
Christian Endeavor: 

''First. I will accept Jesus as my Lord and Saviour. 

''Second. I will try to learn and do His will by forming 
the habit of praying and carefully reading my Bible daily, and 
by thinking, speaking, and acting as I believe He would in my 

"Third. I will obey the prison rules, will treat the offi- 
cers with respect, and, so far as possible, will conduct myself 
without ofifence toward my fellow prisoners. 

"Fourth. When able to do so, and not prevented by my 
duties to the prison, I will attend all the meetings of the 

"Fifth. I will wear the official button of the League, and 
will endeavor to make it both the means of helping others and 
an honor to the cause of my Master. 

"Sixth. On leaving the prison I will enter some honest 
employment and become an upright and helpful member of 



" Properly conducted, the prayer-meeting generates the 
power, which, applied to the officers, committees, and members, 
produces through them the practical results desired. Do away 
with the prayer-meeting, and the Endeavor society might as 
well be done away with." Rev. Sherman H. Doyle, 


HERE is one meeting that is essential to a Chris- 
tian Endeavor society, and that is the weekly 
prayer-meeting. Other meetings are important, 
but they are not absolutely essential. Literary 
meetings and musicales, and especially social 
gatherings, often have, and may well have, a large place in 
the society. But without them a society could live and do a 
very commendable work for the church and the community. 
It would not, however, long retain its religious character, 
and prove the spiritual power that it ought to be, if the prayer- 
meeting were omitted, or held but occasionally. 

What the forum was to the ancient Greeks, the weekly 
prayer-meeting is to the Endeavor society. It brings the peo- 
ple together in sympathy and hearty accord, it provides a 
democratic assemblage, it gives every one a chance to be 


The Christian Endeavor Forum, 255 

heard; it provides for the discussion of the most important 
topics; it stimulates the intellectual life. Here, perhaps, the 
comparison halts, for the Christian Endeavor meeting aims to 
do much more than this ; its design is especially to stimulate 
and strengthen the spiritual life, to discuss not affairs of state, 
but the afifairs of the Kingdom, and to furnish energy and 
inspiration for all the many varieties of work which the so- 
ciety may undertake. 

Some of the great conventions which have aroused the 
wide-spread interest of the secular as well as the religious 
world have been described; but, though they are the most 
spectacular and impressive gatherings to which the 
Vast Endeavor Society has given birth, they are not by 

oiTIhe*^"" ^^y iTieans the most important or significant. It is 
Weekly the little wccklv assemblage, multiplied sixty thou- 

Meeting. - , , 

sand times, m country and city, on prairie and 
mountain-side, in the church of the rich and the church of 
the poor, that makes these great conventions possible, and fur- 
nishes the power for all the machinery and exhibitions of 
strength and vitality which the Society affords. 

We sometimes see a mighty river sweeping to the sea, and 
in its onrushing power and resistless tide we forget the ten 
thousand little rills and tributaries which alone have made 
it possible. Sometimes they trickle down from the mountain- 
side, entirely unnoticed; sometimes the spring bubbles up 
from beneath the river's surface and gives no sign of its 
presence; but it is the rivulet and the spring that make the 
river. It is the ten thousand little Endeavor meetings, and 
the activities which they generate and stimulate, which make 
the Christian Endeavor movement. 

If there is one thing more than another that the Society 
may modestly claim to have accomplished, it is the regenera- 
tion of the young people's prayer-meeting. It is not too much 
to say that it has introduced a new prayer-meeting idea into 

256 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

the churches, and has substituted for the predominant idea 
of instruction the predominant thought of practice and service 
and inspiration. 

The writer may be permitted here, perhaps, to reprint 
some paragraphs * on this subject which he wrote several years 
ago, in which the essential point was that the young people's 
meeting is for service and inspiration. This thought has been 
strengthened in his mind during all the years since these words 
were written, and by many journeys in many lands, where 
under very diverse circumstances he has found the Christian 
Endeavor prayer-meeting idea to be essential to the prosperity 
of the movement. 

"In many thousands of churches, a quarter of a century 
ago, the prayer-meeting had degenerated into a lecture by the 
minister, supplemented, perhaps, by one or two long and able 
A Picture petitions by the brethren. The following picture 
of^Some ^^ ^1^^ prayer-meeting of old will be recognized by 

Fashioned nianv ' 

Prayer= ^ ' , . 

Meetings. "The notice was given from the pulpit, 'The 

prayer and conference meeting will be held at the usual hour.' 
When the 'usual hour' arrived, a sparse congregation of from 
six to twenty-six would spread themselves out over the vestry, 
occupying as much of the floor space as possible, that the pov- 
erty of attendance might not be too evident. The pastor 
would give out a long hymn; the organist would play the tune 
all through, chorus and all, upon an asthmatic organ; the 
scattered congregation would pipe through five or six verses 
of the hymn; then would come a long prayer from the pastor 
and an abbreviated sermon of from twenty to thirty minutes 
in length. The venerable deacon, (God bless him!) who for 
years had borne the burden and heat of the day, would ofTer 
a long, long prayer, not forgetting the Jews, even though he 
sometimes did forget the commonplace members of the Sun- 

* From " World-Wide Endeavor." 

The Christian Endeavor Forum. 257 

day-school connected with his own church. Another long 
hymn and prayer, and the time to close would come, much 
to the relief of the majority of the audience. 

"Many of my readers will recognize this description as 
in no sense a caricature of the prayer-meeting a generation 

"The so-called youn^ people's prayer-meeting was 
scarcely more attractive. The attendance was still smaller, 
and, though the average age was somewhat younger than in the 
other prayer-meeting of the church, yet it required a great 
stretch of courtesy and an extensive winking at gray hairs and 
wrinkles to consider the majority of those present any longer 
young people, except by brevet. 

"The only warm spot in the room was often found in the 
air-tight stove. One of the more elderly young men usually 
occupied the chair. By no possibility was it a young woman, 
and there were many most painful pauses, which could be 
filled up only by a frequent resort to the overworked hymn- 

"I am far from saying that all young people's meetings 
or all church prayer-meetings are accurately described in the 
foregoing paragraphs, but without hesitation I can call many 
of my readers to witness that a great many meetings could thus 
be described without a particle of exaggeration. 

"Very evidently there was a fault somewhere, 
Was and this fault was a radical one, lying at the very 

Fault? basis of the prayer-meeting idea in many churches. 

"It was a service for instruction rather than in- 
spiration. It was the place where young people and others 
should study the map of the celestial city, and hear about the 
positions of the guide-posts which pointed to it, but a meet- 
ing where they were not expected to take many forward steps 
in the direction of that city. 

"Of course, if it were a meeting for instruction, it must 



Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

naturally drift into the hands of those who were able to in- 
struct. The pastor, the aged deacon, venerable in years and 
ripe in experience; the college graduate, and the glib or gifted 
speaker found a place in the prayer-meeting for the exercise 
of their gifts; but there was no place in such a meeting for 
young Thomas and Henry and Marv and Susan. They were 

Getting Ready for a Convention in Portugal. 

not wise. They had little experience. If they spoke at all, 
it must be in a stumbling and hesitating way. Perhaps they 
would break down if they even attempted to repeat a verse 
of Scripture. What place, then, for their active participation 
would there be in such a meeting? 

"For generations the idea of edification was the fetich of 
the prayer-meeting. No one was expected to take part who 
could not 'speak to edification,' and the remnants of this idea, 
frayed and torn as they are, are still the bane of many a prayer- 
meeting in all parts of the world. 

The Christian Endeavor Forum. 259 

"The Society of Christian Endeavor started with another 
conception of the prayer-meeting. It was not a place for in- 
struction from man so much as for instruction from God. It 
was not the place for the exposition of a body of divinity or 
for indoctrination in the fine points of theology. It was a 
place for practice rather than for preaching, for inspiration 
and fellowship rather than for instruction, a place for the 
participation of all the average two-talent people rather than 
of the exceptional ten-talent man and woman. 
Ins iration "The idea of instruction was not ignored, but the 
versus leaders of this new society contended that the 

Instruction. i i /■ • . 

prayer-meetmg was not the place for mstruction 
in the ordinary sense of the word, and that there is ample 
room for instruction in other services of the church. The 
Sunday-morning service is for instruction. The Sunday- 
evening service is for instruction. The Sunday-school is for 
instruction. The pastor's catechetical class is for instruction. 
The missionary concert is for instruction. The religious 
newspaper is for instruction. In fact, there are few depart- 
ments of church life which have not this for their central idea. 
But the Christian Endeavor Society has always believed that 
the prayer-meeting was for another order of service, and that 
this other service is quite as necessary to the development of 
spiritual activities as the service of instruction. 

"And so it happens that the whole idea of participation 
is changed. There is something for Thomas and Henry and 
Mary and Susan to do, as well as for their respective and 
respected fathers and grandfathers. There is an appropriate 
and modest part which the youngest believer in Christ can 
have in the weekly prayer-meeting as well as the pastor and 
the oldest saint. And, moreover, it is not only fitting for 
them to participate, but it is obligatory upon them to confess 
their Lord, if they would grow in His grace and knowledge." 

The most encouraging, and to many people the most sur- 

26o christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

prising, elements in the new prayer-meeting have been its per- 
manence and its adaptability. Many were the predictions 
that it would soon lose its power, and fall flat and stale. Far 
from that, it has grown in importance, and has received the 
adherence of new multitudes every year. I am, of course, far 
from saying that every Christian Endeavor prayer-meeting is 
what it ought to be, that there are none that are dull and 
insipid and lacking in intellectual and spiritual vitality. 

Weak leadership, indifference, and coldness on the part 
of pastor and church, and frivolous worldliness on the part of 
the young people will make havoc of any prayer-meeting. 
But that in spite of these difficulties and prejudices this type 
of meeting has persisted, and grown in strength, and obtained 
more and more recognition, is proof of its worth. The fur- 
ther fact that it has been so easily adapted to all classes and 
conditions of men is another great argument in its favor. It 
is not an exotic in China any more than in America. It is 
adapted to seamen as well as to landsmen. It finds its place 
in the rudest little societies of converted Hottentots and 
among the blackfellows of Australia as well as in the cultured 
congregations of Germany and Great Britain. 
Religion Most cucou raging, too, is the light which these 

inherent ^^^^^ ^^^^ upou the Undying power of the religion 
Necessity, gf Christ and the inherent necessity implanted 
within the young soul to be religious and to acknowledge his 
religion before others. 

The spectacle of little Lord Randolph Churchill at Eton 
leading in prayer with his companions in their schoolboy 
prayer-meetings is only an illustration of the desire implanted 
in all children and youth to give some expression to their re- 
ligious life. This desire is often latent, and it is sometimes 
smothered, when it shows itself, by injudicious parents or re- 
ligious leaders; but it is there, and in kindlier soil and under 
genial skies the seed is sure to develop. That some seeds when 


The Christian Endeavor Forum. 261 

scattered on the rock fail to germinate is no proof that there 
is not vitality in them. The fact that all other seeds of the 
same kind when planted rightly and nourished tenderly, do 
produce beautiful flowers and delicious fruit is a sign of the 
universal possibilities. 

The Christian Endeavor prayer-meeting is the nursery 
where such seeds may be planted and cared for. It has some 
times been objected to as a "hothouse," an objection which has 
little force, for little that is forced and precocious is ever ob- 
served in these meetings ; but, even if it were true, it might well 
be replied that a hothouse is far better than an ice-house for the 
growth of young plants, and that when well started in pe- 
culiarly favorable circumstances they may be transplanted 
with little fear of loss to the larger garden. 

It will be seen from what has already been said, 

as the author has tried to make plain more at length 
AChange -^^ another volume,* that the new idea which the 
Emphasis. Endeavor Society has introduced lies rather in a 

change of emphasis, which, however, makes all the 
difference in the world with the meeting. The moulding 
power of the meeting upon the life is due, not to the teaching 
which the young people received so much as to obedient con- 
formity to Christ's word in confessing His name before men, 
and thus obeying one of His supreme commands. It must 
not be thought, however, from what has been said that the 
Christian Endeavor prayer-meeting consists in the repetition 
of stale and trite remarks, or stereotyped words about believ- 
ing and trusting in Jesus, such as have sometimes brought the 
prayer-meeting of old into disrepute. Every Endeavor meet- 
ing has its topic, with many Scripture references and abun- 
dant helps. These topics furnish the greatest variety of 
theme, are selected by experts in the matter with much care, 
cover every variety of Christian experience, missions, good cit- 

* " The Christian Endeavor Manual." 

262 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

izenship, temperance, and practical, every-day duties, and are 
as stimulating to the intellect as to the soul. Besides all this, 
in many societies (would that it were true in all!) the pastor 
is expected to take at least five minutes at the end of the meet- 
ing to "gather up its ends " and to enforce its most important 

That these meetings are no jejune, parrot-like repetitions 
of outworn formulas, but furnish as good food for the mind 
as for the heart, is proved by the immense pains taken in these 
days to make the meeting increasingly useful to all. Hun- 
dreds of religious papers every week contain expositions of 
the Christian Endeavor topic; the best minds among ministers 
and laymen are called upon for contributions to the weekly 
theme. Ancient and modern literature is ransacked for illus- 
trations of the truth under consideration. Helpful volumes 
are published every year, both on the Junior and on the 
Young People's topics, while pamphlets and booklets for those 
who lead and for those who participate, and suggestions for 
varying and improving the meeting, are numberless. The lit- 
tle book entitled "Prayer-Meeting Methods," by Amos R. 
Wells, is perhaps the most comprehensive collection of prayer- 
meeting plans ever printed, and those who study it and use it 
in the right way have no excuse for a poor prayer-meeting. 
^. ^ The consecration-meeting is another distinctive 

The Con= , . . ° 

secration= scrvicc of the Christian Endeavor Society, an idea 
^^ '"^* which it introduced into the young people's meet- 
ings at the very beginning. It answers more purposes than 
one. It compels the young soul to look back upon the past, 
not with morbid introspection, — there is very little danger of 
that in these practical days, — but with thanksgiving or with 
confession according as he has improved or neglected his op- 
portunities, and fulfilled or forgotten his vows. 

But he inevitably looks forward, too, as well as back- 
ward; for it is the service of the new month, and the new 

The Christian Endeavor Forum. 263 

old duties which are ever opening up before him, to which 
he would consecrate himself. 

If there are a backward and a forward look, there must 
certainly be an upward look; for it is a "covenant-meeting" 
as well as a consecration-meeting, a meeting for the renewal 
of the vows to God, a meeting for the reception of new 
strength from Him. In fact, in some ways the name "cov- 
enant-meeting" is better than the name "consecration-meet- 
ing," as "covenant" is better than "pledge." 

Again, the consecration-meeting serves as a reminder of 
the seriousness of the Christian profession. The very act of 
calling the roll of active members puts a new and solemn 
emphasis upon the fact sometimes forgotten in the rush and 
stress of busy life, that the Christian has been set apart for the 
service of God. 

This meeting, too, furnishes the best opportunity for 
keeping the society active and single-hearted in its religious 
purpose. Those who are wilfully indifferent to their duties 
are soon detected by the monthly roll-call, and can either be 
won back to duty and religious service, or, if it needs must be, 
after kindly care, can be dropped from the society's rolls, and 
thus no longer remain an incubus upon its life. 

The consecration-meeting sometimes loses its power be- 
cause of the monotony and uniformity of the way in which 
it is conducted. But this is entirely unnecessary, for there " 
many ways of carrying it on, which will preserve its f* 
ness and solemn power. Mr. Wells in his booklet* on . > 
consecration-meeting describes no less than seventeen different 
ways in which the consecration-meeting may be conducted and 
all its essential features preserved. Here are the glowing 
words of this author in regard to the reasons for the consecra- 
tion-meeting. They are worth the attention of all Endeavors. 

Why do we hold the consecration-meeting? 

* " The Crowning Meeting," by Amos R. W'ells. 

264 Christian Endeavor in All Lands, 

"It is because we see that our initial consecration was only 
the beginning, to be unfolded through many hard but blessed 
years. We wish to testify our constant allegiance to it, — each 
one of us, — and hence the roll-call. We wish to tell each 
other how we have. been getting on in our lives of consecration, 
to ask advice, to give it and receive it; and so it is a testimony- 
meeting. Most of all, we wish to draw near to Him whose 
we are, into whom we are growing; and so it is a prayer-meet- 
ing, and, in the experience of many thousands, a pentecostal 

"Magnify this blessed gathering, young soldiers of the 
cross. Enshrine it in your heart's best affections. Be true to 
it as you would be true to a diamond-mine, for in it lie wealth 
for you and joys you cannot imagine." 

The scope of this volume does not allow the au- 
^hat is thor to devote his pages to prayer-meeting methods 
Prayer= or plans. Thcsc wiU be found elsewhere in large 
^^ *"^° abundance, but his design is to show what a good 
young people's prayer-meeting may be, how possible it is, and 
by the history of the past, and by showing God's evident bless- 
ing upon the new prayer-meeting idea, to stimulate all to a 
larger use of its essential features. This chapter may well be 
concluded with some forceful definitions* of a good meeting, 
for a meeting practically defined in actual experience in this 
way will be sure to be helpful and joyous, and stimulating 
to mind and heart. It will open the eyes to spiritual things; 
it will unloose the tongue to tell of it; it will show the reality 
of the unseen; it will emphasize practical and present duties; 
it will nerve the will; it will purify the life; it will develop 
Christ-like qualities in every one who attends. 


"It is a meeting in which you have had a part. 

"It is a meeting in which Christ's presence has been felt. 

* " Tlie Endeavorer's Daily Companion," Wells. 

The Christian Endeavor Forum. 265 

"It is a meeting for which the leader has made careful 

"It is a meeting that moves briskly yet thoughtfully. 

"It is a meeting with much prayer. 

"It is a meeting with much praise. 

"It is a meeting full of personal testimony. 

"It is a meeting that emphasizes a few easily remembered 

"It is a meeting that gives you something to do during the 
following week. 

"It is a meeting that takes one out of himself. 

"It is a meeting that brings one nearer God." 




" Christian Endeavor was not intended to be an institution, 
but an inspiration. It has served an end when it has caused 
service to begin. It does not aim at triumph, but at training. 
It prefers service in the slums to a seat in the synagogue. The 
greatest word among its members to-day is ' service,' and this 
is well. The spirit of the pledge — 'to do what He would 
like to have me do ' — is active, as it should be. Unless there 
is action in Christian Endeavor there will be reaction. The 
co-operation of God is conditioned on the operation of men. 
The Spirit comes to those that go. The Master has help for 
him who stumbles in the path of duty, but none for him who 
does not start." Rev. John E. Pounds, D.D., 


N one of Miss Frances E. Willard's brilliant ad- 
dresses at an International Christian Endeavor 
Convention she defended the "do-everything" 
policy of the Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union, which had been criticised by some, by 
declaring that the liquor curse affected every department of 
life, and so the antidote must reach every department of life. 

"In the white-ribbon army," she said, "we have seventy 
distinct lines of work, and one of our mottoes is the same that 
they had at the battle of the Boyne, 'Whenever you see a head, 


Programme of Work. 267 

hit it!' That means that we have adopted the 'do-every- 
thing' policy, since the curse is everywhere." 

Since the church of Christ touches every department of 
life, the Society of Christian Endeavor with even more force 
can claim to be a "do-everything" society, with this one limi- 
tation : it will do everything that it believes the Master and 
the church would have it do. Herein lie its flexibility and 
its strength. It adapts itself to all circumstances, because 
nothing that is of real worth in the uplift of humanity is for- 
eign to it. It is interested in missions abroad and missions at 
home. It has a stake in the temperance issue, and wants to 
see good men elected and good laws enacted. It believes in 

relieving the destitution of the slums, and in visit- 
The " Do= ing the widow and the fatherless in their affliction. 
Sodet*'^''"^ In looking through its far-sighted spectacles, 

however, it does not forget that many of its duties, 
and perhaps its chief duties, lie nearer home, though they 
may be but humble ones. It remembers that even the most 
sombre pulpit can be brightened by the freshness and beauty 
of God's own flowers. It remembers that the church services 
are improved by a harmonious volume of fresh young voices 
in song. It remembers that the pastor may have errands to 
do, and that the Endeavorers are the ones to do them. It re- 
members that its own meetings need constant care, fore- 
thought, and planning in order to make them of the utmost 
value to all. It does not forget that its young people have 
social instincts as well as devotional instincts, and that these, 
too, should be cultivated and directed aright. Above all, it 
remembers that the spiritual nature needs attention; that, 
though the flower will turn toward the sun when it gets a 
chance, it must be given the chance and not be grown in a 
cellar, and it will bloom the more beautifully if watered and 
trained and pruned by skilful and kindly hands. 

So has come about the growth of the committee system 


Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

in the Christian Endeavor Society. The necessity was there; 
^j^^ the Society simply tried to meet it; and this it did 

Growth by establishing as an integral and essential part of 

of the -11 • ,- 

Committee its work the committecs, few or many, as any so- 

System. ^-^^y ^^^ ^^^^ them. 

The first society in its earliest days had but three com- 
mittees, the prayer-meeting committee, the social committee, 
and the lookout committee; and these all have persisted to the 

Sunshine Committee in Turtcey, Reading to a Blind Old Lady. 

present day, and are found, it is altogether probable, in ninety- 
nine out of every one hundred societies. Their duties, too, 
are defined in the same way as at the beginning; but it was 
soon found that these committees were not enough, because, 
in the first place, there were other duties to be performed, and 
because, in the second place, there were more young people to 
be employed than could find a place upon these three com- 

Missionary work was a feature of the first society from 
the beginning, and a missionary committee was naturally very 
soon added. The minister felt the necessity, too, of having 
some help from his young people in his pastoral duties, and a 
calling committee was next introduced, whose duty it should 

Programme of Work. 269 

be to find out about young people who had lately come into 
the community, or who had no other church home, call on 
them in their homes or boarding-places, and try to induce 
them to come into the society, or at least into the congregation 
and Sunday-school. 

The decoration of the pulpit from Sunday to Sunday and 
of the church on festival occasions had been left to those who 
would do it, and often they were overburdened in other di- 
rections. What was more natural than that the young people 
should undertake this task? and so a flower committee was 

The singing in the prayer-meetings of the church, as well 
as in the young people's meeting, could certainly be improved. 
Many of the young men and women had good voices, and 
they were sure to use them to better effect if massed together 
at the meetings. Besides, this duty gave them a real and im- 
portant service to perform for the church; hence the genesis 
of the music committee. The Sunday-school might easily be 
enlarged and some of the superintendent's duties might be 
lightened, and therefore the Sunday-school committee was 

We need not go through the whole list, for the natural, 
almost inevitable nature of the whole committee system is 
hereby indicated. 
D . ^. Yet it is strange what an inveterate prejudice 

Prejudices =" r j 

against cxistcd agaiust such committees in the early days 

Committees. , , n i • 

on the part of some most excellent and emment 
men. Mr. Moody's alleged remark was often quoted, though 
I have often doubted whether he ever really made it, that "the 
best committee is a committee of three with two absent." 
If by this statement, whether made by Mr. Moody or by any- 
body else, was meant that there must be a sense of personal 
responsibility, or else the committee was of no use, we must 
all heartily agree with it. But the very object of the com- 

270 Christian Endeavor in All Lands, 

mittee system is to increase the sense of responsibility, to make 
each member of the society feel that he has something impor- 
tant for which he is individually responsible. Everything in 
a well-regulated society tends to this result — the election ; the 
serious charge of the president or pastor to the committees to 
do their duty; the frequent meetings of the committees by 
themselves; the consultations of their different chairmen with 
the officers and pastors in the very important executive com- 
mittee; the monthly written reports, which should always be 
presented, and afterwards placed on file for future reference — 
all these plans, which are the commonplace features of the 
Christian Endeavor committee system, stimulate and augment 
this very sense of personal individual responsibility for the 
performance of particular tasks. 

It was for some reason felt by many in the early days that 
young people could not be expected to do such systematic 
and regular work, and that all their committees were merely 
so much red tape or foolish regalia that might be dismissed 
with a smile. This was illustrated in a visit the writer once 
made to Mr. Spurgeon's training-school in London. He had 
gone at the invitation of the great preacher, and at his request 
had told the students something of the work and methods of 
the Society of Christian Endeavor. After telling of its pur- 
pose and its principles, its prayer-meeting and its early con- 
ventions (for this was in the first decade of the movement), 
he began to enumerate the committees, ''lookout and prayer- 
meeting and social." A smile spread over the faces of the 
theologues as he mentioned them; and, when he added "mis- 
sionary and temperance and good literature," the smile be- 
came audible ; and, when he still went on boldly, and described 
"the calling committee, and the music committee, and the 
flower committee," the laugh could no longer be restrained, 
and broke out into a gufifaw. It seemed to be a highly amus- 
ing thing that young people should be expected to undertake 

Programme of Work. 271 

these different forms of work, and that they could be thus or- 
ganized for effective service. But that this is no joke has been 
proved ten thousand times in the years that have succeeded. 
Literature Committees have been multiplied not for the 

for sake of multiplying them, but because they were 

Committees. j j /-m i • i i , , 

needed. Uld committees have been strengthened, 
and new ways innumerable for performing their duties have 
been devised. A great crop of literature has sprung up 
around the committee idea, each committee having its own 
leaflet or booklet, some of which have been translated into 
scores of languages, while all the conventions, great and small, 
committee conferences, schools of methods, and practical in- 
stitutes for making the committees more effective, are growing 
in importance and power. 

But in this history we must concern ourselves more with 
underlying ideas and their results than with the details of 
plans and methods, and the committee idea is, as the very 
word signifies, that something has been committed to the mem- 
bers to do. 

In that highly amusing and instructive story * in which 
Jonathan Hayseeds, C. E., figures so largely this idea is hap- 
pily brought out, and it dawned upon Jonathan, as it has upon 
many an Endeavorer in real life, that, when he was elected 
upon a committee, something was really committed to him, 
and something that he must use his utmost endeavors to do. 

This system of committees, too, helps to preserve the 
prop€r balance of prayer and work, inner devotion and out- 
ward service. The success and growth of the Society are ac- 
counted for largely by the balance it preserves, by its propor- 
tions and symmetry. "It is a prayer-meeting society, but not 
only a prayer-meeting society. It is a society for Christian 
service, but not only for Christian service. It unites prayer 
and work. It combines frequent confession of Christ with 

* " Endeavor Doin's Down to the Corners," by J. F. Cowan. 

272 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 




constant service for Christ. By these two wings it has risen 
to constantly new heights of consecration and endeavor, and on 
these wings it has flown around the world. Clip either one of 
them, and the efficiency of the Society will be impaired; its 
ability to rise above the performance of humdrum duties will 
be destroyed, and its future be made very problematical. 

"On the other hand, a society that remembers 
its double purpose, that observes a just proportion 
between its prayer-meetings and its committee work 
will not fail to become a constantly increasing power for 
good. If any society is lagging or sagging, if its members 
seem to have lost their first love and their early efficiency, 
it is quite in order to ask whether one of the wings has not 
been clipped; whether it has not become a mere prayer-meet- 
ing on the one hand, or a mere list of lifeless committees, with- 
out the spirit which the prayer-meeting inspires, on the 
other." * 

Another very important result of the work of the commit- 
tees is that it provides a place for the obscure, the diffident, 
and the youngest of all Endeavorers. Every well-regulated 
society finds a place for every one of its members upon some 
one of the committees. There is no other way of developing 

the latent possibilities of the incon- 
spicuous. The younger and the more 
bashful in a large society will inevita- 
bly hide themselves behind the older 
and more experienced members. The 
very object of the whole organization 
is thus defeated unless some provision 
is made for securing a share of respon- 
sibility, for those who will not seek it 
for themselves. "To every man his 
work" is the motto of the Christian 
Endeavor committee, and there ought 

Rev. Enrique de Tienda, 

Late President of the United 
Society of Christian Endeavor 
in Spain. 

* Clark, " The Christian Endeavor Manual." 

Programme of Work. 273 

to be ingenuity enough in every society to find some task suita- 
ble to the very youngest and least experienced. Much, of 
course, depends upon the chairmen of the different commit- 
tees, but with reasonable resourcefulness and devotion on 
their part and on the part of the society at large no one need be 
left out of this most blessed of all privileges, the privilege of 
individual service for Christ and the church. 

This is further accomplished in some churches, and very 
wisely, by bringing together the youngest members in some 
more general committee, and putting them under the care of 
one of the most experienced Endeavorers. Thus the boys on 
entering the society, e&pecially if they are quite young, or 
have just graduated from the Juniors, may be put upon the 
'4end-a-hand committee," and the girls in like manner upon 
the "whatsoever committee." As the names indicate, what- 
soever is needed, they are expected to do, and to lend a hand 
wherever it is wanted. Thus, in preparing the vestry for the 
social meeting, taking the chairs out of their stifif rows and 
putting them in social proximity, mending the hymn-books, 
sending out church papers and notices, doing any of the num- 
berless errands or little tasks that are always arising in church 
life, these youngest members can be utilized, given something 
that is really important to do, and, above all, trained to a sense 
of their individual responsibility, and fitted for larger duties 
that may devolve upon them. 

Enough has been said, perhaps, to show that 
Service^' the Committees of the Christian Endeavor society 
open it on every side to practical service. It stands 
foursquare toward all possible duties that can devolve upon the 
young Christian. Its doors open hospitably out as well as in, 
and it tells all its members to show their faith by their works. 
Not only does it give this general exhortation, which would 
often be utterly meaningless to the unresourceful young per- 
son, but it tells him just how and when and where to work. 


274 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

It does not leave him to his own unguided impulses, which 
would probably lead him nowhere; but it shows him practical 
duties exactly suited to his capacities ; it makes the society in- 
finitely varied, and it prevents it from falling into ruts or from 
becoming stereotyped. A committee needed in one society is 
not needed by its next-door neighbor; a committee that has 
done a good work this year, perhaps, can be replaced by one 
that will do better work next year, and in the executive com- 
mittee provision is made for keeping all up to the highest 
point of efficiency, if only the plans and methods which have 
been proved and tried and published are used. 

In a word, the committees and all that they stand for 
constitute a practical programme of the Christian Endeavor 
movement. In an enthusiastic article summing up the results 
of the World's Convention in London in 1900, The Christian 
World, one of the most influential papers in Great Britain, 
thus speaks of this practical programme: 

"From the Continent and from Australia, from America's 
farthest West, from Africa and from India, the glad multi- 
tudes have come together to praise and to pray, to devise 
schemes for the world's betterment, to draw up the Christian 
programme for the twentieth century. It is a marvellous 
spectacle. Even the newspapers are captured, and confess 
that this is a big thing. Religion is booming in London to- 
day. . . . The Christian Endeavor movement is the em-| 
bodiment of the practical view of religion. It has all the 
courage of its youth. It has a social programme which is a 
menace to vice of every kind. It has a business and political 
programme which aims at clean-handedness, fair play, and 
pure ideals in both departments. It wants war against war, 
and brotherly love in all international dealings. It may not 
get all it wants all at once, but its enthusiasm is good to see and 
good to feel. One realizes that new blood is running in the 
old world's veins, and that its pulse beats healthily. The En- 
deavorer's dream of to-day will be the established fact of to- 
morrow, its castles in the air solidly planted in granite on the 



" Twice two in spiritual arithmetic are more than plus two. 
According to the promise, if one can chase a thousand, two can 
put not two thousand, but ten thousand to flight. Twice two 
are ten. The Sunday-school multiplied by Christian Endeavor 
is a great deal more than the Sunday-school plus Christian 
Endeavor. Added, they are four colors; multiplied, they are a 
cathedral window." Rev. F. N. Peloubet. 

I " The church is the tree, and the Christian Endeavor Society 
\ is only one of its branches. There are not two trees." 

Rev. Ernest Bourner Allen. 

HE relationships of the Christian Endeavor So- 
ciety have never been in doubt. It was not a 
foundling left upon a door-step, but was legiti- 
mately born into the church family, though, to 
be sure, in a somewhat obscure and inconspicu- 
ous church family, nor has it ever wavered in its allegiance to 
its mother, or failed in generous affection for its brothers and 

From the very beginning it has maintained that it was 
in the church and of the church and for the church. Its 
motto,* "For Christ and the Church," proposed at one of the 

* Rev. N. F. Nickerson of Erie, Mich., writes that this motto was quoted 
by the author at the first Saratoga convention (1886) as having been seen by him 
on a Christian Endeavor banner, and that he (Mr. N.) proposed its adoption. It 


276 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

very earliest conventions, has been the theme for innumerable 
addresses, the subject of many a poem, and the inspiring idea 
in thousands of conventions. The writer has seen it in scores 
of languages, on topic-cards and programmes, in letters of 
flowers and greenery on church walls, and often indelibly 
wrought into the beautiful stained-glass windows presented 
by the society to the church. 

When the church is considered as a family instead of 
simply as the mother of the family, the idea has been confused 
in many minds, and the word "relation" is not always properly 
applied. As the author has before written, " 'The relation of 
the Society to the church' has been discussed innumerable 
times, sometimes by hostile critics, sometimes by friendly ad- 
vocates of the Society; and it has been too often assumed, 
without argument and without justification, that it is some- 
thing apart from and one side of the church. It is a 'rela- 
tion, a poor relation, a young relation, a relation that needs 
to be rebuffed, or a relation that needs a little patronizing ap- 
proval. But until we find out what relation the child is to 
the family, until we can properly speak of the relation of 
the finger to the hand, we cannot with exactness talk about 
the relation of the Society to the church. 

"What, pray, is the church? Is it a certain 
is the number of the older members? Is it the congre- 

gation that gathers to hear the pastor's Sunday- 
morning sermon or to engage in the evening service? Is it 
the midweek prayer-meeting? 

"Yes, it is all these and more. The church is the local 
body of Christ's followers who worship Sunday morning and 
Sunday evening. The church is the people at prayer in the 
midweek service. The Sunday-school is the church giving 

was not formally adopted, but gradually became the accepted motto of the 
Society. At the top of the first convention programme of the New York State 
Union appeared the motto, " For Christ and the Church." 

Programme of Work. 277 

and receiving instruction. The sewing-circle, if composed of 
godly women, is the church working for the poor. The mis- 
sionary society is the church praying for and giving for the 
advancement and extension of the kingdom of God. 

"The Christian Endeavor Society is the church training/ 
and being trained for practical service in the Kingdom.* 

The child in the family is the exact analogy of the young 
people's society in the church, and for the most part the 
Christian Endeavor Society has been a loving child and most 
affectionately treated. To be sure, it has sometimes shared 
the disadvantages and received the rebukes that most steady 
and conscientious children who always stay at home receive. 
There is a glamour about the prodigal and his return, which 
is more apt to invest him with the best robe and the ring than 
the steady elder brother; but that is no reason why the elder 
brother should be singled out for special reproaches. It has , 
sometimes been a little trying to Endeavorers to be scolded 
roundly for not attending the Sunday-evening service and the 
midweek prayer-meeting when other young people of the 
congregation and members of the church, who have practi- 
cally the same obligation, were allowed to go scott-free from 
all reproach, and when no word of exhortation was given 
to the older members and office-bearers of the church for 
the same dereliction. 

The reason is very plain ; the Endeavorers have set up for ' 
themselves a high and definite standard of loyalty; they have 
promised to attend the regular church services unless excused 
by conscience upon a direct appeal to their Master. They 
are judged by this standard as they ought to be, but, after all. 
Some Un= it is really no higher than that contained in the 
Ex^ecta^'^ Covenant of every church-member, though it is 
tions. more definite and specific. Sometimes the elders 

give altogether too little thought to the qualifying clause of 

* " World-Wide Endeavor." 

278 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

the covenant pledge, which would otherwise be entirely un- 
reasonable, that these duties will be performed and these serv- 
ices attended unless the member is prevented by an excuse 
which he can give to the Master. 

Now and then, no doubt, this excuse is stretched to cover 
reasons which the conscience ought not to allow; but it is 
a vast advance step to make such matters a question of con- 
science at all, not to leave them to haphazard of weather and 
inclination, not to make duty the football of circumstances, but 
to feel, as every Christian Endeavorer must: *'The presump- 
tion is in favor of this duty, it shall be my habitual practice to 
perform it. I will not ask why I should do it, but rather why 
I should not do it." Many weak and frivolous excuses will 
fall before this test; only fhe better reasons are likely to stand 

But, even when tested by practical experience and sta- 
tistics, the showing is entirely favorable for the active mem- 
bers of the Endeavor Society throughout the world. On two 
separate occasions statistics have been gathered from far and 
near; ministers of all denominations, to the number of sev- 
eral thousand, have been asked in regard to the attendance of 
the active members upon the Sunday-evening and midweek 
services of the church. Their replies have been 
Tests.' tabulated, and have been found on each occasion to 

indicate that almost twice as many members of 
the Christian Endeavor society attended these services as of 
all the members of the church. 

Seventy-six per cent and fifty-seven per cent were the av- 
erage of these counts for the attendance of the Endeavorers re- 
spectively at the Sunday-evening and the midweek services 
of the church. Forty-six per cent and twenty-eight per cent 
were the averages for all the church-members, old and young, 
for these same services. If the question had been asked how 
large a percentage of the older members of the church aside 

Programme of Work. 279 

from the Christian Endeavorers attend these services, the per- 
centage would have been reduced to a pitiably small one in 
many churches. It is necessary only to add that these figures 
have been obtained almost entirely from pastors and churches 
that were not known by the author, and that the averages 
were made up by compilers who had no thought of "making 
out a case," and who could not have done so from the data 
furnished if they had desired. 

More recently Professor Wells has received answers to a ! 
long series of questions from more than 1,800 pastors of every 
denomination, and the almost universal testimony of these pas- 
tors is that their Endeavorers are loyal to the backbone. 

If the local church is the mother of the Society, the de- 
nomination has sometimes proved to be the stepmother, and 
not always a very kindly one. The first serious objections to 
the Christian Endeavor movement came from denomina- 
tional headquarters, and the only determined effort to injure 
it or supplant it has come from the same sources. 

Denomina= ^^ , . , , , , . 

tionai It was thought m the early days that m some 

jec ions, ^^y interdenominational fellowship must weaken 
denominational loyalty, that the young Christians of many 
denominations could not learn to know and love one 
another better without learning at the same time to know 
and love their own denomination less. The publishing- 
house and the denominational paper sometimes figured largely 
in this opposition to the interdenominational movement, and 
at first every new publication of the United Society and every 
issue of The Golden Rule were looked upon with suspicion 
and distrust by some. 

But now, happily, this is very largely changed, except 
in one or two instances. The denominations at large, as well 
as the local churches, have come to perceive that the Christian 
Endeavor Society is a genuine and loyal helper of all their 
enterprises, as proud of the history of the past, as faithful to 

zSo Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

the work of the present, as any purely denominational society 
can be. 

In fact, a number of sects that twenty years ago resolved 
to have a purely denominational society of their own have 
heartily and unreservedly come into the Christian Endeavor 
movement. The Advocates of Christian Fidelity in the Free 
Baptist churches, for instance, have almost all become Christ- 
ian Endeavor societies. Many of the smaller denominations 
have accepted bodily the interdenominational name for their 
young people, while a number of the larger ones, like the 
Presbyterians, Disciples of Christ, and Congregationalists, 
have practically never had any other organization. Still 
others have added the Christian Endeavor name to their de- 
nominational name, like the Keystone Leagues of Christian 
Endeavor of the United Evangelical churches, and the Ep- 
worth Leagues of Christian Endeavor of Canada. 

During the last few years the denominational 

Denomina= •^- * r ^t ^ i u ^- t i 

tionai recognition* of the movement has been particularly 

tSon^^"'^ gratifying. It is supposed by many people in the 
United States that the Christian Endeavor move- 
ment is represented but very little if at all in the Methodist 
Church, whereas, take it the world over, that is one of the lead- 
ing Christian Endeavor denominations. The Australasian 
Methodist Church, constituted by the happy union of the six 
different denominations that followed Wesley's teachings, at 
their last conference adopted Christian Endeavor as a neces- 
sary and useful part of their church machinery. It is ex- 
pected that a Christian Endeavor society will be formed in 
every Australian Methodist church, and the consecration- 
meeting is adopted as the class-meeting for the young people. 

* The (Dutch) Reformed Church of America was doubtless the first one to 
give official recognition to the Christian Endeavor Society. Many others have 
since followed this example, including the Disciples of Christ, Cumberland Presby- 
terians, Friends, Primitive Methodists, Methodist Protestant, African Methodist 
Episcopal, and Zion churches, and many others in Great Britain and Australia 
as well as America. 

The Society and its Relations. 281 

The questions asked at the Quarterly Conferences and at the 
General Conference relate among other things to the estab- 
lishment and welfare of the Christian Endeavor Society, 
which is taken for granted as much as the Sunday-school. 

In the official resolutions at a late meeting of the Primi- 
tive Methodist Church of Great Britain we read that "the 
Conference learns with much satisfaction of the continued 
growth of Christian Endeavor. The Conference rejoices to 
learn that the increase has spread over the whole connection, 
and thus reveals that the work among the young people is in 
a healthy and progressive condition." In this denomination 
alone in Great Britain are more than three thousand societies 
and more than one hundred thousand members. 

The Methodist New Connection Conference has recently 
spoken in the same way, saying: "This Conference heartily 
recognizes the large benefit secured to our young people and 
the churches of the denomination through the Christian En- 
deavor movement, and, after more than ten years' connectional 
oversight and direction, affirms most cordially that in this 
spiritual agency there are untold opportunities of fellowship, 
church loyalty, and Christian activity. It moreover rejoices 
in the bond of sympathy in service which binds our young 
people to those of other churches, and views with deep pleas- 
ure the unity of this movement, not only in this country, but 
also on the continent of Europe, in our colonies, in the mission 
fields, and throughout the world." 

One of the most remarkable testimonies of this sort from 
a Methodist source was recently written by the secretary of 
the Methodist Church of Australia in New Zealand. 

"About fifteen years ago our work among the young peo- 
ple was in a very unsatisfactory condition. While we had our 
system of class-meetings, including young people's classes, these 
were very poorly availed of, and the question of how to nourish 
the young life of the church presented a very serious problem. 


Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

Since the establishment of Christian Endeavor societies among 
us there has been little short of a revolution. Work among 
and by the young people is to-day one of the leading features 
of our church life. There was never such a large proportion 
of young people in our congregations and in our church-mem- 
bership as we have to-day. The church courts have recog- 
nized the value and importance of the Christian Endeavor so- 

The Methodist Episcopal Christian Endeavor Society of Barcelona, Spain. 

cieties by adopting a rule declaring that all active members 
who so desire shall be recognized as church-members, subjectj 
of course, to their observance of the usual conditions of 

^. P ^ The Endeavorers have responded most heartily 

deavorers' to the Confidence and affection thus expressed by 

Response. .1 • i • • 1 1 1 

their denominational superiors, and as a natural re- 
sult the Methodist Church of Australia is a leading factor in 

The Society and its Relations. 283 

this interdenominational movement, through it influencing all 
the other churches for good. 

In many denominations, like the Reformed, the Disciples 
of Christ, the Cumberland Presbyterians, and the Congrega- 
tionalists, the Endeavorers have built churches, in some cases 
a goodly number of them, and thus have strengthened the de- 
nominational forces. 

Among the Presbyterians eighty foreign missionaries 
have been supported wholly or in part in a single year by the 
Endeavorers of the denomination. 

The English Baptist Endeavorers have raised twenty-five 
thousand dollars for the steamer "Endeavor," which plies the 

The Primitive Methodist Endeavorers of Great Britain 
are building a missionary training-school in Western Africa. 

Thus we might go on through the list if it were necessary, 
to show how the Endeavor Society has responded to the in- 
creasing confidence of the denominational leaders. 

Oftentimes the society, especially in rural com- 
Sunday= munitics, has laid upon it the responsibility for the 
SerJice^ Sunday-evening service, a responsibility which 
helps it quite as much as it helps the service, which, 
indeed, has often been revivified in this way. In fact. Dr. 
Charles M. Sheldon, the noted author, who among his per- 
sonal friends is quite as much honored for his pastoral insight 
and his practical philanthropy as for his literary skill, advo- 
cates most strongly the making of the Sunday-evening service 
a distinctively Christian Endeavor service, with a brief ad- 
dress from the pastor at the end, after participation by all the 
members. Much time is often taken, too, for social inter- 
course and for evangelistic effort, and Dr. Sheldon declares 
this to be the most fruitful service of the week in building up 
the church, and recommends it heartily to his brother pastors. 

Often in the interregnum between pastors the Christian 

284 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

Endeavor society has stood in the breach, and has proved es- 
pecially useful in holding the church together and binding the 
young people to it more heartily. Hundreds of practical in- 
stances like the following have come to the knowledge of the 
writer during the last five and twenty years. 

''Some years ago," writes a pastor in New York State, "I 
was invited to supply for a Sunday the pulpit of a church 
which was sufTering from 'internal dissensions.' I learned 
afterward that the Sunday previous to my visit a business- 
meeting had been called to consider the question of closing the 
church doors. 

"A determined band of young people said, 'These doors 
must not be closed.' The vote, when taken, resulted in a ma- 
jority of one for the open door. The Christian Endeavor so- 
ciety had funds in their treasury, and said, 'We will pay the 
expenses of a supply for the pulpit as long as our money lasts.' 

"I was asked to come the second Sunday, and another, and 
another, until seven weeks had passed. By that time the dis- 
turbing element had passed away; old feuds were forgotten in 
nev/ activities; and I was asked to accept the permanent pas- 
torate of the church by a unanimous vote. 

"The church to-day is in the care of another and a better 
pastor, has made many material improvements in its church 
property, and is a vigorous and telling power for good in the 
community. It is my opinion that the Christian Endeavor 
society saved it." 

The sisters of the society are the other organi- 
Sisters zations in the same church, and to all these the En- 
^ ^^^ deavor society owes and, I believe, has given love 

and service. The older sisters, like the women's 
societies, the Dorcas societies, and the Maternal Association, 
have never been inclined to "boss" this younger sister, but 
have very often given and received genuine help. Indeed, the 
Mothers' Association is often a kind of foster-mother to the 
Junior Endeavor society, and sometimes even takes its name, 
and becomes a Mothers' Endeavor society, the Juniors giving 

The Society and its Relations. 285 

the mothers an opportunity such as they have never had before 
to pray for and with the boys and girls, and to work among 

But especially for the Sunday-school sister has Christian 
Endeavor, as was natural, shown the most affection. The 
Sunday-school was nearer its own age, though, paradoxical as 
it may sound, born almost exactly a hundred years earlier; but 
its primary purpose was to instruct the boys and girls, as a 
primary purpose of the Endeavor society is to train them. 
Most cordial have always been the relations of these "twin 
sisters" in the church family. The vast majority of Endeavor- 
ers, ninety-five out of one hundred probably, are Sunday- 
school teachers or scholars. The interests of one organiza- 
tion are the interests of the other, and yet neither has tried to 
usurp the duties of the other. One puts emphasis upon in- 
struction, the other upon training; and, though these two fea- 
tures are joined closely together and sometimes dovetail into 
one another, the duties and limits of each are easily under- 

In a hundred ways the Endeavor society can be helpful to 
the Sunday-school, and many of the societies have Sunday- 
school committees especially for the purpose of enlarging and 
improving the school and aiding the superintendent and 
teachers in any possible way, while the Sunday-school is, and 
naturally always will be, a great recruiting-ground of the so- 
The ci^ty. 

Prosperity It is a notable and easily authenticated fact that 

Sunday= the ycars of greatest activity of the Sunday-school 
School. movement have coincided with the later and most 
prosperous years of the Christian Endeavor Society. One 
seems to have stimulated the other. In America, at least, the 
Sunday-school conventions were never so large and influential 
as to-day, and in many lines the Sunday-school movement 
seems to have taken on new life and vigor. 

286 Christian Endeavor in All Lands, 

If the Sunday-school is the sister of the young people's 
society, the Young Men's Christian Association is a brother of 
kindred purpose, though of different method; and between 
these two most friendly relations have always existed. In va- 
rious ways they have been able to help each other, and recep- 
tions given by the Association to the Endeavor society have 
often been returned when the society has opened its doors to 
the Association. In fact, in many cities the leaders in the one 
are also enthusiastic leaders in the other organiza- 

The • 

Y. M. c. A. tion. The highest officer in the American Associa- 
y"p*s^c e ^^^^^ recently said to the writer that what was true 
of the Sunday-school was also true of the Associa- 
tion; its most prosperous quarter-century has been the last; 
its best decade has been the last, and he added that, if anything 
was needed to prove the mutually helpful relations of one or- 
ganization to the other, that was sufficient. 

Most Association men desire that all local church so- 
cieties, especially those composed of both sexes, should become 
Christian Endeavor societies, while to the Association should 
be left the general field outside of local church affiliations, in 
other words, that the Association should stand in loco parentis 
to the unchurched young men, having for their leaders, of 
course, church-members, and always working in fullest sympa- 
thy and co-operation with the church. This is the field the 
Association already occupies in America and Great Britain, 
and it is hoped that this will soon be true on the continent of 

For strictly denominational societies Christian Endeavor- 
ers have only good will and fraternal feeling, while indulging 
in the earnest hope that one of these days they will all see 
their way, as most already have, to come into closer fellowship 
with the world's interdenominational young people's move- 

The Christian Endeavor Society also has cousins and 

The Society and its Relations. 287 

aunts and remote relations among the many organizations for 
women and men that are seeking to lift up humanity, relieve 
suffering, and bless the world. To these all the Endeavor so- 
cieties acknowledge their indebtedness, and rejoice in their re- 
lationship. To them all Christian Endeavor says, "God- 
speed," and, wherever their allies are fighting the one great 
battle, Endeavorers re-echo Miss Willard's eloquent words 
with which she closed an address at a Christian Endeavor con- 
vention : 

"General Phil Sheridan in the great crisis of one of his 
battles saw that the enemy wavered; he saw that his hour had 
come, and in his dashing fashion he cried out, 'Let everything 
go in — artillery, engineers, bands of music, cavalry, infantry, 
everybody.' Your Christian Endeavor sends out the same 
cry. I thank God that you send it. Flying cavalry of youth, 
go in; let the artillery of argument go in; let the women and 
children go in; and out from the climax of the battle, by 
Christ's dear grace, shall come a protected home and a re- 
deemed republic, which Christ shall rule in custom and law." 



" Every new and successful organization must pass through 
three stages of development, the ' pooh-pooh stage,' when many 
people sneer at it, the ' bow-wow stage,' when many growl at 
it, and the ' hear, hear stage,' when most applaud it. Christian 
Endeavor has already passed through the first two of these 
stages, and in most lands has now reached the third." 

Rev. Joseph Broivn Aiorgan. 

'VERY great river, especially if it flows with a 
^J swift, impetuous current, has here and there a 
back-set or an eddy, where for a little space the 
current seems to be flowing in the opposite direc- 
tion. A stick of wood thrown into the stream 
above Niagara Falls, when it reaches the bottom, whirls 
around and around, as if uncertain which way to go, until, 
taken up by the resistless force of the current, it is at last 
borne on and down to the smoother reaches of the great river. 
So with the Christian Endeavor stream; it has had its back 
currents and its local eddies, which for a time have caused 
its friends to grieve and its few opponents to say, "I told you 

It may have seemed from preceding chapters that there 
had never been a break in its prosperity, or an unkindly critic 
to disturb the serenity of its work. But in this history, since 
it aims to be a chronicle of the first twenty-five years of the 


Back Currents and Eddies. 289 

movement, and not a panegyric, it must be recorded that the 
Christian Endeavor river did not always flow through flower- 
decked meadows and under unclouded skies. 

The societies themselves, of course, were not always free 
from blame for their difficulties. They were largely made up 
of young people, and of imperfect young people, young 
people, to be sure, whose intentions were almost uniformly 
good, but whose judgment was not mature, and who needed 
kindly and patient oversight. In some societies was found the 
^^g young man more rarely the young woman, af- 

Disease flictcd with the uncomfortable disease megalomania, 
Megaio= more popularly and vulgarly known as "the big 
mama. head." It was impossible to teach these youths 

anything from the experience of the past, as has been said. 
"They insisted sometimes upon forming their societies without 
a pledge, without a consecration-meeting, and without a look- 
out committee, and would blandly inform those who had long 
experience in the work that such rules and regulations, though 
they might be well enough for some, seemed to them childish, 
and 'could not be adopted by our young people.' " 

However, these diseases, natural to childhood, were com- 
paratively rare, and caused but very few deaths. The funda- 
mental ideas of the Society, especially the deeply imbedded 
principle of loyalty to the local church, and the rules provid- 
ing for the oversight and veto power of the church and pastor 
in all important matters, reduced to the minimum all these 
natural difficulties inherent in the young people's organiza- 

They could not, however, forefend the attacks of the more 
or less well-informed critics, who felt it their duty to guard 
the Society against the curse pronounced upon those of whom 
all men speak well. Some of the leaders of the movement 
who are not famous for rhinoceros hides have winced cruelly 
under these attacks, which it often has not been possible to 

290 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

meet without seeming over-sensitive or unduly anxious to 
"steady the ark." 

Very early in the history of the Society the critics began 
to sharpen their knives, some of them thinking to make an 
easy end of "the young upstart," as he was once politely called. 
A year after the formation of the first society, under date of 
February 12, 1882, the writer finds in his diary the following 
record. "Meeting of the Cumberland Association 
House of ministers in Williston Church. I give some ac- 

Peas"' count of our young people's society. All approve 

of it except Mr. — . He does not believe in 'hot- 
house green peas,' and is very bitter toward the society." 

One of the most dignified and most forcibly put of these 
early criticisms, by an influential paper, is here quoted to show 
the best case that could be made out in those earliest days 
against the Society and its work. 

"Christian nurture is as old as the church. It has been 
a need; it is a need; and it will be a need. We want it; we 
must have it, we die daily without it, but how are we to get it? 
We are afraid of the society plan. That is the standing 
American way of doing things — to get up a society and have 
grand co-operative action ; but this is a case where one may be 
better than many and co-operation not so good as operation. 
Fill the country with societies, and nothing would be done 
until individuals began to do their individual duty. Why not 
begin in this way? A great society will not create opportuni- 
ties. Good sense, a pair of open eyes, and a faithful heart 
make the best society of Christian Endeavor in the world. 
Get your little world around you, and begin operations at once. 
Have your circle, your meetings, your little societies. 

"The society for carrying on so simple a duty is pretty 
sure to be all society, and very little Christian nurture. As 
far as association is needed, the church is all that is required. 
What is the church good for if not to guide and support Chris- 
tian nurture and to call out Christian endeavor? It fur- 
nishes every required opportunity, and the use of its agencies 

Back Currents and Eddies. 291 

will not require a multiplication of agencies, nor an increase 
of machinery. 

"If organization is required, there is every chance in the 
world to organize through the church. . . . Young peo- 
ple should not be crowded too far, nor into a kind of mature 
work they are not fit to do; to exhort and preach when their 
minds are callow and their judgments unformed. . . . 
The sum of it is, we want the Christian nurture and the Chris- 
tian endeavor, but we want them writ small, and not in capi- 
tals. We do not object to societies, but we are afraid of the 
Society of Christian Endeavor." 

. It is needless to point out that the writer of this 

Unconscious article entirely overlooked the fact that the very ob- 
ject of the Society was to help individuals to do 
their duty, and to give individuals a definite duty to perform 
which they would never find for themselves. This history 
would never have been written, and the Society would never 
have found its way outside of its original church home, had 
not this been the design and practical outcome of the Christian 
Endeavor movement. An old unconscious fallacy also under- 
lies this whole article, the fallacy that the church is something 
less or other than the sum of its activities, and that something 
besides the church is calling out Christian Endeavor through 
the Christian Endeavor Society. 

The article quoted above of course would not be written 
to-day, and it is interesting to note that the journal publishing 
it is now, and has been for many years, one of the stanchest 
friends and advocates of the movement. Other editors and 
pastors, however, agreed with the writer quoted and tried in 
every way to "write small" the word "endeavor" and the so- 
ciety which bore its name. But it is again interesting to note 
that in the great majority of cases these pastors to-day take 
no such attitude, and many of them have since helped in a mul- 
titude of ways to advance the movement. 

Other critical articles of the early days need no comment, 

292 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

and are quoted only as curiosities of literature. One writer 
is so incensed against the movement that he will not when he 
can help it even sully his paper with its name. "It is such an 
awkward, meaningless term," he says, "that henceforward it 
will be referred to as 'this society.' " Here are two choice 
specimens from different papers, one published in West Vir- 
ginia, and the other in Connecticut. 

A "Among the many heresies of modern things we 

" Modern have Selected the Young People's Society of Chris- 
^^^^^' tian Endeavor, and will try to measure it by the 
Word of God. It is a society that boasts of its membership 
running up into hundreds of thousands. They claim that its 
growth has been 'phenomenal.' But I never heard of them 
trying to show that it is scriptural. 

" 'Numbers are no mark. 

That we shall right be found. 
Eight souls were saved in Noah's ark, 
While many millions drowned.' 

"If that society exists by the authority of Jesus Christ, cer- 
tainly some of their members would be able to show chapter 
and verse." 

Here is the contribution from Connecticut: — 

"You-Pretty-Sweet-Child-Elymas. What and who are 
you, anyway, if not an old bird in new feathers? You are a 
success spectacular! You are the tail that wags the dog! 
You capture and swallow at one gullup the whole city-full, 
pulpit and pew! You have come to stay! So comes leprosy 
when it finds its affinity!! You have found a fat carcass!! 
You are covered with the dust, rust, and moth of ages!! You 
are simply an old bird in new feathers!! You are a bowing 
wall, etc.! You are a favorite of the world!" 

Another writer in the early days inveighed bitterly against 
the author of this history because, as he says, "Dr. Clark has 

Back Currents and Eddies. 293 

prepared a new Bible for Endeavorers." He says, "This 
Bible with notes by the man specimens of whose writings 
have been shown in these articles is now an estab- 
Curious lished fact. The writer has not seen this Bible; 
jec lon. pej-1-^aps it is just as well, or the editor might have 
to furnish space for another letter." 

The fact of the matter was, that The Golden Rule, of 
which the author was the editor, ofifered as a premium at one 
time the well-known "International Bible," a famous teach- 
ers' Bible with notes by eminent scholars. The editor had not 
written a line of these notes, and, much to his regret, could not 
lay the slightest claim to them. But this critic, "who prefers 
to remain unknown," and who had "not seen this Bible" of 
which he writes, allows no little matter of that sort to inter- 
fere with his sarcasm, but goes on to say, 

"Perhaps the International Bible, ivith notes by the editor 
of The Golden Rule, will explain to those who accept it as 
their standard that our Lord did not mean what He said when 
He gave this advice to His followers, 'But thou, when thou 
doest thine alms, do not sound a trumpet before thee, as the 
hypocrites do in the synagogues and streets, that they may have 
glory of men. Verily, I say unto thee, they have their re- 
ward. But thou, when thou doest thine alms, let not thy left 
hand know what thy right hand doeth.' Or possibly it will be 
said by many followers of this new faith that^humility, and a 
hiding of self, was suited to the times before these, but that 
now each one should keep himself or herself prominently in 
view, lest any good deed or meritorious act go, by any chance, 

One of the commonest charges in the early 
Wolf in days was that this innocent child of the church was 
cloThing. ' none other than "a ravening wolf in sheep's cloth- 
ing," a subtle deceiver, working especially in the 
interests of the Cogregational denomination. Some natural 
glorification of Congregationalism at a distinctly Congrega- 

294 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

tional rally, where members of no other denomination were 
present, was used as a basis of such vehement denunciation in 
some other denominational papers. This charge had its ludi- 
crous side to some of the Christian Endeavor leaders who were 
suffering just at that time from attacks of some Congregation- 
alists and the lofty indifference and total ignoring of others. 

In parts of the country, however, where the Society was 
found chiefly in Presbyterian churches, it was considered as 
one of the wiles of the devil to lead all young Methodists into 
the Presbyterian fold, while in another part of the world, 
where the Methodists predominated I have heard the society 
objected to as " altogether too Methodistic." 

Theological seminaries have frequently been among the 
last to recognize any good thing in the Society, or even to be 
aware of its existence. Some of them, apparently, to this day, 
have never heard of it. By some professors it has been 
soundly rated in their lectures or else damned with exceed- 
ingly faint praise. 

There are, however, not a few exceptions to this rule, in 
fact so many exceptions that perhaps they would form the rule 
rather than the exception. For among the earliest and most 
earnest friends of the movement have been such eminent the- 
ologians as President George B. Stewart of Auburn Seminary; 
President Beach of Bangor; President Barrows of Oberlin 
Seminary and Oberlin College; Professor, now President, 
King of the same institution; President Wood of Newton 
Seminary; President Charles Cuthbert Hall of Union Sem- 
inary, New York; and many others who might be mentioned. 
The late lamented President Harper, when a professor in the 
Yale Divinity School, was a trustee of the United Society, and 
frequently spoke at its conventions. 

At the invitation of President Stewart the author pre- 
pared a course of lectures on Christian Nurture, with special 
reference to the Christian Endeavor Society, which he deliv- 

Back Currents and Eddies. 295 

ered first at Auburn, and afterwards at many other seminaries 

of different denominations,* and wishes to acknowledge the 

cordial way in which he was received by professors 

Denom= , , ,., 

inationai and Students alike. 

Opposi= Denominational opposition, as has before been 

said, was the most serious of all, because it was or- 
ganized opposition, and because the Society was often deliber- 
ately supplanted by others with almost exactly the same prin- 
ciples and methods, but with different names and without the 
fellowship. The reasons for this opposition are sufficiently 
obvious, and need not be dwelt upon. 

The hardest thing to bear, perhaps, in these criticisms 
was the total misunderstanding of underlying principles, or 
the entire ignorance of the history of the Society, which some- 
times led speakers on important occasions to travesty the truth 
about the Society. Thus at an important international meet- 
ing of Christians the speakers pleaded for "heroic service" and 
"practical methods," criticising the young people of the day 
for "lack of stamina" and zeal, and utterly ignoring the fact 
that the Society had for its purpose heroic service for the 
church and the practical philanthropies which the critics 
pleaded for. The very things that they asked to have done 
were being done in ten thousand churches, and they had never 
taken the pains to find out about it. One great purpose of the 
Society that they criticised for not enduring hardness was to 
teach its members to endure hardness as good soldiers. 

Other objections blew from exactly the opposite point of 
the compass. The Society was "too serious," "too strenuous," 
it "was not fitted for boys and girls," it did "not provide for 
their amusement," it made "too much of the prayer-meeting." 
Such writers quietly scofifed at the "Quiet Hour" and all such 
features. It was claimed that the "four M's," Moody, Mur- 

* Among them, Oberlin, Chicago, McCormick, Rochester, Union, Andover, 
Bangor, Newton, and Gettysburg Seminaries. 

296 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

ray, Meyer, and Morgan, were the patron saints of the So- 
ciety, and something "more practical and rational" was 
pleaded for. The writers evidently forgot that the most prac- 
tical men in the church of recent years were these same four 
M's, who by their books and their schools, their practical ser- 
vice for the Kingdom in the church and in politics, by their 
splendid organizing ability, as well as by their deep devotion, 
have probably done more than any other four men 
'Four in the recent history of the church. If the society 

wanted any patron saints, it could not choose more 
wisely than to take the "four M's." 

But the objection implied in the criticism was altogether 
beside the mark, for it will be seen on other pages that tasks 
and duties level with the comprehension of the youngest child- 
ren in the society are provided, and their innocent amusement 
is not neglected nor their social natures stunted. The very 
things that it is criticised for not doing it is trying in twice 
ten thousand places patiently and persistently to accomplish. 

The very success of the Society has inspired some of its 
critics with their chief argument. The rapidity of its growth, 
the enormous size of its conventions, have come in for their 
share of animadversion. It has over and over again been 
plainly proved that the societies that sprung up so rapidly 
must die down as quickly, and the mushroom has been a favor- 
ite simile in the mouths of some. But there are other compar- 
isons which are more illuminating than that of the mushroom, 
A revolution in public sentiment seems to be born in a day; 
but it is really the result of many causes, and perhaps has come 
only after centuries of preparation. The French Revolution 
gathered force in a week, but silent preparation for it was 
made throughout the century. The Christian Endeavor 
movement seems to have been born in a day; it was really the 
result of a century of care and thought and prayer for the 
young. The Rhone starts from Geneva with tremendous 

Back Currents and Eddies. 297 

force and volume, but it is because it has Lake Leman behind 

These criticisms and many others which might be men- 
tioned never really harmed the Christian Endeavor movement. 
A tree once fairly planted is rarely destroyed by adverse winds. 
It may be bent and twisted in its youth, but it grows sturdier 
and stronger because of these very winds that threaten its de- 
struction. It is good for a society to bear the yoke of criti- 
cism in its youth. Destructive criticism is soon forgotten, 
constructive criticism helps it to mend its ways, to strengthen 
its weak points, and to avoid dangerous pitfalls. The Society 
of Christian Endeavor will always welcome friendly and up- 
building criticism, and has reason, at the end of its twenty- 
fifth year, to be grateful even to its disguised friends, the un- 
friendly critics. 

"There is no storm hath power to blast 
The tree God plants: 
No thunderbolt, no beating rain. 
Nor lightning flash, nor hurricane — 
When they are spent, it doth remain; 
The tree God knows 
Through every tempest standeth fast. 
And from its first day to its last 
Still fairer grows." 




" Then, again, the Christian Endeavorers can contribute to 
the church a cheery optimism which is too often absent from 
the spirit and methods of Christians. Young people are glori- 
ously optimistic, and sometimes exhibit a ' cocksureness ' about 
men and things which is simply delightful. Let not the seniors 
be too anxious to suppress them. The ' big brotherliness ' of 
Eliab would have wiped out the zeal and enthusiasm of the 
smaller but more daring Junior, David." 

Rev. J. D. Lamont, Ireland. 

iN often-overlooked result of the Christian En- 
deavor movement is its introduction of the color, 
the sparkle and bloom, natural to youth into the 
religious life of the day. 

Protestantism is apt to be sombre, sometimes 
gloomy. The iconoclasts not only stripped the churches of 
the images and tore down the pictures, but they broke the 
stained-glass windows, and in their holy zeal against image- 
worship removed every scrap of color from many a church 
which for centuries after their image-breaking exploits re- 
mained colorless and gloomy. The Protestant puts on his best 
black clothes on Sunday, and unfortunately sometimes puts on 
a sombre face with his sombre clothes. A preacher's Sunday 
voice does not always have the same cheerful ring in it that 
is found in his Saturday voice or his Monday voice. 

There was evidently room in our modern religious life 


Touches of Color. 


Christian Endeavor Badges. 
Some Specimens from Many Parts of the World. 

300 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

for more of brightness, vivacity, and color without in any way 
lowering the standards of reverence or godly fear. Much can 
be done to show that religion means good cheer for the liv- 
ing, as well as comfort for the dying; that it was meant to 
strew roses on the pathway of life, as well as to illuminate the 
dark valley. 

What is more natural, then, since this need exists in the re- 
ligious life of the day, than that the young people's society 
should seek to meet it; for youth is the age of vi- 
christian vacity and color? An outward and visible sign of 
Endeavor this brightening of the religious life is found in the 

Badge. ^, . • t^ i i , i • i • i 

Christian Endeavor badges, which in the very 
earliest days of the Society began to flutter from the breasts 
of the young Endeavorers. At first these were but bits of 
ribbon with "Christian Endeavor Convention," or some such 
simple legend, printed upon them. Then, as the Society grew, 
in order that one State delegation might be differentiated from 
another, and that it might be known at a glance whether the 
fellow Endeavorer whom we met on the street came from 
Texas or Quebec, from Oklahoma or Oregon, State and Pro- 
vincial devices began to appear. The California bear was pic- 
tured on the broad yellow and purple badge of the Sunshine 
State; Canada used the maple-leaf design; Maine's pine-tree 
decorated the badge of the Dirigo Endeavorers; New Hamp- 
shire Endeavorers dangled a little granite block from their 
badge ; the color of the Vermont badges showed that the young 
people came from the Green Mountain State. At one time the 
Florida badge was the Christian Endeavor monogram painted 
on a great silver tarpon scale, while the Connecticut En- 
deavorers did not resent the time-worn joke about their thrifty 
ancestors, but hung a wooden nutmeg from one end of their 
badge to show where they had left their homes. 

But the Christian Endeavor monogram badge had a more 
important mission than to lend a special color or the glitter of 

Touches of Color. 301 

silver or gold to a convention. It has performed a wonder- 
fully useful mission in giving the members of the Society an 
opportunity to show their colors, metaphorically rather than 
literally. It has become a badge of Christian discipleship. 
The wearer has simply by wearing it shown to the 
One's world that he was not ashamed to be known as a 

Colors. ^, . ^. 


In numberless cases it has kept him out of unworthy 
places where he would not have his Christian Endeavor badge 
displayed. For this purpose it is well designed, being plain, 
simple, and open, and not so elaborate that it cannot be read 
at a glance. As has been often pointed out, the E is entirely 
enclosed by the C, showing that the "endeavor," whatever it 
may be, is within the "Christ." 

This simple monogram has perhaps been used more ex- 
tensively than any other of modern times. It is adopted by 
Endeavorers of every nation, whatever the language, for C. E. 
is the universal symbol of Christian Endeavor. Their own 
name goes with it, to be sure; but the original English mono- 
gram is found in China and in the languages of India, in 
Persia and the South Sea Islands, as well as in America and 
Europe. Badges by the million, programmes by the ten mil- 
lion, leaflets and pledges and papers and magazines literally 
by the billion, have reproduced this little monogram, and its 
signification is rarely mistaken. 

In most of the languages of Europe the initials of the 
Society are the same as in English, and pains have been taken 
in some cases to give the Society a name that would admit of 
the same monogram, as in Germany "Entschiedenes Chris- 
tenthum," in Spain, "Esfuerzo Cristiano," in Portuguese, 
"Esforgo Christao." In France it has been impossible as yet 
to find an appropriate name with the right initials, and "Ac- 
tivite Chretienne," with the initials C. A., is the accepted term, 
both in France and in French-speaking Switzerland, while 

302 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

Italy calls it "Attivita Cristiano." But C. E. is understood 
in France and Italy as well as C. A. 

Since this simple design has been so widely adopted, it is 
of interest to read the story of the designing of the original 
badge. To the Rev. H. B. Grose, from the beginning one of 
the trustees of the United Society of Christian Endeavor, must 
be given the credit of originating the Endeavor badge, and to 
Mr. F. H. C. Woolley, then a young draughtsman 
story of Medford, Mass., the credit of bringing it to its 

Original final perfection. This is Mr. Grose's story. He 
Design. ^^g ^^^^ pastor of a Baptist church in Pough- 
keepsie, N. Y. Several designs for a badge had been secured 
by the officers of the United Society, and by them were sent 
to the different trustees for inspection and suggestion before 
the final decision should be made at the next meeting of the 
board of trustees. 

"I was sitting in my study," writes Mr. Grose, "when the 
letter was brought in to me. The designs were elaborate and 
beautifully prepared, one of them a shield, I think. My first 
impression was that they were too elaborate, and must prove 
expensive as well. My idea was that the simpler the pin, the 
better; and the backgrounds of shields and crescents and dia- 
monds, and so on, had been used to such an extent by one 
secret order or another that the open monogram occurred to 
me as more uncommon and capable of the greatest simplicity, 
combined with effectiveness and clearness. On the impulse of 
the moment I began to put the letters together, to see whether 
they would join gracefully. I have numbered the attempts in 
the order of their making.* It will be noted that the first idea 
was the one finally returned to in the ninth outline, which, 
while very crude from the artistic point of view, still gives the 
form finally adopted. Satisfied that this was worthy of sug- 
gestion to the committee, I made a more careful sketch, and 
forwarded it, with the request that the artist, Mr. F. H. C. 
Woolley, who drew the other designs, be asked to prepare this 

* See illustration. 

Touches of Color. 


in like finished fashion, for purposes of comparison. This 
was done before the board meeting, if I remember rightly. 
At any rate, at that meeting, November 8, 1887, the monogram 
pin was chosen with that unanimity which has been so marked 
and beautiful a feature of the trustee meetings, and within a 
short time the C. E. pin was advertised by the treasurer, and 
began to be seen in Endeavor circles. The design was patent- 
ed, so that any profits accruing from the sale of the badge 
should be used in the extension of the movement, and not go 
into the pockets of private individuals. 

Rough sketches from which was made the design of the badge. 

"How little any one dreamed in that day that it would 
within a few years be worn by tens and tens of thousands of 
loyal Endeavorers! Many emblems are more showy, more 
glittering, more ornamental, perhaps, but I see none that satis- 
fies me so well, or that awakens so many feelings of afifection, 
gratitude, consecration, and hope as the strong, simple, speak- 
ing monogram in which the ^E' that means 'Endeavor' is made 
sublimely significant by the encompassing 'C that marks it all 
as Christian. 

"These drawings were made on the sheet on which I was 
jotting down some points for an article at the moment the letter 
from Boston was brought in. I leave the points, too, because 
it seems an interesting coincidence that one of those points was 

304 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

that 'duty of Christian citizenship' which President Clark sug- 
gested and emphasized so effectively at Montreal, July, 1893, 
and which now has come to assume so much practical impor- 
tance in the forvv^ard movement of the Christian young people 
of the nation." 

The distinctive badges for each of the irreat 

Special . , , °, a^ r 

Convention couvcntious make valuable souvenirs. Many 01 
^^^* them were designed by well-known artists, and were 
selected only after close competition. For the most part the 
British badges have surpassed the American in beauty and 
finish, though it would be very difficult to find, anything more 
beautiful and artistic than the Baltimore badge of 1905. In 
the American conventions, however, the badge has usually 
been given away to every delegate ; and, when these had to be 
provided by the ten thousand, it was evidently impossible to 
furnish an expensive one. The effect of the massing together 
of several hundred of these convention and State or national 
badges upon a black velvet background, artistically arranged, 
is beautiful and suggestive in the extreme, for each badge tells 
of devotion and Christian zeal and high purpose and youth- 
ful aspiration. A banner of badges seems to be a lovely prism 
that reflects the colors and the shades of a hundred Christian 
virtues and activities. 

Such a banner was made a number of years ago, and was 
presented each year for a number of years to the State that 
made the largest increase in societies. After a time it was 
sent across the seas to Great Britain in token of the rapid 
growth of Christian Endeavor there, and as a sign of Ameri- 
can fellowship and hearty good will from the million En- 
deavorers it represented. 

Of late years national banners have played a still more 
important part in the history of Christian Endeavor, for they 
have been sent back and forth across the seas to carry their 
message of peace and good will, and to tell also of growth in 

Touches of Color. 


the movement whose emblems they bear and whose ties of 
Christian brotherhood they strengthen. 

When in 1902 the '^Increase Campaign," which 

Increase= -^ . r o i 

Campaign has been so remarkably fruitful, was proposed, it 
was resolved to present an Increase Campaign ban- 
,ner to each State and Province in America that added ten per 
cent to the number of its societies. When a second ten per 
cent was gained, a star should be added to the banner; a third 
ten per cent would be recognized by two stars, just as a star 

The "Increase" Banner Given to Oregon by the Church 
of England Society in Foochow, China. 

is added to the national flag for every commonvvcalth which 
comes into the family of the United States. Ten stars would 
mean that the goal of this particular Increase Campaign had 
been reached and the number of the societies had been doubled. 
It was thought, also, that if these banners came from for- 
eign lands they would be more prized, and the sense of world- 
wide fellowship in Christian Endeavor would be increased. 
So the United Society made requests of the Endeavorers in 
Japan and China and India and Mexico and France and Bo- 
hemia and Germany, and beautiful symbolic banners were 

received from all these countries. A prize-banner contest 

3o6 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

was introduced at a Japanese convention, and the best banners 
were sent to America. Many of these were of extreme beauty, 
oftentimes wrought by the skilful fingers of the Japanese 
maidens in the mission schools. They brought the very life 
and color and delicate sense of beauty from art-loving Japan 
to more prosaic America. They told of the castles and the 
mountains and the flowers and the storks of Japan; but each 
one of them, too, had its religious sentiment, and told of broth- 
erhood and loyalty to Christ. 

Some of the Chinese banners were particularly touching 
in their designs, for the border represented the fires of perse- 
cution through which the Chinese church had passed in the 
Boxer uprising; one side showed the design of a lotus flower 
blooming upon the surface of a pool, indicating that, as the 
lotus flower came up from the slime of the ditch and bloomed 
in glorious beauty and fragrance, so the Christian church of 
China, arising from the depths of its persecution, would bloom 
more gloriously than ever. On the other side within the 
C. E. monogram were wrought the names of the Chinese 
Christian Endeavor martyrs who died for their faith at the 
time of the siege of Peking, the names of the women martyrs 
within the letter "E" and of the men within the "C." Such 
a design, with various modifications, was a great favorite, and 
like banners were given to a number of States as a perpetual 
reminder that Christian Endeavor should be heroic as well 
as beautiful. 

Other countries have now taken up this American idea, 
and fellowship banners have been presented by the United 
Society to several countries that have entered successfully 
upon the Increase Campaign. 

Color The great conventions are naturally the place 

Qreat whcrc the "color scheme" of Christian Endeavor, 

Conventions, if we may so call it, finds its largest expression. 
When tens of thousands of young people come together with 

Touches of Color. 307 

their gayety and good spirits, their badges and their banners, 
their cheerful songs and salutations and State rallying-cries, 
it can be imagined that there is nothing sombre or long-faced 
about the religion they exemplify. The cities themselves an- 
ticipate the coming, and put on their best attire, like a matron 
who adorns herself in her finest jewels and silks to welcome 
an honored guest. 

Here is a description of the appearance of a city on the 
eve of an international convention: "White and gold every- 
where; flags, festoons, streamers, and banners decorated in 
profusion public and private buildings, business blocks and 
residences. Storekeepers vied with each other in making dis- 
plays of their goods which should most beautifully combine 
the two colors. Florists filled their windows with white and 
yellow daisies, Japan lilies, and goldenrod. Jewellers de- 
voted their show windows to most ingenious arrangements of 
silver and gold. Dry-goods dealers displayed a wealth of 
white and yellow silk, ribbons, and fabrics of all kinds. Book- 
sellers gave a conspicuous place to their white and gold edi- 
tions. Prettiest of all, great numbers of young ladies adopted 
for their home and street costume white dresses with golden- 
hued belt and trimmings." * 

All this was because the Christian Endeavor colors of 
Cleveland, where the convention was held that year, were 
white and gold; and the citizens took this way of expressing 
their welcome to the great gathering. 

Boston has the reputation, largely undeserved, of being 
a cold, self-contained city. If it ever deserved the name, its 
coldness surely melted and the streets of the old Puritan city 
certainly became bright when the Endeavorers invaded them. 
A descriptionf of the city written at the time of the conven- 
tion of '95 is worth quoting while we are writing of the touch 

* Report of the Thirteenth Annual International Convention. 

t Report of the Fourteenth International Christian Endeavor Convention. 

3o8 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

of color which Christian Endeavor has brought to the religi- 
ous life of the generation. 

"Boston frigidity! Forever henceforth let that 
Brightness p^rasc hide its head in shame! To say nothing of 
Boston. the crowded enthusiastic rallies that have preceded 
this convention, where audiences of seven and eight 
thousand went wild with Christian Endeavor zeal ; to say noth- 
ing of those bands of beautiful-faced maidens and energetic 
lads that were striking warm hands with each incoming dele- 
gate, holding aloft 'Welcome' placards, and beaming a wel- 
come most unmistakable in their happy faces; to say nothing 
of homes thrown wide open and churches with doors taken 
from their hinges; to say nothing of newspapers bubbling over 
with hundreds of columns of vivid narrative and bright pic- 
tures, and of the universal interest shown in shop and street; 
to say nothing of these and a thousand things more, there were 
the decorations. 

" 'When did Park Street Church ever do such a thing be- 
fore?' asked an astonished lady as she saw the dignified front 
of that grand old church festooned with the gayest of bunting 
in honor of Park Street's Illinois guests. Far out in Boston's 
galaxy of lovely suburbs the railway stations and the homes 
had blossomed out in white for purity and scarlet for love — 
pure love! As for the city streets, they were all in a flutter of 
bright color. 

"The great mercantile establishments vied with one 
another in ingenious arrangement and lavish use of the red 
and white. The wholesale dealers in cloth of the popular 
hues told pitiful stories of the immense quantities of bunting 
they might have sold if they had only made sufficient provision 
for Boston's frigidity! 

"The Convention banner proper appeared everywhere — 
tied to the trolley-arms of the electric cars, adorning the head- 
lights of locomotives, flying from windows innumerable. Red 
and white flowers in the Public Garden had grouped them- 
selves into the same pretty banner and into C. E, monograms 
as well, open Bibles, Christian Endeavor mottoes, badges, and 
the like. Never before have the charming PulDlic Gardens 

Touches of Color. 309 

put on such festive attire, rustic archways adorning the en- 
trances and the bridges, and an admirable array of flowers and 
shrubs delighting the eyes of the ever-present throngs." 

^ , But the touch of color is not confined to Ameri- 


in _ can Endeavorers and conventions by any means. 

The Rev. Herbert Halliwell, the secretary of the 
United Society of India, tells us about a visit he recently made 
to Madura. "From far and near," he says, "from the great 
city itself and the outlying villages, had marched in, to the 
number of one thousand, the Junior and Senior Endeavorers, 
with drums beating, banners flying, and Tamil lyrics vocifer- 
ously shouted. Little wonder the whole city was stirred, and 
crowds of Hindus stood around watching the animated scene." 

Rev. James Mursell, describing the latest convention in 
South Australia, says, "The state tea-tables were ablaze with 
bright ideas; the Juniors, in harmony with the exercise of their 
rally, 'Building the Christian Endeavor Ship,' decorated their 
tables with ships that sailed around a lighthouse, where a 
lamp revolved, shining upon the guests. The Broken Hill 
Union brought a huge lump of silver ore from their world- 
famous mines, and set it as a centrepiece, while model trains 
bore trucks of the same precious metal to and fro. Endeavor 
is the same beautiful and inspiring movement all over the 
world. It is itself the brightest of ideas. No wonder it 
inspires them." 

Mr. Eliezer dos Sanctos Saraiva, secretary of the Bra- 
zilian Union, says that the national Endeavor banner of Brazil 
is a yellow C. E. monogram on a green field. All local socie- 
ties adopt this banner, and "The Endeavorers go to their 
meetings," he says "in some places in canoes which float the 
green and yellow banner of the national union." 

Dr. Pelteje-iells how a -proce^si-on-of- Endeavorers at a 
Japanese convention marched two miles through the big, bus- 
tling city of Osaka, preaching Christianity all the way as they 

3IO Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

A Remarkable Banner from China. 

Touches of Color. 311 

carried their flags and banners from the church by the river 
to the school by the castle where the Junior rally and the gen- 
eral social gathering were held. 

But there is vocal color as well to which Christian En- 
deavor has given expression. As the long line of electric 
cars, sometimes nearly a mile in length, has borne to their 
homes after the convention meetings the young people whose 
hearts have been warmed and whose intellects have been stim- 
ulated in the great gathering, the whole city has rung with 
their melody, and through the highways, and into the corri- 
dors of the hotels, and out into the suburbs even, has gone the 
joyous refrain, "There is sunshine in my soul," or some such 
convention favorite. 

It must not be supposed, however, that all the color and 
sunshine and gladness are reserved for the convention days 
alone, or for special anniversaries and great assemblages. The 
brightness of a happy religious life is often taken, as will be 
shown in other chapters, into hospitals and poorhouses, and 
to Old Ladies' Homes, and to sailors whose ships lie in the 
harbor, and to all sorts of places, and to all conditions of men, 
who are helped by the sight of a bright face, a bit of color, a 
fragrant flower, or a happy song. Thus is the color scheme 
of Christian Endeavor worked out, and religion is made to 
appear the bright and joyous thing it really is, to a multitude 
who never before appreciated "the beauty of holiness." 



" This great religious movement is characterized by a 
growth of Christian intelligence that augurs well for the future 
of the church. This wonderful stir among our Christian En- 
deavor millions means a great increase of the readers of good 
literature; it m.eans a growing appetite for knowledge that will 
swell the attendance at our colleges and universities; it means 
a familiarity with the Bible and books growing out of it such 
as was never known before." Rev. W . J. Darby, D.D., 

Evansville, Ind. 

iT has sometimes been thought by those who have 
not carefully followed the development of the 
Christian Endeavor movement that it neglected 
the intellectual development of its members. It 
has been supposed that in putting so much em- 
phasis upon heart and conduct the mind has not been suffi- 
ciently cultivated. The object of this chapter is to show from 
the history of what has actually been done that this is a mis- 
apprehension, and that the Endeavor movement has been use- 
ful in stimulating the mind, as well as in enlarging the heart 
and quickening the conscience. 

To be sure, the Society has been careful, and properly 
so, not to intrench upon the domain of other organizations 
in the church or outside of it. There has been no necessity 
for the formation of another Sunday-school movement, and 


Christian Endeavor as an Educatoro 313 

the Society has not attempted it. Plans for the study of the 
Bible almost innumerable exist; and, while many have been 
recommended to Endeavorers and adopted by them, the So- 
ciety has not thought it necessary to add other schemes of 
Bible-study to those that already exist. 

Care has been taken, too, to avoid what would have been 
the disastrous mistake of making the weekly young people's 
meeting a mere Bible-class or lecture-course. These are al- 
ready amply provided for. But the place now occupied by 
the young people's meeting, the hour of free expression, of 
heart-testimony, of fervent prayer, of happy song and spiritual 
inspiration, was not provided for in any systematic way before 
the Christian Endeavor Society came into existence. 

When we say, however, that study and instruction are not 
the chief purpose of the young people's meetings, it must not 
be implied that this contains no direct intellectual stimulus. 
This is very far from being true. When the heart is awak- 
ened, the mind is almost necessarily stimulated, and many a 
young person in the young people's meeting has learned for 
the first time that he had intellectual capacities which must 
be dedicated to the Master's service, that he had a career be- 
fore him and a special mission to fulfil. 

The provision of the Christian Endeavor meeting that 
each one shall "take some part, however slight," has been par- 
ticularly fruitful in uncovering neglected and unknown abili- 
ties. Many a young man who has not dreamed that he could 
speak a word helpful to others has learned to his surprise that 
his napkin contained an unsuspected talent. He has been dis- 
covered to himself and to the church by this simple provision 
of the prayer-meeting, and oftentimes not to his church only, 
but to the community, and perhaps to the whole denomina- 
tion. It is not exaggeration to say that during the last twenty- 
five years the writer has received hundreds of letters from 
ministers and prominent Christian workers, saying that they 

314 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

got their start along intellectual and religious lines in the 
Christian Endeavor meeting, and many have told 
start him they would never have been in the pulpit 

?ntenectuai preaching the gospel, w^ere it not that they had 
Lines. promised as boys to do w^hat Christ would have 

them do, and to take some part, aside from singing, in each 
Christian Endeavor prayer-meeting. 

Says the Rev. Howard A. Bridgman: 

"Many an Endeavorer owes to the movement a large 
measure of intellectual culture, for nothing so develops the 
mental faculties as a genuine commitment to the Christian life. 
Boys and girls who might never have thought of a college edu- 
cation, or read books to any extent, or valued libraries, have, 
because of their enlistment under the banner of Endeavor, 
waked up to the richness and the meaning of human life. It 
was said of a certain woman after her death, 'She had no edu- 
cation but the love of God.' " * 

The development of the Christian Endeavorers along 
intellectual lines is further stimulated by much of the com- 
mittee service that is demanded of them. Each committee, 
when its work is properly done, requires careful planning, 
consultation, study, and some executive ability in carrying 
out its plans. All these efforts are distinct wit-sharpeners; 
they draw upon the intellectual resources which are increased 
by their use. The monthly written reports, and the annual 
surveys of the work, which are given in most societies, and 
should be expected in all, are distinctly intellectual acts, and 
stimulate the faculty of expression as really as a theme in 
school or an essay before a literary society. 

Allusion has already been made to the great number of 
Christian Endeavor periodicals, books, and pamphlets in 
many languages. All these naturally contribute something to 
the intellectual life of the Society. As I write these words, 

* The Congregationalist. 

christian Endeavor as an Educator. 315 

3id Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

a request comes from the editor of an important American 
magazine, who proposes to print an article on Christian En- 
deavor, and says, 'Tlease gather together all the written and 
unwritten- history of the Society, and send us these and the 
photographs at your earliest convenience." This is what the 
^^ English would call "rather a large order," since the 

"Written printed history of the Society, if all the documents 
Unwritten werc available and were sent to this unsuspecting 
History." g^itor, would fill at least a hundred large trunks, 
while the written history that has not been printed, to say 
nothing of the unwritten history, which it would be somewhat 
difficult to send to him, would be even more voluminous. 

However, this editor's ignorance of the written and un- 
written history of the Society may easily be forgiven, since 
doubtless many other people think that it is all comprised in 
a few booklets or newspaper columns. 

Much of this literature is of a distinctively educational 
quality, dealing, to be sure, largely with practical church 
work, methods of benevolence, and ways of advancing the 
kingdom of Christ on earth. But why is not this of real edu- 
cational value, as well as the study of bugs or fossils or mi- 
crobes or animalculae? Why should there not be a science of 
practical morality and religion, as well as a science of rocks, 
and mathematical formulae? Christian Endeavor has some- 
times been called "the science of applied Christianity." It/ 
is a good name, and one to which the members of the Society 
are glad to feel that they have some title. 

A multitude of text-books for all kinds of practical re- 
ligious work is issued by the United Society in America and 
by the British and German national unions. These have been 
translated into scores of languages, while original books, still 
better suited to their needs, have been printed in China and 
Japan and other Oriental countries. 

Mr. Amos R. Wells has truly said: -- - 

Christian Endeavor as an Educator. 317 

"One of the greatest things the United Society of Chris- 
tian Endeavor has done is to publish a complete set of printed 
helps for Christian Endeavor work. Never since time began 
has a religious movement created for itself a set of helps so 
complete and useful. You can buy from the United Society, 
at the cost of a few cents, guides for all kinds of Christian En- 
deavor work. If it is an important committee, like the 


Where Christian Endeavor Found an Early Home in Sweden. 

prayer-meeting committee, you can get a book, costing thirty- 
five cents, containing the fullest collection of prayer-meeting 
plans ever made, and all of them proved by the experience 
of many societies. If it is a subordinate committee, like the 
flower commitee, you will find its work explained, with all 
needed suggestions for new and delightful outreaches, in a 
five-cent pamphlet. And so it is with every line of Christian 
Endeavor activity. With a fulness proportioned to the im- 
portance and complexity of the work the United Society have 
ready for your use a leaflet or a pamphlet or a book, and all 
at the lowest possible cost. 

3i8 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

*'As to the quality of these books, I hesitate to speak, so 
many of them bear my own name on the cover! But I can 
modestly say of most of them that they are the very best in 
existence — because there is nothing else in existence of the 
kind! And of all of them I can say that they are far more the 
work of the Endeavorers everywhere than of myself, being 
crammed with the plans that their bright brains have devised 
and their faithful will executed in thousands of societies all 
over the land." * 

When we come to the practical methods and 
Pians"^*' plans devised by Christian Endeavorers, the writer 
is simply overwhelmed with the amount of material 
at his hand which tells how the young people have set their 
wits at work along every possible line of practical Christian- 
ity. Here is the "Unanimous Library" (to mention but one 
in this connection), a novel campaign for circulating mission- 
ary books, devised by Mr. W. L. Amerman, of New York. 
The plan is too long to be detailed in full; but it may be said 
in a word that it is a device for securing the reading of inter- 
esting missionary books by the young people. The campaign 
continued for just ten weeks in the case of one book called 
"One Hundred Girls of India;" and, when the returns were 
all in, it was found that 438 people in all had read the book, 
and that of these the enthusiastic Juniors had secured the 
largest number of readers. 

Such plans, more or less elaborate for all departments of 
work, have been printed in every issue of The Christian En- 
deavor World for nearly twenty years, and the editor always 
has scores of plans on hand for which he cannot find room. 
When these are all brought together, the bulk of them, and 
in many cases their excellence is simply surprising. 

The local-union meetings and other conventions have 
stimulated the wits of a multitude of young people, in pre- 
paring programmes, in devising something fresh and new, in 

* The Christian Endeavor World. 

Christian Endeavor as an Educator. 319 

learning the art of putting things, for to suggest a good title 
for an address or conference. is one of the best tests of intel- 
lectual keenness. 

The Australian programmes have been models of typo- 
graphical beauty, with which has often been combined a liter- 
ary excellence which has made them souvenirs worthy of pres- 
^,. , ,. The social gatherings have also often been in- 

Stimulating ^ ° 

Social tellectually stimulating. Two or three small vol- 

rings. ^j^gg Q^ plans for sociables have been published; 
and the ingenuity, wit, and literary skill displayed in many of 
them would scarcely be credited by those who know nothing 
of the subject. Authors in many languages, proverbs, quota- 
tions from every source, have been laid under contribution by 
these keen young minds in devising social gatherings which 
shall be helpful as well as interesting, and which provide the 
fellowship feature of Christian Endeavor. 

Missionary reading-circles have recently come greatly 
into vogue, and hundreds of societies have formed such cir- 
cles for the reading and study of the books prescribed by their 
denominational missionary authorities. 

Collections of missionary curios, too, often stimulate in- 
terest, and arouse intellectual curiosity. The Church of Eng- 
land Endeavourer tells of a little society in a country place 
whose members, numbering only twenty-five in all, set to work 
to gather missionary curios for an exhibition, and found to 
their surprise that after three months' work they had a collec- 
tion of three hundred pieces, representing India, China, Mad- 
agascar, and the South Seas. Nearly everything was found 
in the neighborhood. Members of the society, dressed in for- 
eign attire, described the articles as they were on exhibition 
during an afternoon, and in the evening a rousing missionary 
meeting was held and a substantial collection taken. 

Professor Wells has projected several courses of Bible- 

320 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

reading in the columns of The Christian Endeavor World, 
one of which was followed by more than ten thousand people 
who recorded their names, while all have enlisted many 

Reading-circles have very often been organized in Chris- 
tian Endeavor societies for the study of general literature, and 
an excellent reading-course has been suggested by The Chris- 
tian Endeavour Times of London and by the American papers 
as well. The good-literature committees of many societies 
have been active in circulating denominational and other re- 
ligious papers, and probably millions of copies of papers and 
magazines have been sent by different unions and societies to 
hospitals, soldiers' and sailors' homes, and other institutions 
in all parts of the world. A literature-table is a common 
sight in many churches. It oftentimes stands in the vestibule, 
and is made an exchange for the circulation of religious and 
other papers and magazines, the Christian Endeavorers taking 
charge of it, keeping it in order, and collecting and distrib- 
uting the reading-matter which is supplied. 

A more recent development of the intellectual 
Endeavor life of Christian Endeavor is seen in the many in- 
Schoois'* stitutes and summer schools and officers' schools, 
and committee conferences, which are now being 
held in many countries. The schools of methods are essen- 
tial parts of every large convention in these days. Half a 
score of them sometimes are being held at the same time. In 
these every phase of practical Christianity is discussed and 
taught. The committees, the social gatherings, the prayer- 
meeting, the missionary work of the church, temperance and 
good citizenship, all come under review, and plans are sug- 
gested and discussed for advancing every good cause. 

The first distinctive Christian Endeavor summer school 
was held in the birth-State of Christian Endeavor, as was alto- 
gether appropriate, and the Rev. C. D. Crane, the efficient 

Evangelistic Endeavor. 


field secretary of the Maine Union, was the father of it. It 
was held in Yarmouth, Me., July 8-26, 1892. The scope and 
character of this school can best be understood by a description 
which appeared in The Christian Endeavor World at the 

"Every morning was divided into four periods. Two of 
these throughout were in charge of Miss Margaret Koch. 

'»^ *" 













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Christian Endeavor Summer School, Yarmouth, Me. 

National conventions have shown the Endeavorers what an 
inspiring speaker Miss Koch is, inspiring in her splendid phys- 
ical presence as well as in the vigorous thought to which she 
gives such graceful utterance. Her work was a daily drill in 
expression and in voice and physical culture, a genuine tonic 
for both mind and body. 

"There was also a daily hour of Bible-study conducted 
by Rev. Bowley Green, Dr. Smith Baker, and Rev. Howard 
Grose — masters, all of them, in the art of teaching. 


322 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

"The fourth hour was given up to practical instruction in 
Christian Endeavor methods of work. Rev. H. W. Pope 
gave a course in personal work and soul-winning; Professor 
Parker treated Christian Endeavor music; Miss Ella Mac- 
Laurin spoke of mission studies, and Mr. Wells of Christi-an 
Endeavor committee work. 

"The afternoons were spent in various excursions through 
the charming neighborhood, in quiet reading and happy fun. 

"The evening sessions were popular in character, and 
were given up to lectures and addresses, several with the aid 
of the stereopticon. . . . The Endeavorers that attended 
were well fed. They carried away minds that were enriched 
in many ways, and the food they received they had time to 
digest. There is much in that." 

This first summer school was so successful in Maine that 
it was followed by others in the same State, and in 1905 one 
was held in the eastern and another in the western part of the 
State in order the better to accommodate the needs of the 
widely scattered Endeavorers in this commonwealth of mag- 
nificent distances. 

A Maine's example has been followed by other 

Home States, and the most notable example of the summer- 

ChHstian school idea will soon be introduced on the coast of 
Endeavor. Massachusetts, where some Christian Endeavor 
leaders, backed by ample capital, have secured a large tract 
of land on the shores of Cape Cod Bay. This has every pos- 
sible natural advantage, a long sea-front, the land rising in 
beautifully wooded terraces behind, while a fresh-water lake 
but a little distance off is also connected with the Christian 
Endeavor summer home. Here will be erected a pavilion 
and audience-room, and schools of methods will be estab- 
lished, as well as mission-study schools and literary classes, 
which will make the place an intellectual centre for a multi- 
tude of young people. That it is intended to be a recreational 
centre, too, is made evident by the fact that baseball diamonds 

christian Endeavor as an Educator. 


and tennis-courts, bowling-alleys and basket-ball and golf 
links are all in the plan. 

Along other lines, too, the intellectual side of Christian 
Endeavor has been stimulated by the many "institutes" and 
"conferences" which have lately been inaugurated. One of 
the most notable of these, and the forerunner of many others, 
was held in Philadelphia in December, 1903. For three days 
the trustees of the United Society and many leading Endeavor- 
ers, largely officers of State and local unions, came together 
for a simple conference and exchange of views. Not a single 
long speech was permitted during the morning or the after- 

New Summer Home of Christian Endeavor at 
Sagamore Beach. 

noon sessions. A printed syllabus prepared in advance cov- 
ered every phase of Christian Endeavor work, and this was 
taken up, item by item, under the leadership of some expert 
worker, and freely, but very briefly, discussed by all on the 
floor. It was a most profitable and stimulating occasion, and 
one which has since been duplicated in many places. On a 
still larger scale it was repeated in New York in February, 

Institutes In 1905 New Jersey had the first School for 

Junior Junior Superintendents at Asbury Park, and the 

Schools. "Christian Endeavor Institute of the Northwest," 
held at Portland, Or., in connection with the Lewis and Clark 

324 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

Exposition, will long be remembered. Secretary Von Ogden 
Vogt attended this institute, and gave valuable help, much of 
interest being added by the very efficient leaders of Christian 
Endeavor in the great Northw^est. 

About the same time New York, under the leadership of 
the honored State secretary, Mr. John R. Clements, whose 
mind is most fertile in such plans, held the first school for 
district secretaries at Liberty. This was attended by many 
of the secretaries of the Empire State, and was most useful 
in equipping them for their important duties in their respec- 
tive counties. 

Another important institute was held in Maryland in the 
same year, while the ten "Patriot Day Rallies" held in Massa- 
chusetts on April 19, the anniversary of the battle of Lexing- 
ton and the Concord fight, it has been well said, "might be 
classed as civic educators." 

It is not necessary to dwell longer upon the methods and 
plans for stimulating the intellectual life of the young Chris- 
tians. They are constantly being multiplied, and will doubt- 
less increase as the years go by, for the Society realizes that it 
is the whole man, body and mind as well as soul, which should 
be trained for the Master's service. 

One practical method of stimulating the intellectual life 
which may be mentioned is the Christian Endeavor sympo- 
sium which often appears in The Christian Endeavor World. 
As an example of this, and also as showing the various angles 
from which the young people look at the Society and estimate 
its work, it is interesting to quote some definitions which were 
printed in a prize contest for the best aphoristic definition of 
Christian Endeavor in twenty-five words. Two hundred and 
fifty Endeavorers sharpened their wits upon this problem. 
Their exuberant fancy, as was said, "ranged over the whole 
gamut of simile, alliteration, and acrostic description." Here 
are a few of the 250 definitions, which are samples of many 

Evangelistic Endeavor. 325 

others, and which were all worthy of prizes, though they 
could not all receive them. 

"Christian Endeavor is interdenominationalism verified, 
the baggage-car of Christian brotherhood, carrying packages 
differently labelled, but not thereby destroying the unity of 
the train." 

"Christian Endeavor is the workshop where Jesus, the 
carpenter's Son, sharpens the instruments which He uses in the 
daily construction of His churches." 

"Christian Endeavor is the mint where metals are coined 
and stamped with the King's own likeness." 

"Christian Endeavor is a schoolmaster aiming to bring 
his scholars to perfect manhood and womanhood in Christ 

"Christian Endeavor reaches upward with faith, reaches 
forward with hope, and reaches outward with love." 

"Christian Endeavor is the X-ray that brings to light the 
hidden power of the young people in the church." 

"As the Sunday-school is the recruiting-station, so the 
Christian Endeavor society is the West Point of Christ's 

"Christian Endeavor 

is a 

Co-operative Exercise 


Consecrated Enthusiasm 


Creating Energy 

Christian Ends. 

"Christian Endeavor is like an endless chain, it binds the 
forces together, and makes them work in unison." 

326 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

"Christian Endeavor is the practical recognition of the 
young people's need of Christ and the church, and of the 
church's need of the young people." 

Christian Endeavor is the manual training-school of the 
church, training 

the lips to speak, 
the feet to walk, 
the hands to work, 

"Christian Endeavor is the electric current from the bat- 
tery of heaven, uniting in Christian love and enthusiastic serv- 
ice the youth of all Christian denominations." 

"Christian Endeavor is the youth's shortest possible cut 
across the fields of experience to the kingdom of heaven." 

"Like Jacob's shining ladder. 
Uplifted strong and high, 
Where deeds and prayers, like angels, 
Pass 'twixt the earth and sky." 

"Christian Endeavor is a school 
Teaching us to trust and obey. 
To read and to pray. 
To serve Christ and the church in every way." 

"A correct epitome of Christian Endeavor is 
Constant Enthusiasm, 
Consecrated Energy, 
Consecrated Effort, 
For 'Christ and the church.' " 

"Christian Endeavor is a watch 
Whose mainspring is love. 
Whose movement is service. 
Whose hands point to heavenly joys on the dial of eternity." ■ 




" A Christian Endeavor society born in a revival has ad- 
vantage every way over one organized under different spiritual 
conditions. It commands better material at the start and a 
more favorable opportunity for putting its principles into opera- 
tion. It thus represents not exceptional but normal conditions, 
and accordingly is able to demonstrate the utility, power, and 
practical efficiency of the organization." 

Rev. Dwizht M. Pratt, D.D., 
in " A Decade of Christian Endeavor." 

EVANGELISM is entirely normal to Christian En- 
|) deavor. It is its native air. Christian Endeavor 
jl was born in the atmosphere of a revival, and it 
has always flourished best in such an atmosphere. 
But evangelism is a very large word. It 
means many things, but always one thing. It means standing 
on the street-corner and saying to the passers-by, "Come to 
Jesus!" But it means more than that. It means going into 
the slums to seek and to save that which was lost, but it also 
means using every effort to bring to Christ the children of the 
high-born and the well-to-do. The quieter methods of the 
lookout committee and of the consecration-meeting are truly 


328 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

evangelistic methods, for they are imbued with the evangelis- 
tic spirit. 

Though evangelism, like charity, may begin at home, it 
can not remain at home, for all missionary effort in the re- 
motest parts of the world is really but a feature of evangelism, 
and toward all these methods and forms of proclaiming the 
gospel, the good news, the Christian Endeavor movement 
could not but be hospitable; for "to do the work of an evan- 
gelist" in its broadest sense has been from the beginning its 
great purpose and mission. 

The Christian Endeavor covenant pledge has been used 
by many a minister and Christian worker as a distinct evangel- 
istic agency. More than one pastor whom it has been the 
writer's privilege to know, has constantly carried a supply of 
these pledges in his pocket; and, whenever he has found a 
young person inclined seriously to consider religious matters, 
"almost persuaded," but perhaps not quite ready to make the 
great decision, he has handed him one of these little cards wjth 
the pledge upon it, and has said: "Are you willing to trust 
in the Lord Jesus Christ for strength, and are you willing to 
try to do what He would have you do? If so, just sign your 
name to this card, and put your purpose down in black and 
white." This has seemed so reasonable and possible that 
many a young person has then and there made the decision 
which has proved the turning-point in all his life, and the 
beginning of many years of Christian service. 

But the Society has made special efforts, and 
^^^^ developed new features in evangelism, which 

Features ^ ^ . 

in which should not be overlooked. Christian En- 

Evangel= , t^ 1 • r 1 • • 

ism. deavor Day, the anniversary of the society, is 

specially an evangelistic day from two points of 
view. It is a day when in a great many churches decisions 
are called for in the Sunday-school and young people's meet- 
ing, and when the boys and girls who have previously been in- 

Evangelistic Endeavor. 329 

structed and taught their duty are urged to declare themselves 
on the side of Christ. It is also a day when contributions are 
made in thousands of societies for the denominational mis- 
sionary boards, and thus, more indirectly, but none the less 
really, the work of evangelism is promoted by providing 
means for the proclamation of the gospel in far-distant lands. 
The use of Christian Endeavor Day as "Decision Day," 
especially for the boys and girls, is a somewhat recent sugges- 

First Mothers' Society of Christian Endeavor, Topeka, Kansas. 

tion of the United Society in America; but it has already been 
heartily adopted by many churches. The way in which one 
church* keeps Decision Day with system and vigor coupled 
with rare good sense and spiritual zeal is described by Dr. 
J. F. Cowan in The Christian Endeavor World. 

"At the morning service a sermon is preached appro- 
priate to the day and full of inspiration, by the pastor. At 

* The Congregational church of Melrose, Mass., the Rev. Thomas Sims, D.D., 

330 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

3.15 a union service of the Junior societies is held, with bright 
speakers. At 5 p. m. a special Christian Endeavor service 
is held in the auditorium. At 6.30 the Young People's meet- 
ing is held as usual. At both the latter services cards con- 
taining decision pledges (practically the first clause of the 
pledge) are distributed. As many as feel ready to do so are 
asked to sign the card and leave it in the pew. There have 
always been some decisions, and what would otherwise have 
been an unspeakably sad death was blessedly softened and 
sweetened by the fact that the little girl who passed away 
clasped in her hand the decision-card she had signed on En- 
deavor Day." 

The Sunday-evening after-meeting is another rare oppor- 
tunity for evangelistic service, into which many pastors wisely 
press their Endeavorers. Dr. Charles M. Sheldon, as has been 
before stated, advocates making this the great young people's 
evangelistic service of the week for the actual bringing of men 
to a decision for Christ, and in his own experience has proved 
the vast usefulness of such a plan. 

The First Baptist Church of Chicago has 
Evangelistic been another leader in this line of Christian En- 
deavor evangelistic effort. Under the lead of the 
pastor. Dr. Austin K. de Blois, and Mr. H. H. Van Meter, 
who is also the evangelistic superintendent of the Chicago 
Christian Endeavor Union, a Christian Endeavor evangelistic 
covenant has been drawn up, which many members have signed, 
promising prayerfully to co-operate with the pastor in evan- 
gelistic effort, to invite unconverted friends and acquaintances 
to the services and welcome them when they come, to attend 
the regular preaching-services and after-meetings unless ab- 
solutely prevented, to request at least one visitor to remain to 
each after-meeting, and to endeavor to lead at least one person 
each month to the Savior. Many of the members signed this 
covenant, with the result that the numbers at the Sabbath- 
evening services have been more than doubled and the after- 

Evangelistic Endeavor. 331 

meetings greatly increased in attendance and interest, and 
many conversions have followed. 

Those that feel that they cannot take the whole of the 
covenant blot out the parts which they cannot conscientiously 
sign, and keep the rest. One young man, whose circum- 
stances prevented him from observing some parts of this 
pledge, kept it in spirit most effectively by having hotel-guest 
cards printed, inviting the guests of every large hotel in Chi- 
cago to attend the church services. Every Saturday night at 
midnight he fastens them to the complete church programme 
for the following Sabbath, and leaves them himself upon the 
hotel counters to invite the visitors to attend the services. 

This hotel visitation and invitation is undertaken by a 
great many unions, as well as individual societies; and church 
directories in hotel corridors and neatly printed invitations 
that hotel guests find in their boxes on Sunday morning are 
often the result of these evangelistic efforts. 

Many unions have deemed it one of their chief duties to 
promote the evangelistic spirit in other ways and actually to 
do large evangelistic service. The uniting of all the younger 
evangelical forces of the city in a Christian Endeavor union, 
or at least the uniting of a very large majority of them, makes 

this a peculiarly fitting and appropriate duty. 
Efforts '^ ''^ The Brooklyn Union, under the lead of its 

Unions president, Mr. W. R. Hassel, has been particularly 
active and successful in this work. Pastors of all 
denominations have co-operated, and great evangelistic meet- 
ings have resulted. Of late a special school for evangelistic 
instruction in the art of soul-winning has been conducted un- 
der an expert leader, from which in the future splendid re- 
sults will doubtless flow. 

The Chicago Endeavorers' evangelistic campaign has 
been most fruitful, and not without its humorous side, as re- 
lated by Mr. H. H. Van Meter, the superintendent. 

332 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

"Frequently we received a 'bouquet', generally of stale 
vegetables, never flowers. It is our invariable rule never to 
take up a collection, but, then, we received many. Mostly 
mud and stones, but once upon a time a sharpshooter plugged 
a cornet with a potato. 

"The cornetist was a University of Chicago boy, who of 
course knows a good deal (as we all do). But nobody knows 
what would have become of his nose if he had not caught that 
potato in his cornet. 

"On that same occasion one of our sweetest girls got very 
indignant because of a lemonade shower-bath. A 'real nice 
young man' had volunteered to stand by her side, and he 'was 
singing beautifully.' But somebody above drenched them 
both with lemonade, spoiling his suit and her 'new shirt-waist.' 

"When we told her it would wash off, she refused to be 
comforted; but, when I said very emphatically, 'It is seldom 
we are treated to lemonade at an open-air meeting, and I'm 
glad we didn't get the pitcher,' she replied, 'O, so am I ; O my! 

Mr. Van Meter goes on to tell how opposition by the mob 
was followed by the opposition of the priests, and that by op- 
position from the police, who, in spite of the permit for such 
services, received from the proper authorities, did everything 
they could to annoy and break up the meetings. At one time 
the patrol-wagon was rung up, and the Endeavorers took a 
ride in it to the police-station, knowing that their case was per- 
fectly good, and that they would be immediately discharged. 
This discharge the chief of course at once granted upon seeing 

their permit. "Then," said Mr. Van Meter, "the 
"Hmnor." t)oys made the old Harrison Street police-station 

ring as never before." 

"The big horns and the trombones, the bass drum and the 
snare-drum, did their best. It was about the best surprise- 
party ever perpetrated upon the police. Everybody enjoyed 
it, even the prisoners, as well as the police ; then we 'moved on.' 

"When we reached the street, there stood the crowd, still 

Evang:elistic Endeavor. 


334 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

waiting for 'more music' But the firemen next door insisted 
that they should have their share. They said they would fix 
the telephones so that the music would reach every engine- 
house in Chicago. 

"That invitation told; so the band formed a semicircle 
around the receiver. After playing a few gospel airs we sang 
At the Cross.' In conclusion we prayed for the police and 
the firemen, 'who face danger and death for us.' Every hat 
went off; every head was bowed; then we said good-by, and 
were gone. They called out, 'Come again,' and we answered 
that we would; and we will most surely." 

A protest to the chief of police made his subordinates fear 
to disturb the meetings any further, and the outside difficulties, 
at least, of the Chicago Endeavorers are now largely things of 
the past. 

An Intermediate Christian Endeavor evanee- 


Evangelistic listic cruisc is another of the bright ideas for which 
Chicago Endeavorers are responsible. Starting 
from their home city in a gasoline launch copiously decorated 
with Christian Endeavor banners and mottoes, with a power- 
ful searchlight at the prow, they turned, unheralded, into the 
old Illinois and Michigan Canal, which is so seldom navigated 
now that the appearance of their boat with its flags and 
streamers, we are told, "astonished the natives." At every 
lock, while they were waiting for the water to rise, a little 
meeting would be held for the small company of loungers that 
gathered together. Jails and poorhouses were visited on the 
way; tracts were distributed and many personal invitations 
given. After two or three days of such pleasant journeying 
they reached their destination at Starved Rock, and pitched 
their tents, and enjoyed a few days of camping out. Then they 
returned homeward by another route, visiting other jails and 
poorhouses, holding open-air services in many towns, and 
bringing the gospel to the very homes and hearts of those who 
had not heard it for many years. While this was called an 

Evangelistic Endeavor. 335 

"Intermediate Cruise," and while there were boys and girls in 
the party, there were also, of course, experienced men and 
women to guide them and lead in the evangelism. 

No one has done more to awaken the spirit of evangelism 
among Endeavorers than Mr. William Phillips Hall, the 
eminent business men's evangelist, who has often spoken at 
the conventions with great acceptance. 

The great conventions naturally furnish the largest op- 

Men's Meeting During Convention at Washington, D. C. 

portunity for evangelistic efifort, and this is thoroughly im- 
proved. Careful plans are always made to reach the largest 
number of people in all parts of the city where the convention 
is held. The scope of these evangelistic services may be 
gathered from the fact that in one convention they were held 
in fifty-five different places. The list includes three piano- 
factories, three wood-working establishments, an organ-fac- 
tory, a bookbindery, carriage-works, a bank-note company, a 
clothing-house, a rubber-store, a screw-factory, a coal-yard, a 
printing-house, three laundries, a dry-goods store, a market- 

336 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

house, the Chamber of Commerce, the Homoeopathic Hospi- 
tal, the Lend-a-Hand Hospital, a liquor-saloon, a fire-engine 
station, the city jail, a man-of-war in the harbor, seven res- 
,. ^. cue missions, fourteen open-air meetings, four 

Evangelistic ' _ ^ . 

Services wharves, and a service held at the request of a sick 
Great girl on the pavement before her window. 

Conventions. jvg-^ fewer than 1 20 evangelistic meetings, 

according to definite reports, were held by delegates in 
these different places. Twenty thousand persons were 
spoken to, and nearly six thousand delegates to the conven- 
tion assisted in the services, while several hundred persons 
expressed a desire to become Christians. 

At these conventions the most eminent evangelists in the 
world have frequently spoken. Men like Dwight L. Moody, 
the Rev. J. Wilbur Chapman, D. D., the Rev. John McNeill, 
Gipsy Smith, the Rev. George F. Pentecost, D. D., the Rev. 
William E. Biederwolf, Dr. W. H. Hallenbeck, and others 
of their character have often taken part. In connection 
with the conventions hotel evangelistic meetings have fre- 
quently been held. The writer especially remembers one 
held in the court of the great Palace Hotel of San Francisco. 
Many Endeavorers were stopping there, and after the even- 
ing service in the halls they gathered in the courtyard, all the 
other guests being attracted by the music of some of the best 
soloists. Then, one after another, some of the most eminent 
ministers of half a dozen different denominations told the 
simple story of their conversion, while fashionable guests, 
merchant princes, and eminent politicians, among them the 
Democratic candidate for the presidency in the campaign 
that was then on, looked from the balconies, or stood under 
the courtyard palms. 

Such meetings, so far as the writer has observed, have 
never been resented or objected to by hotel proprietors or 
guests, nor have they seemed intrusive. In fact, they are so 

Evangelistic Endeavor. 337 

sane and natural, and the convention makes religion so ex- 
pected and matter-of-course a topic of conversation, that it 
would seem unnatural, were such meetings not held. 

One of the most remarkable evangelistic meetings ever 
held under Christian Endeavor auspices was the men's meet- 
ing in the Armory in Baltimore, where on an intensely hot 
^Sunday afternoon five or six thousand men came together. 
Addresses of great power were made by Mr. Stelzle and Mr. 
Biederwolf ; and then, says the report, 

"came an intense appeal for men to show by 
A Scene rising that they would enter the Christian life and 
Baltimore. ^^^^ ^^^Y wanted the prayers of Christians. One 

man rose, another, several in different places. 
They remained standing but a few moments, but there was a 
steady succession until scores would be on their feet at once 
in all parts of the hall. Mr. F. H. Jacobs uttered in song a 
tender and appealing prayer. The evangelist, standing on a 
table to gain a more commanding position, put all his energy 
into a last appeal to do the right and manly thing, and then 
asked all who had risen to come forward and stand while 
prayer was offered for them. Hundreds of hands also went 
up from those that wished prayers to be offered for friends. 
Christian workers had been supplied with cards that were 
circulated for signature by those that had decided for Christ. 
Meantime, Mr. Biederwolf and others were passing around, 
grasping the hands of those that had taken the stand, between 
three and four hundred in all, many of whom were deeply 
moved and in tears. As the great crowd gradually passed 
out from this wonderfully blessed meeting, the choir softly 
sang, 'God be with you till we meet again.' " 

The missionary side of Christian Endeavor evangelism 
is too large a theme to enter upon in this chapter. In the 
sections of the book devoted to missionary lands this feature 
will be brought out. It is sufficient here to say that from the 
very beginning the Endeavor societies have made missionary 


Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

work and missionary giving one of the chief features of their 
organization. It has been found, so far as can be estimated, 
that about 250,000 Endeavorers every year join the evan- 
gelical churches of the world, the result, in part, at least, of 
personal Christian Endeavor evangelism. It is also found, 
even from the meagre statistics which can be obtained from 
the fraction of societies that report that these give away nearly 
one million dollars every year, about half of which goes for 

Raw Material for Christian Endeavor in Africa. 

the evangelization of the world through the denominational 
missionary organizations. 

Many a unique missionary effort has been undertaken by 
Christian Endeavorers, a sample of which is furnished by the 

Evangelistic Endeavor. 


steamer Endeavour built by the Baptist Christian Endeavor- 
^„ ers of England, at an expense of $25,000, for use by 

stTamer^^''' ^^^ mission on the Congo. It was built and dedi- 
for the cated at Oxford. It is a large stern-wheel steamer 
''"^*'* built entirely of steel, with machinery of spe- 

cial design, and is furnished with cabins for the native crew 

MoNASTiR, Turkey, 
The Home of Four Christian Endeavor Societie:^ 

and native passengers, while the top cabins are for the officers 
and white passengers. The steamer's flag, the gift of the 
Oxford Endeavorers, is a pennant some seven feet long with 
"Endeavour" in large white letters on a ground of indigo 
blue. The boat was taken to pieces, and conveyed to Matadi, 
at the mouth of the Congo. Thence it was transported a 
thousand miles up the river by the railway to Stanley Pool. 

340 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

There it was put together, and navigates a thousand miles of 
river from Stanley Pool to Stanley Falls. 

It is impossible in this chapter to give even the briefest 
survey of the evangelistic efforts of Endeavorers at home and 
abroad. The writer has chosen simply a few samples of such 
efforts from a multitude that might be recorded ; but enough 
has been written, perhaps, to show not only the spirit and pur- 
pose of the Society, but its possibilities in promoting the great 
object of the church — the bringing of the world to Christ. 



" Christian Endeavor does not ask a man whether he lives 
in Africa, in India, China, or America. It does not ask him 
u'hether he be clothed with a black skin, a white, a tawny, or 
a red one. Christian Endeavor stands first, last, and always 
for the salvation of man." Rev. PFillis R. Hotchkiss, 


;NE of the great providential purposes of the 
Christian Endeavor movement as shown by its 
history is to promote the spirit of democracy 
among its members. Far more important is this 
than it would seem at first blush. If there is 
anything grievous to Christ and foreign to the true idea of 
His church, it is the spirit of exclusive caste which sets one 
group of Christians off by themselves, while their poorer or 
more ignorant fellow Christians must take the lowest seats in 
the synagogue, or perhaps worship in some entirely separate 

This hateful spirit of caste is as old as St. James, who 
inveighed in righteous indignation against the special de- 
ference paid to the man with the gold ring and goodly ap- 
parel, and against those who say to the wearer of the gay 
clothing, "Sit thou here in a good place, and say to the poor, 
Stand thou there, or sit here under my footstool," 


342 Christian Endeavor in All Landso 

Protestantism in some respects is peculiarly liable to this 
curse. In the Roman Catholic and Greek churches the rich 
and the poor meet together in one great sanctuary, the beggar 
kneels side by side with the millionaire, and rags jostle silks 
and laces in the same crowded aisle. 

In Mohammedan mosques and some heathen temples 
even the rich and the poor meet together, even if they do not 
realize that the "Lord is the maker of them all." 

But in Protestant lands there are often churches for the 
rich and churches for the poor; and, when the two classes are 
brought together in a common church-membership, the 
chapel on the dismal back street is sometimes thought good 
enough for the working classes. 

It cannot be that this is in accordance with the spirit 
of Christ, and any organization that directly or indirectly, 
unconsciously or of set purpose, does anything to bring the 
different members of Christ's family together on a footing of 
friendship and common interest is worthy of consideration. 

From the beginning the Christian Endeavor movement 
has found itself used of God, without any special purpose or 
design of its own, as a uniter, a link and bond of fellowship 
between people who might otherwise be estranged. 

In all this the hand of God is seen in a most 
EndeaATor signal way. Starting in one church, with one lit- 
ulTiter ^^^ company of young people. Christian Endeavor 

has united the hearts of millions of young people 
in tens of thousands of churches in a hundred denominations. 
Starting in an obscure corner of the nation, it has united in 
fellowship and sympathy young people in sixty nations and 
great colonies. 

But it has had a no less important, though a less con- 
spicuous, task to perform, in bringing together the young 
people of the different classes of society and of different social 

The Society as a Democracy, 





c c 



344 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

Alas! it has not thoroughly accomplished this task. 
Much remains to be done, and always will remain while such 
distinctions exist in the Christian church ; but the trend and 
tendency of the Society is all in the direction of democracy 
and the heartiest good fellowship. 

An eminent worker* in the ranks of American Christian 
Endeavorers has made the important point that it is even 
more necessary to teach Christian people to work ivith one 
another than for one another. It is a comparatively easy 
thing to go "slumming," at least until the novelty wears ofif. 
There is a pleasing excitement about it, and a smug sense of 
satisfaction which envelops the "slummer" in an atmosphere 
of self-congratulation. But it is a far dififefent and a far 
more Christlike thing actually to work with those of a lower 
station in life; not making them feel that they are being pat- 
ronized or taught, or that an example is being set for their 
behavior, but that, as Christian brother with Christian 
brother, or as sister v/ith sister, work is being done together 
for the one Father in heaven, and under the eyes of the com- 
mon elder brother. It is just this kind of co-operation and 
common service that is promoted by every department of the 
Christian Endeavor Society. 

In the meetings all come together. The testimony and 
participation of one are required as much as those of another. 
The Scripture passage, or the prayer, or the testimony of the 
poorest and youngest is as acceptable as that of the richest and 

On the committees, too, since all in a well-regulated society 
must be placed on some committee, young people of different 
social grades and from homes of different degrees of culture 
must necessarily work together. Ability is very likely to 
come to the front, and ability often wears a threadbare coat, 
and has few early advantages. 

* Treasurer William Shaw. 

The Society as a Democracy. 345 

The business of the society, too, is conducted 

Democratic , j i ■> 

Business in a democratic way, the members choosing their 
^^^' own officers, making their own appropriations, and 

largely directing their own affairs, subject, of course, only to 
the veto power of church and pastor. Thus not only do they 
learn invaluable lessons of self-reliance in the conduct of af- 
fairs; but the spirit of democracy is inculcated, the spirit of 
the New England town-meeting, on which the liberties of 
America rest. The same spirit, it may be remarked, actuates 
a constitutional monarchy as well as a republic where the 
people manage their own local concerns. 

Many and beautiful are the illustrations of the way in 
which this spirit of Christlike democracy has been exhibited 
in the society. One of the wealthiest and most famous young 
women in America, it is said, is accustomed to attend the 
Christian Endeavor meetings in the little church near her 
country home, and take her simple part with the neighbors' 
boys and girls and the young men and women of the village, 
striving as simply and unostentatiously as any of them to do 
what Christ would have her do. 

In a New England town a young lady whose wealth is 
counted by millions is always found at the Christian Endeavor 
prayer-meeting. She is put upon the committees as regu- 
larly as any of the members. Her committee often meets in 
her elegant home; but she never attempts to dominate the 
others or to have her own way, but simply works with them 
as one of the obscurest members would do, and takes her 
share of the burdens and responsibilities as well as the honors 
of office. This, after all, is what counts in a free country. 
The factory hand, the shop-girl, the clerk, the farm-hand, do 
not care to be patronized. They would naturally and rightly 
resent it, but they do want companionship, sympathy, the help 
of a friendly heart, and to have the privilege of giving as well 
as receiving help. 

346 Christian Endeavor in All Lands, 

There is also a snobbish aristocracy of education, which 
one often sees, which is just as ofifensive and more indefensible 
than the snobbishness of wealth, for the educated man ought 
to know better. 

How often we see the college man draw away 
Snobbish= from his less educated mates, and leave the work 
Edu^ca/ion °^ ^^^ church, in which he might be doubly effi- 
cient, altogether to those who have had no such 
advantages as he! Many pastors have complained bitterly 
of the influence of modern college life upon their young 
men and women, saying that they are of no further use in the 
church after they have once gone away to college. This is of 
course an exaggeration, for many are not thus afifected; but 
there is altogether too much truth in it, and the root of the 
evil is simply the loss of the Christlike spirit of democracy. 
The greater the opportunities and privileges, the greater the 
responsibilities for service. The man who hides away ten 
talents in a napkin will be condemned more severely than the 
one who hides but one. 

It must not be supposed, however, that men of real edu- 
cation have failed to work heartily and harmoniously with the 
young people of the Christian Endeavor societies. A multi- 
tude of leaders, both in local unions and in local societies all 
over America, are college-bred men and women who find 
inspiration in the simple testimonies of their younger broth- 
ers and sisters, in the songs and prayers of the weekly meet- 
ings, and find in the work of the committees a real help to 
their own spiritual life and a splendid opportunity for service. 

That the testimony and expressions of religious life given 
by these young Christians, though often crude, are uninterest- 
ing and unprofitable is denied by every one who enters into 
their life sympathetically. The writer has seen the most emi- 
nent doctors of divinity in the country, and the most 
distinguished pulpit orators, listen with tears of joy to the tes- 

The Society as a Democracy. 


timonies of the young Christians in a convention consecration- 
meeting; and, as he has knelt at the- same seat with one of the 
most distinguished of our college presidents, he has felt the 
settee throb with the scarcely controlled emotion of his com- 
panion, who was following the prayers of some of his youngest 
and least educated fellow Endeavorers as they prayed for 
God's blessing and the outpouring of His Spirit. 

JBk. m. 

■— ■ -^ *■ *"°# • i- 

V'-Sr-^i f ^ ■ ., ■ ,' -' : - • :■ • .. •♦'4i A j.>i -^ i.i'^f o 

t:^^' ' ^^y 1«; rvf f' v- ^^M.%,^* 4^ 

English, Irish, and Scotch Christian Endeavor Convention Picnic at Loch Fyne, 



The conventions, as is natural, have this to their credit, 
that they bring together the young people in the most friendly 
and familiar Christian intercourse. One can hardly take a 
week's journey with another on train or steamer without be- 
coming interested in him, and looking at matters somewhat 
from his point of view. One cannot sit side by side with his 
fellows In a great congregation, having his soul uplifted with 
the same emotions, his heart going out in the same prayers, 
and his voice joining in the same hymns of praise, without 

348 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

coming to feel a genuine sympathy and fellowship with him. 

In the British conventions the delegates are 

Democratic gf^^^^ houscd in improvised hostels, established in 

Hostels ^ ' 

at schoolrooms or vestries of churches, and these 

Convention, , __. 

are magnificent promoters of democracy. When 
twenty cots are set up side by side in one room; when at 
the common table in picnic style the delegates eat to- 
gether day after day; when they have their morning and 
evening devotions together, and come and go to the meet- 
ings side by side; the spirit of caste, if it existed before, is 
likely to get its death-blow. 

The excursions and picnics and swimming-matches and 
out-of-door games, which often form recreational features of 
the convention, bring together young people, not only from 
different sections and different denominations, but from all 
walks of life as well, thus unconsciously fulfilling one of the 
chief functions of Christian Endeavor. 

In the local society the social gathering is the 

Democratic ^ r uu* 1 j 

Social great enemy of snobbishness and conscious superi- 

Gatherings. Qj-^ty. The plans for Christian Endeavor sociables 
are almost innumerable, and three very considerable volumes 
of about 150 pages each have been published by the United 
Society in America, giving a great variety of social gather- 
ings, each one of which, if entered into heartily, would sound 
I the knell of stifif formality and exclusiveness. It is manifestly 
impossible in such a volume as this to tell in detail of these 
social gatherings, or to outline their bright plans; but as a 
mere example of what may be done it is worth while to record 
a very few samples of "socials" from among the thousand 
which have been successfully used in Christian Endeavor so- 
cieties, and which have helped to bring the young people 
nearer to each other. 

"A post-office social, in which each writes a serious or 
humorous letter to some other member of the society, signing 
his name. 

The Society as a Democracy. 


"A botanical social, with contests in the identification of 
common plants, and with a microscope exhibition and talk. 

"A great phonograph social, with an explanation of the 
machine, and with illustrations from previously prepared rec- 
ords and from impromptus. 

"A hodge-podge social, in which each member is called 
upon by lot to lead in one game of his own choice. 

"A spelling-school, the words to be spelled backwards. 

"A puzzle evening, puzzles being placed on small tables 
and groups of the Endeavorers being sent from table to table 
at the tap of a bell. 

A Bit of the Last Welsh Christian Endeavor Convention. 

"A recent-events evening, with bright accounts of the 
leading features of recent history." 

One of the earliest charges against the Society was that 
it brought the sexes together too frequently in social life, and 
a standing joke which deserved long ago to be buried under 
the spreading chestnut-tree was that C. E. stood for "Courting 
Endeavor," not for Christian Endeavor. But, as many or- 

350 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

ganizations have turned their reproaches and their gibes into 
badges of honor and distinction, so this free social 

Free ° ' 

Intercourse intercourse between the young men and women has 
the^ come to be one of the glories of the Christian 

Sexes. Endeavor movement. It has been seen to make 

for purity and modesty, as well as for unconstrained geni- 
ality, and has resulted in many happy companionships, and 
finally in many delightful homes, so that along all the differ- 
ent avenues of social life the Society has aimed to promote 
naturalness, sanity, freedom from oppressive conventionality, 
and the genuine Christlike spirit. This whole matter of 
social democracy among young Christians has been so well 
put by another* that I cannot do better than to end this chap- 
ter with his words. 

"What is it to be social? It is to appreciate the mean- 
ing of life. It is to realize that we are set here in this world, 
not for houses, lands, gold, silks, praise, authority, fame, but 
for character. It is to put first the kingdom of God, and His 

"Gold separates men. They sneak ofif, each to his own 
gulch, jealous lest some one else should pre-empt a valuable 
claim before he does. Ambition separates men. My brother 
and I cannot both hold the office at the same time, and there- 
fore — well, 'Heaven helps him that helps himself.' (Some 
think that is in the Bible.) Spite of trusts and combines, of 
clubs and cliques, the god of this world is a god of division, of 
isolation, and it is only as men get into their souls the love of 
God and the thought of His eternity and theirs that perma- 
nently and truly they draw nigh to one another. 

"The spirit of snobbishness will kill the socials of any 
society. Christ would not be admitted to-day into certain cir- 
cles of so-called Christians, if He came in the working clothes 
of a carpenter. Good socials must be democratic, and the 
washerwoman's daughter and ashman's son must be made to 
feel as much at home as the daughter of Senator Biggun or the 

* Amos R. Wells, in " Social to Save." 

The Society as a Democracy. 351 

son of General Moneybags. Egotism, the feeling that you 
are better than other people, either on account of a better-filled 
purse, or because of a better-filled head, or because of some 
other gift of fortune or industry, will destroy any social. Put 
in place of this contemptible spirit the humble acknowledg- 
ment of sinfulness and unworthiness, and the glad perception 
that all for whom Christ died are brothers and sisters in Him, 
and you will have, you cannot help having, successful socials. 
I do not much care what games you play, or whether you play 
at all, what refreshments you serve, or whether you let the 
overburdened stomach alone and serve none at all, sociability 
does not consist in forms and trappings, but in the spirit. For- 
get yourselves, remember Christ, seek to win friends for Him, 
that is my recipe for a good social. Forget yourselves, re- 
member Christ, seek to win friends for Him." 




" Christian Endeavor is planting a new phrase in the lan- 
guages of the world. At our second All-India Christian En- 
deavor Convention at Allahabad it was unanimously and 
enthusiastically adopted that 'Christian Endeavor' be accepted 
as the one name, untranslated, in every language and dialect 
in all India, Burma, and Ceylon. Thus the words that mean 
so much to us in our tongue at home are now in many tongues." 

Rev. G. L. Wharton, India. 

" It seems to me that in the very inception of this movement 
the thought that inspired it, the thought that gave it name, was 
happy and blest. I know of no two words in the English 
language that are more freighted with deep significance. I 
know of no title that you could have chosen that would be 
more heavily weighted with blessing and divine inspiration 
than these two words." 

Governor Roger Wolcott, of Massachusetts. 

HE new and the old in Christian Endeavor are in- 
extricably intertwined. In one sense it is all 
new, in another sense it contains nothing new. 
It has brought new names into the dictionary, 
but these names are often the signs of old ideas. 
On the other hand, it has taken words as old as the English 
language and put a new meaning into them, or at least a new 


The New and the Old. 353 

emphasis, and has given them such currency as they have 
never had before. 

One of these words is found in the very name of the So- 
ciety and its members, "Endeavor," "Endeavorer." The 
"Standard Dictionary," after describing the Society, defines 
"Endeavorer" as "one who endeavors, or strives to do some- 
thing; specifically, a member of the Young People's Society 
of Christian Endeavor." This word, it is not too much to 
say, is used fifty times to-day where it was used once a quar- 
ter of a century ago. It is often capitalized to-day, whereas 
then it was written with a small initial; and this increased 
emphasis upon the word indicates the increased emphasis 
which the Society has put upon the thing for which the word 

The writer has frequently been asked how the Society 
came to be called by this name, where the original sugges- 
tion came from; and he has to confess that he does not know. 
He has learned of late years that there was once a church in 
Brooklyn, started, if I mistake not, by the Rev. Edward Eg- 
gleston, called the "Church of Christian Endeavor." I have 
since learned, too, that there was a society among the deaf 
mutes of an institution in Lawrence thirty years ago, called 
"The Society of Christian Endeavor." It may have been that 
this name, either from the church or from the deaf-mute 
asylum, was seen by the author, and filtered into his mind 
without his knowing it; and, when the time came for naming 
the new society, some subconscious act may have recalled the 
name he had heard before. It would be interesting if it 
could be proved that a society in a deaf-mute asylum sug- 
gested the name to the movement whose members take audi- 
ble part in every meeting. 
hackneyed Howcvcr this may be, the name has doubtless 

had not a little to do with the success of the So- 
ciety. It was unhackneyed, and suggested fresh, vigorous, 


354 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

strenuous life, the very life that is suited to young Chris- 
tians. It has been found a difficult name, to be sure, to 
translate into other tongues; but, though several unsuccess- 
ful attempts have often been made on the introduction of 
the Society into a foreign country to translate the name, the 
members have after a time settled down on a nomenclature 
satisfactory to all. 

The greatest difficulties of translation have naturally 
occurred in Oriental languages, especially the Chinese, 
where, as is often recalled, the original name of the society 
as given in the Fukien province, the first district in China to 
accept Christian Endeavor, was "The Drum-Around-and- 
Rouse-Up Society," by no means an inappropriate, though a 
cumbrous, name. In the Cantonese dialect it was called by 
the circumlocution, the ''Urge-on-in-the-Service-of-Salva- 
tion's-Lord Society." 

Since the English word "endeavor" comes from the two 
French words en devoir, it would seem to be easy to put it 
back again into French; but this has not proved to be the case, 
and the somewhat less meaningful phrase, "Society of Chris- 
tian Activity," has been adopted in French-speaking lands. 

There are other phrases and words which the Christian 
Endeavor societies have so thoroughly adopted as their own 
that they almost seem to have originated them. They have 
certainly originated the combinations in which they are used 
to-day. For instance, "lookout committee" finds a place in 
the "Standard Dictionary," and is defined as "a committee in 
the Society of Christian Endeavor, whose duties are to bring 
in new members, to introduce them to the work, etc." So 
with various other committees, "social committee," "prayer- 
meeting committee," "calling committee," "missionary com- 
mittee," "sunshine committee," these are all old words, but in 
their combination and accepted use to-day have been given an 
entirely new and a very definite meaning. 

The New and the Old. 355 

The word "interdenominational" was heard but seldom, 
lnter= ^^ ever, a quarter of a century ago. We used the 

denom= words "denominational" and "undenominational" 
frequently enough ; but interdenominationalism had 
scarcely been born, and there was little need to name it. 
Now "interdenominational" is as common and well under- 
stood as "undenominational," and stands for as definite and 
important a feature of religious life. n 

The words "consecration" and "consecration-meeting," 
too, have had a volume of new meaning put into them by the 
Christian Endeavor movement. "Consecration" stands not 
for some mystical emotion, and not only for the renunciation 
of self and the making sacred of one's time and money and 
ability to God, though of course the word must always con-' 
tain this, but it stands also for the outspoken devotion of the 
young person to the Lord Jesus Christ at the monthly meet- 
ing; it stands for a renewal of the vows made by every En- 
deavorer when he joins the society, and a renewal of the ex- 
pression of his allegiance to his God. 

There are other phrases that have come in the wake of 
Christian Endeavor, which are no less telling and self-descrip- 
tive. What, for instance, could so well describe Christian 
Endeavor work among the sailors as "Floating societies"? 
What two words could tell more of a society among the sol- 
diers than "Barrack society"? 

This is an appropriate place, also, to speak of the sub- 
sidiary organizations which have clustered around the Chris- 
tian Endeavor movement. Some one has happily compared 
them to the beautiful chapels that surround a great cathedral. 
They add to its value, its utility, and its beauty 
iary without detracting from the main edifice. Some 

tions"'^^^ worshippers find help and comfort in one chapel, 
and some in another; and, while none are com- 
pelled to kneel in any one of them, they are often filled with 

356 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

devotees, who are also the worshippers in the main cathedral 

Oftentimes have I been through the great cathedrals of 
Europe, and have thought at first that they were quite empty 
and destitute of worshippers, but in some side aisle, or behind 
the altar, I have come across a company of devout Christians, 
who have found in the altar or the saint to whom the chapel 
was dedicated something that especially fitted their religious 
needs. That which we sturdy children of the Reformation 
may regard as born of superstitious ignorance finds a counter- 
part which no Protestant can object to, in the dififerent activi- 
ties which earnest Christians find for themselves, according to 
their age, their abilities and circumstances. 

Around the Christian Endeavor cathedral have grouped 
themselves the Quiet Hour chapel, the Tenth Legion chapel, 
the Macedonian Phalanx chapel, the Home Circle, and the 
Rural Christian Endeavor chapels. Though learned pro- 
fessors may ascribe these to "the oath craze," those who care- 
fully study the history of the Society, and practically enter 
into its life, find them as inevitable and necessary as the So- 
ciety itself. If they are not needed and do not fill a need 
of human nature, they will soon fall into disuse, and they will 
be used more or less according to their real value in meeting 
the needs of the times. 

Among these auxiliaries of the Christian En- 

The ^ 

Quiet deavor movement none have met a felt need of 

the time perhaps so much as "the Quiet Hour." 
Something like ten years ago it was forced upon the atten- 
tion of the writer, especially as he studied the great conven- 
tions, that there was an element lacking which might be 
supplied. The Christian Endeavorers were full of vivacity, 
activity, and genuine devotion. Their meetings did not lack 
enthusiasm, and their consecration-meetings were full of so- 
lemnity and genuine spiritual power; but it seemed to him that 

The New and the Old. 357 

too little time was given to reflection, meditation, and com- 
munion with God. In order to support the vast amount of 
doings there must be more and more being behind it. Ac- 
tivities must spring from heart devotion, and, to cultivate 
this, time must be rigorously set apart. The larger the activ- 
ities, the greater the need for these periods of devotion. 

The Keswick movement and other such efiforts for the 
deepening of the spiritual life have conclusively shown how, 
when well guarded and not allowed to run into fanaticism, 
the most useful philanthropies and the largest activities flow 
from the deepest spiritual springs. So it was proposed that 
those who wished should band themselves together in a purely 
voluntary organization called "the Comrades of the Quiet 
Hour." The name was chosen rather than the similar name 
of "The Morning Watch" in order to give the utmost freedom 
as to the time which should be devoted to meditation and 
personal communion with God, though the morning hour was 
strongly recommended. 

Those who became "comrades" agreed to spend fif- 
teen minutes a day not merely in Bible-reading and pe- 
tition, but in genuine personal communion with the Un- 
seen. As soon as proposed, the idea attracted the attention 
of a great multitude of young people, and testimonies 
began to pour in from all directions, of the exceeding value 
of a "Quiet Hour" in personal experience. Lives were 
brightened. Christian hope revived, assurance of salvation 
made doubly sure, because the Comrades had learned the se- 
cret of personal communion by actually practising it. Quiet 
Hour literature began to abound; "Quiet Hours" led by some 
of the most eminent Christians* in the land began to be 
held in connection with the conventions both State and na- 
tional. Now more than 40,000 have been definitely enrolled 

* Dr. Floyd W. Tomkins, President H. C. King, the Rev. J. Wilbur Chapman, 
D.D., Mr. William R. Moody and many others. 

358 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

as "Comrades" in different lands, and probably many times 
that number have been affected and influenced by the thought, 
and have learned the secret of meditation, which is no longer 
"a lost art" among a multitude of Christian youth. 

Another instance in w^hich an old name has 

The r- I 1 • 1 • • r 1 • 1 

Tenth been filled with a new meanmg is found in the 

egion. "Tenth Legion." The name of Caesar's picked 
troops, upon which he could always rely, was given origi- 
nally by the New York City Union to a tithe-givers' league, 
which was at first but local in its work and application. But 
what was good for New York was good for the rest of the 
Union; and the suggestion, originally made by Mr. W. L. 
Amerman in the year 1897, ^^^ adopted by the American 
United Society, which at once commenced to promote the 
"Tenth Legion" on a larger scale. Many thousands have en- 
rolled themselves under this banner, or, to refer to a former 
figure, have found help and comfort in this chapel of the 
Christian Endeavor cathedral, and multitudes of young peo- 
ple, when "the Tenth Legion" is now spoken of, think not 
of Caesar's blood-stained troops, but of Christ's army of young 
people who have resolved to devote one-tenth of their income, 
be it large or small, to the cause which fights against the hosts 
of sin throughout the world. 

"The Macedonian Phalanx" may seem to some a fanci- 
ful name, but it stands for an attempt to meet a real need in 
a natural way; and, when one thinks of it, no name could be 
more appropriate than the "Macedonian Phalanx," proposed 
first by Professor Amos R. Wells, to designate this 
Ma*cedo= effort of the Christian Endeavor Society to answer 
Phrianx. ^^^ ^^^ ^^y^ which is Still repeated after 1900 years, 
"Come over into Macedonia and help us!" It was 
felt, and most naturally, that many young people would be 
far more interested in giving their money for the support of 
a definite missionary, native preacher, teacher, Bible woman. 

The New and the Old. 359 

or other Christian worker, or a student preparing for Chris- 
tian work, or for some definite and distinct part of mission 
work, as a hospital, free hospital bed, mission-boat-building, 
church-planting, Sunday-school, and the like, than to put 
their money into some great treasury that swallowed up hun- 
dreds of thousands of other dollars without telling them just 
what their money was used for. So any individual or society 
that gives at least twenty dollars a year for mission work, 
through its own denomination, and desires to have it devoted 
to some special purpose of this sort, can belong to the Mace- 
donian Phalanx. 

Many, to be sure, who really belong to "the Macedonian 
Phalanx" have not thought it necessary to enroll their names; 
but it has given a great stimulus to the idea of personal, defi- 
nite missionary work, — the idea of working twenty-four hours 
a day for the Master, twelve hours in one's own home land 
while about one's every-day occupations, and twelve hours 
through the substitute on the opposite side of the globe. This 
idea is adopted by many missionary societies in the so-called 
"Forward Movements" of the day, and has proved a great 
blessing, not only to the mission cause, but to the givers at 
home, in linking them definitely with the work and workers 
^ who otherwise might seem so hazy and far away. 

Civic The "Civic Club" is an organization which 

will be described more at length in the chapter on 
Good Citizenship Endeavors, but is another of the adjuncts 
of the Society, which might well be made of larger use than 
it ever has been. 

The "Home Circle" is an effort proposed by the Presi- 
dent of the United Society at the convention in Nashville in 
the interests of home religion and family worship. As has 
been said, 

"There are tens of thousands of families now, where one 
or both of the heads of the household are or have been active 

360 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

members of the Society. If Christian Endeavor means any- 
thing to them, it means that they will carry their religion into 
their new-made homes. It is as natural that Christian En- 
deavor should stand for Christian family life as for Christian 
citizenship or Christian missions. And so the members of the 
Home Circle say to each other and their Master, 'Trusting 
in the Lord Jesu? Christ for strength, we will endeavor to 
maintain family worship in our home, and will strive to make 
it, through kindness, courtesy, and mutual helpfulness, a 
household of God.' " 

An effort somewhat allied to this is one pro- 


Family posed by Secretary Clements of the New York 

Union to bring the benefit of Christian Endeavor 
to isolated country homes, whose members on account of dis- 
tance from church, or because of the impassable roads of win- 
ter, could not get to the meetings. It is called "Rural Family 
Endeavor," and makes it possible for a single family to form 
a little Christian Endeavor society of its own, auxiliary to 
the larger society in the church which the members attend. 
It also makes it possible for groups of neighbors, living far 
from the church, to meet together in a simple Christian En- 
deavor service, and thus bring the means of grace to their 
very doors. This department of Christian Endeavor will 
doubtless meet the need of many scattered communities, and 
we already hear of eighteen rural family Endeavor societies 
started in the republic of Brazil. 

It must be remembered that the value of these co-operat- 
ing organizations is not to be measured, by any means, by the 
numbers enrolled in them, though in the case of many these 
are very large. But one of their chief values is that they give 
an opportunity of projecting an idea; they materialize and 
embody, so to speak, a thought that would otherwise be evan- 
escent. They give something to talk about, something tangi- 
ble to describe; they clothe in flesh and blood a spirit which 

The New and the Old. 361 

needs a ^'local habitation and a name." They do far more 
good than statistics can tell, or than the members enrolled 
would signify, even though they are numbered by tens of 



" The work of the Christian Endeavor Society during the 
quarter of a century of its existence has been far-reaching in 
its effect for good. To make better citizens, to lift up the 
standard of American manhood and womanhood, is to do the 
greatest service to the country." 

President Theodore Roosevelt. 

" I extend the most cordial greetings to the members of 
the Young People's Societies of Christian Endeavor. They 
are engaged in a work of vast importance to the entire 
country ; a work which belongs to our civilization ; a work 
which makes for better people, better homes, and a better 
republic. They are a mighty force for good, and are worthy 
of the utmost encouragement and support. I wish them the 
largest success in their beneficent enterprise." 

Hon. Charles IV. Fairbanks, 
Vice-President of the United States. 

O condense the story of Christian Endeavor in the 
three Americas — North, South, and Central — 
into one brief chapter, is a difficult undertaking. 
Of course only the salient features of this history 
can here be presented, but other details will be 
found in other chapters of the story of the development of the 

The beginnings of the Society in America need not be de- 
tailed here since it is the story, already rehearsed, of the 


christian Endeavor in the Americas. 363 

beginning of Christian Endeavor throughout the world. 
Some of the important conventions and leading events in the 
American history have also been previously described. 

Probably nothing has done more to spread the knowl- 
edge of the Society and its principles from Maine to Oregon 
and from Manitoba to Texas than the great conventions, 
which are inseparably connected with the history of this last 
twenty-five years. They have compelled attention. They 
have often silenced adverse arguments. They have heart- 
ened friends. They have aroused inquiry in the general pub- 
lic, which would otherwise have stood aloof, knowing little 
and caring less for the Society. "What is this new thing?" 
"What is Christian Endeavor? And what do the Endeavor- 
ers seek to accomplish?" 

If people have not said with some of old, "These who 
have turned the world upside down are come hither also," 
they have at least said, "These that have compelled the atten- 
tion of press and pulpit by their numbers and enthusiasm, 
who have been the subject of conversation in the restaurant 
and at the street corner, who have moved the city government 
and the State and national authorities to give them a wel- 
come, have come hither also; and what does it all mean?" 

The Endeavorers have been glad to answer: 

Conventions . . ° 

in "Christian Endeavor means that we stand for 

Christ and the church. It means that we desire to 
do whatever He would like to have us do. It means a virile, 
hopeful, heroic type of Christianity, and this is what has at- 
tracted the young people and their well-wishers from far and 
near. It means that the religion of Christ is not dead or 
dying. It means that the old gospel has within it vitality 
enough to take on new forms, when changed conditions make 
'ancient good uncouth'." 

Two or three of these earlier meetings have already been 
described. The conventions in Saratoga in 1886 and 1887 

364 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

will always be remembered by those who attended them as 
meetings of rare spiritual power. The type was then so new 
that they made even a deeper impression upon those in attend- 
ance than much larger gatherings, even though just as spir- 
itual, would make to-day. 

There are of course certain advantages in meetings that 
number two thousand, which cannot be altogether shared by 
those that number from twenty to forty thousand. The per- 
sonal enjoyment where one can hear every word and catch 
every expression of the speaker's face is greater, perhaps, 
than in the vast building, where the speaker recedes into a 
dim and distant perspective. But the sense of the triumphant 
power of Christianity, of the mighty army of young Chris- 
tians, which is so gracious a feature of the modern convention, 
is wanting in the small gatherings; and in these days there 
are so many smaller meetings in connection with the great 
conventions that the peculiar value of the smaller gathering 
is not lost, while there is no other convocation held in the 
course of the year, besides the young people's conventions, 
that gives the triumphant sense of the mass and power of the 
hosts of God. 

"Saratoga, '87," was follov/ed by a series of conventions 
— Chicago, 1888, Philadelphia, 1889, St. Louis, 1890, and 
Minneapolis, 1891 — each one marking growth in numbers and 
in strength, and each one making a more decided impression 
than the last upon the country, and bringing greater and 
greater encouragement to those who were interested in the 
Christian Endeavor army. 

Cities began to vie with each other in their desire for 
the convention. The city governments and boards of trade, 
mayors and governors and leading merchants, would send 
strenuous appeals to each convention, asking that the next 
might be held within their borders. These appeals became 
decidedly embarrassing to the trustees of the United Society, 

christian Endeavor in the Americas. 365 

who had to decide between the rival claims, and who could 
often feelingly repeat the words of the old lines, 

" How happy could I be with either, 
Were t'other dear charmer away!" 

The convention in New York in 1892 was not only a rec- 
ord-breaker in numbers, but it was the first to impress the 
country with the extent and rapid growth of Christian En- 
deavor. It has already been alluded to, and it is sufficient to 
say that the echoes awakened in Madison Square Garden in 
those hot July days have not yet died away. They were heard 
around the world, and in distant parts of China and India 
the writer has been asked for further particulars of the won- 
derful convention that so impressed all who read of it as well 
as those who attended it. 

The convention of 180-? was held in Montreal; 
1893.'^^* and, though a riot was threatened by the hoodlums 
of the Catholic population, excited by their priests 
and some of their newspapers, because of an unguarded utter- 
ance by one of the convention speakers, comparing Catholi- 
cism to Hinduism, the meeting passed ofif triumphantly. 
The Catholic mayor, who suppressed the incipient riot by 
turning the hose upon the rowdies, received a great ovation 
from the Endeavorers, especially when he declared in his 
farewell speech that Montreal, too, like the Endeavorers, 
stood "for Christ and the church," and that "her steeples' 
were and always had been higher than her factory chimneys." 

The convention of 1894 ^^ Cleveland tested the pluck of 
the Endeavorers, for it was held at the very height of the 
greatest railroad strike that America has ever known. Roads 
were tied up in every direction, and it was uncertain whether 
any one who started would reach the convention. But tens 
of thousands did start, and the strikers themselves, recogniz- 

366 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

ing the pacific and Christian purposes of the Endeavorers, let 
the convention trains go through without delay or molesta- 
tion. The martyr president, McKinley, then the governor of 
Ohio, was an interested attendant at this convention, and spoke 
ringing words for Christian citizenship. The great conven- 
tion in Boston in 1895 has already been described. 

The convention of 1896 was on a magnificent 
^06^*"^***"' scale, and was held in the capital city of Washing- 
ton. Three great tents, each holding ten thousand 
people. Tent Endeavor, Tent Williston, and Tent Washing- 
ton, spread their great white wings over the "White Lot," the 
use of which the government gave the Endeavorers as a spe- 
cial favor. One of these tents blew down in a tremendous cy- 
clonic storm the night before the convention was to begin. 
But the meeting opened on time in spite of the rain, and 
by the vigorous enterprise of the Washington committee the 
wrecked tent was repaired, re-erected, and ready for occu- 
pation on the third day of the convention. This convention 
will long be remembered because of the wonderful praise 
service, held on the east front of the Capitol, conducted by 
Mr. Percy S. Foster, one of the most beloved and efficient 
of the leaders of Christian Endeavor song. A choir of five 
thousand was massed upon the great steps of the Capitol, and 
a throng estimated at all the way from fifty to a hundred thou- 
sand swelled the grand volume of the chorus. It is said that 
the magnificent anthem, "Holy, holy, holy. Lord God al- 
mighty," was heard more than a mile away, by people upon 
the streets and in their homes. 

In 1897 the Christian Endeavorers carried out 
Francisco, perhaps the greatest religious excursion ever known 
^' in American history, for twenty-five thousand per- 

sons, it is said, crossed the mountains to California to attend 
the Seventeenth International Convention. The railroad au- 
thorities on the Pacific coast could not be convinced that any 

Christian Endeavor in the Americas. 367 

such numbers would think of attending the convention. To 
the secretary of the United Society, Mr. John Willis Baer, 
who went out to California especially to prepare for the meet- 
ings, one of the vice-presidents of a transcontinental railway 
said, when told that ten thousand might cross the mountains: 
"Young man, cut those figures right in two. I know better 
than you do. A convention was never held that would bring 
five thousand people from the East." The "young man" 
subsided, but it was found that his figures were too small by 
more than one-half, and the result was that, having prepared 
for only five thousand, the railways were utterly unprepared 
to cope with five times that number. Some of the many ex- 
cursion trains were nine or ten days in crossing the continent. 
Mountains of baggage were piled up awaiting claimants, 
some of whom did not get their belongings until the conven- 
tion was well over. 

In spite of these difficulties, however, perhaps in part 
because of them, the convention was a magnificent success, 
and will long be remembered by the people on the coast. 

In 1898 the Endeavor hosts went to Nashville, and had 
the use of the fine buildings in which the exposition of South- 
ern industries had been held. The report of the conven- 
tion says: "Nashville has enjoyed the very best Christian 
Endeavor convention yet held in the world. In every par- 
ticular except numbers the convention surpassed its splendid 
predecessors. It was more practically helpful, more spiritu- 
ally uplifting; it was more magnificently patriotic, more 
strikingly brotherly, more thoughtful, more expressive, more 
cordial, and more lovable." It was made memorable by the 
fraternal union of the Blue and the Gray. In the presence 
of Gen. O. O. Howard of the Union army and Gen. Clement 
A. Evans, formerly of the Confederate army, and also of Gen. 
John T. Morgan, who commanded the Union forces in the 
battle of Nashville, this sentiment was incarnated. A piece 

368 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

of the original "Old Glory," which had been owned by a 
Nashville Unionist, who kept it sewed up in his 
Blue coverlid during the war, and brought it out to 

and the wave over the capitol when the Union forces 
at entered it, had been given to the president of the 

Nashville. -.^ . , r^ . ttti i i 11 r 

United Society. When he introduced the former 
Confederate General Evans, he handed it to the general, who 
received it, with emotion, and said, "In all the charges I 
have made against this flag I have never seen it floating befor 
me on crested ridge or parapet with resentment toward it iv 
my heart." 

In 1899 ^ niost successful convention was held in Detroit. 
The two big tents were surrounded by many smaller ones, and 
the "White City" was the centre of attraction for tens of thou- 
sands for nearly a week. Three hundred thousand people, 
it is said, attended the one hundred and fifty different sessions; 
and the Quiet Hours, the Conferences for local-union offi- 
cers, the prison conference, and other smaller meetings, as well 
as the great tent gatherings, made this convention memorable. 

In 1900 the American Endeavorers united in the World's 
Convention in the city of London, as has already been de- 
scribed; but in 1901 the International Convention was again 
held on American soil, this time in the hospitable city of Cin- 
cinnati. The traditions of the past were fully maintained in 
this meeting, though the reputation of the city as somewhat 
torrid in the month of July — a reputation which it failed to 
bear out, certainly during this convention week, which was 
delightfully cool and comfortable — prevented as large an at- 
tendance as at some other meetings. 

In 1903 the Endeavorers journeyed half across 
1903^^' t^^ continent to hold their convention in the beau- 
tiful city of Denver. This was the first of the bi- 
ennial conventions, which had been voted two years before, 
in order that in the intervening year more emphasis might 

christian Endeavor in the Americas. 369 

be put upon the State and local conventions. The meeting- 
place was exactly a mile high, and the spiritual altitude well 
corresponded to the physical. The Rev. R. J. Campbell, the 
successor of Dr. Parker in the City Temple of London, at- 
tended this convention, and was a great attraction whenever he 
spoke in tent or church. The only untoward event was the col- 
lapse of the great tent in a hurricane on the last afternoon. 
Eight thousand persons were beneath its canvas roof at the 

Tent Endeavor, Denver Christian Endeavor Convention. 

time; but by the mercy of God, and because of the coolness 
and self-control of the great audience, no one was seriously 
hurt. In fact, scarcely a scratch was received by any one, but 
the imprisoned multitudes cut their way through the canvas, 
and five minutes afterward were standing upon the debris and 
piles of lumber near by, singing "Praise God from whom all 
blessings flow." 


370 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

The last convention that comes within the survey of this 
history was held in the city of Baltimore in 1905, and it has 
gone down in the history of conventions as perhaps the most 
enthusiastic and in some respects the most remarkable of any 
that has ever been held. The building used, the great armory 
hall of the Fifth Regiment, was the largest ever used, and 
was seated for 16,500 people; while the Lyric Hall near by 
and many churches were also used. The most important ad- 
vance step taken was the proposition to mark the completion 
of the first quarter-century of the Christian Endeavor move- 
ment by the raising of a Memorial Fund for the erection of 
suitable Christian Endeavor headquarters, and for an endow- 
ment sufficient to put the world-wide extension work of En- 
deavor on a permanent basis. "The atmosphere may have 
been sticky and uncomfortable," says a reporter of this meet- 
ing; "but it was too heavily charged with cheer and joy, en- 
thusiasm and evangelism, for misanthropy. Numbers came, 
and numbers count, and never was there a more convincing 
proof of the inherent vitality and vigor of the Christian En- 
deavor movement than was given in Baltimore." 

While the great conventions make the deepest 
other impression upon the general public, they are not by 

in the any means the only factor, nor perhaps the largest 

Growth ^ . , 1 <- 1 /^i • • -r^ 1 

of factor, m the growth of the Christian Endeavor 

Endeavor, movement. Many of these other influences are un- 
seen at first, but they are none the less potent. 
Some of these, like the rise and progress of "the Quiet Hour" 
and the "Tenth Legion," the development of the local union 
and the State union, have been described in other chapters. 

One of the most reassuring features of the movement is 
its ability to develop new forms, and to adopt new methods 
when they are needed. A striking illustration of this is found 
in the "Increase Campaign." It was in the year 1902 that 
the writer was attending the Ohio State convention in Zanes- 

christian Endeavor in the Americas. 371 

ville. It was a good meeting, large, enthusiastic, full of 
vigor. But it seemed to him that more yet might be accom- 
plished, and that there was some danger that the Endeavorers 
of Ohio and in other commonwealths might settle down to 
the idea that they had won the victory, and that there was 
little more land to be possessed. So at one of the meetings 
he proposed an "Increase Campaign," and that during the 
next year the Ohio Endeavorers should strive to add ten per 
cent to the number of their societies. It seemed like a large 
^ task, for there were already between three and four 

Increase thousand socicties in the Buckeye State, and it was 
ampaign. gyppQgg^j |-j^^j- nearly all the churches that desired 
Christian Endeavor societies already had them. 

But the leaders of the State union, especially the inde- 
fatigable field secretary. Rev. C. H. Hubbell, took up the 
idea with enthusiasm, went to work with a will, and before 
the twelve months were out had gained their ten per cent. 
Within two years more than seven hundred new societies had 
been formed in Ohio, and her officers intend to close the 
puarter-century year with a thousand new Endeavor societies 
to their credit. 

This idea was taken up with almost equal enthusiasm in 
other States. In some of them it was a much smaller task to 
gain their ten per cent, for they had comparatively few to 
base a percentage on. Thus Indian Territory and Oklahoma 
added 211 new societies, making a gain of sixty-four and a 
half per cent in two years. Indiana gained more than thirty 
per cent by adding t^'j'] societies. Louisiana added 42 socie- 
ties, nearly fifty per cent of all she had before. Assiniboia 
gained more than fifty per cent, while Hawaii surpassed all 
records by more than doubling her societies, which she did 
in two years by adding twenty-five to the numbers of January, 
1903. The total gain in societies in the United States and 
Canada in the two years following the beginning of the In- 

372 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

crease Campaign was 6,780, an average of more than twenty- 
three per cent. 

In 1905 the Increase Campaign idea was enlarged by 
making it a "Betterment" as well as an "Increase campaign," 
and by the proposition that it should extend over ten years, 
by which time it was hoped that all the States would double 
their numbers. Better meetings, larger missionary contribu- 
tions, and better citizenship efforts were all to be recognized 
at the Baltimore convention, and thousands of local societies 
and hundreds of local unions were recorded in Secretary 
Vogt's Recognition Leaflet, given out at Baltimore to recog- 
nize the reports received by him of specially fine work done 
by the societies during 1904 and 1905. It is a pamphlet of 
seventy large and closely printed pages, with double columns 
giving only a line to each society, but every line, by a system 
of numerals, signifying a lot of splendid work reported by 
that society. 

A later development of the Society in Amer- 
Field ica, but a very natural one, is the employment of 

field secretaries by the different States whose work 
has grown so large and important as to need some one to 
give his whole time and attention to it. This was started 
in Ohio in 1901, and has been followed by Maine and Cali- 
fornia, Oregon and Colorado, Massachusetts, New York, 
Kentucky, and other States. These field secretaries have often 
been ministers of various denominations, though sometimes 
young laymen are chosen ; but in every instance they have 
not only rendered valuable service to the Endeavor move- 
ment, but in many ways have helped the churches in other 
lines, "doing the work of an evangelist" oftentimes, and 
strengthening in many ways the weak places in the walls of 

The developments in North America of the Christian 
Endeavor Society among others than those of the Caucasian 

christian Endeavor in the Americas. 373 

race deserves more attention than can be given in this chap- 
ter. The colored societies are very numerous, and are con- 
stantly increasing. Two of the most eminent bishops of the 
colored churches have long been members of the board of 
trustees of the United Society, and another of the race repre- 
sents the colored Baptist churches. No color line is ever 
drawn in the national conventions, and such speakers as 
Bishop Arnett and Bishop Walters and Booker T. Washing- 
ton are among the most acceptable Christian Endeavor con- 
vention orators. 

The colored societies of the African Methodist Episcopal 
Church are called "Allen Societies" after one of their leaders, 
and the societies in the African Methodist Episcopal Zion 
Church belong to the so-called '^Varick Union." In Flori 
Ida alone there were at the last report 163 societies of the 
'Allen League of Christian Endeavor," 143 of which had 
been formed in the previous year. j 

Christian ^^^ work of Christian Endeavor among the 

Endeavor North American Indians has always been most in- 

Among • A 1 • 

the terestmg. A home missionary tells of seeing a 

Indians. r t j* ^ ^' . ^ 

company of young Indians starting out one day on 
their bronchos for a new settlement some miles distant. 
When he asked them where they were going, they told hirn" 
that they were the committee of the Christian Endeavor so- 
ciety of that reservation, and that they were going to form 
another society in this new settlement of whites for which they 
were bound. Truly that is a reversal of former history, when 
the Indians carry the gospel to the whites. 

Among many tribes of Indians are whole-souled Endeav- 
orers; and, when the Rosebud Indian Reservation of South 
Dakota was opened up last year, Christian Endeavor entered 
as soon as the white settlers, and found itself no stranger in the 
happy hunting-grounds of the red men. 

There are but four societies in Alaska, but some most ad- 


Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

mirable and active Endeavorers are found among them. The 
Rev. Mr. Marsden, a full-blooded Alaskan, has long been 
active in the work, and has been an acceptable speaker at more 
than one convention. 

The Chinese Endeavorers in America are among the 
most generous and devoted of all. The society which has 
long held the record for the largest benevolence, barring only 
one in all the land, is a Chinese society in San Francisco, 
which for a number of years has averaged about $i,8oo a 
year for mission work. 

Canadian Endeavorers at Dr. Clark's Birthplace, Aylmer, Quebec. 

It is not necessary to mention the dififerent nationalities 
in America that are interested in the Endeavor movement, 
since, though they sometimes meet by themselves, they also 
form an integral part of the American hosts. It is necessary 
only to say that there are societies speaking German and 
Welsh, Bohemian, Polish, Hungarian, Swedish, and Nor- 
wegian. Almost all of these Endeavorers are bilingual, and 

Christian Endeavor in the Americas. 375 

also join in the meetings and the work of their English- 
speaking comrades. A large conference of the German socie- 
ties of the Atlantic district was recently held in Brooklyn, a 
German Endeavor paper was proposed, and a general secre- 
tary was chosen, while the Welsh societies also have a yearly 
convention of their own, usually in one of the interior States. 
Canada and the United States for all Chris- 
Dominion tian Endeavor purposes may be considered as one 
cinada Country, for they belong to the same international 
union, and their interests are largely the same, 
though a Dominion Union has also been formed to give espe- 

The Cathedral in ]\Icxico City. 

cial attention to Canadian affairs. In two or three of the 
Provinces of Canada there was for several years an apparent 
decline in the Christian Endeavor movement, and an actual 

376 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

loss in the numbers reported, the only country in the world, 
so far as I know, of which this could be said. This decline 
was most marked in the Maritime Provinces and in Ontario, 
but it is believed to be only temporary. Indeed, there are al- 
ready signs of quickening in these Provinces. The Quebec 
Union, splendidly manned, was never more active than now, 
and in Manitoba and the Northwest constant and rapid gain 
has been reported. 

Mexico has long had a vigorous and devoted 

Mexico's ^, . . T- 1 ^- ^ --ri • • 

Endeav= Christian Endeavor contingent. 1 he missionaries, 
*"'^'*^' especially of the Congregational and Presbyterian 

churches, have taken great interest in the Society from the 
start. Some of the noblest examples of heroism in Christian 
work, of determination in overcoming obstacles, of long and 
difficult journeys taken to attend the conventions, come from 
this great republic. Mexico's last records show 133 Christian 
Endeavor societies, a gain in membership, though not in socie- 
ties, of 25 per cent. Their last convention was reported to 
be the "best yet," and new plans were laid for the larger work 
of the future. The official organ of the society is El Esfor- 
zado Mexicano, and a good one it is. No one has done more 
for Christian Endeavor in Mexico than. Mrs. C. S. Williams, 
of the Presbyterian Board, who has long been the secretary of 
the Union. Rev. James D. Eaton, D. D., and Mrs. Eaton, 
among other missionaries, have also been especially helpful 
to the cause in its earlier days. 

As we go farther south, we find in Costa Rica ten socie- 
ties, in Guatemala three, while others are reported on the 
Mosquito Coast and in other parts of Central America. The 
islands on the American coast are treated in another chapter. 

, Coming to South America, we find that Bra- 

in _ , =• ' 

South zil is pre-eminently the Christian Endeavor coun- 

try of this part of America. Here are found 62 
societies, 43 of them being in the enterprising province of 

christian Endeavor in the Americas. 377 

Sao Paulo. Exceedingly interesting accounts come from 
Brazil of picturesque conventions and of faithful work done 
by the Endeavorers. The growth in this great country has 
been most remarkable of late years, considering the obsta- 
cles encountered and the great predominance of the Catholic 
Church. In 1900 there were only two societies in all Brazil; 
now the two have been multiplied by thirty-two. Most prac- 
tical and efficient work, too, is done by the Brazilian Endeav- 


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The Second National Christian Endeavor Convention in Brazil. 

orers. The Anglican society of Sao Paulo, for instance, con- 
ducts a seamen's reading-room, where sailors of all nation- 
alities may find a welcome and literature in their own lan- 
guage. The Union Presbyterian Endeavorers of the same 
city do much out-of-door missionary work, holding meetings 
in different parts of the city and in the suburbs. The native 


Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

Brazilians are trying to interest the Germans, Italians, and 
other nationalities in Christian Endeavor with large hope of 
success, and the last national convention that w^as held was one 
of unequalled power. At this convention sixteen ministers, 
representing five denominations, took part, and greetings were 
received from many parts of the world. A chorus sang for 
the first time the new national Christian Endeavor hymn, 
written by Teixira da Silva, while the evangelistic spirit was 

Group of Endeavorers in Sao Paulo, Brazil. 

marked throughout the convention, and is characteristic of 
Brazilian Endeavor. 

Missionaries of various denominations have very effi- 
ciently helped the cause. To Mr. R. W. Fenn, of the Pres- 
byterian mission in Brazil, must be given especial credit for 
enthusiastic labors while he was in Brazil, and for raising 
money to help the Endeavorers there since he returned to 
'America. Of all the Brazilians, none have done more for 

christian Endeavor in the Americas. 379 

the cause than the general secretary of the Brazilian Union, 
Rev. Eliezer dos Sanctos Saraiva. 

But little as yet has come to the knowledge of the writer 
concerning other South American countries, though most of 
them have small Christian Endeavor contingents, and have 
doubtless made interesting history, were it only known. Co- 
lombia is credited with five societies, Chile with six, British 
Guiana, where the Society has been especially vigorous, has 
eleven, while other societies are known to exist in the Argen- 
tine Republic, in Uruguay and Venezuela. It is evidently 
the intention of the Endeavorers of this great section of Amer- 
ica, as it certainly is of the officers of the World's Union, that 
South America shall not be the "neglected continent" of 
Christian Endeavor. 



" To our dear brothers in Christian Endeavor who here 
represent the great European nationalities — France and 
Spain, Germany and Sweden, Switzerland and Italy, and 
perchance others also, I would say: 'Surely your coming is 
the expression of a warm desire for a good understanding be- 
tween nation and nation. We reciprocate that sentiment. 
Your presence here is a prophecy of that perhaps distant but 
sure-coming day, when nation shall not vex nation, and when 
they shall learn war no more.' " 

Rev. J. B. Alorgan, at the London Convention. 

HE Story of the Christian Endeavor movement 
in every country in Europe is but a repetition 
of the ever-interesting story of providential 
openings, small beginnings, numerous ob- 
stacles, and finally substantial growth; at least 
this is the story of the Society where it has been in existence 
long enough to get beyond its initial stage, and really make a' 
home and a welcome for itself. 

The beginning of the Society in Great Britain and one 
of the great conventions there have already been described 
at some length, and the recent growth has been so many-sided 
and so general throughout all parts of the United Kingdom 
that only the briefest view can be given in this chapter. Other 


Christian Endeavor in Europe. 381 

Officers and Workers in Europe. 

Rev. Horace Button, 


Rev. Frederick Blecher, 

Rev. J. H. House, 
Salonica, Macedonia. 

Vicente Mateu, 

Treasurer of the Spanish C. E. 

Efr. Rang, 
Johanneslund, Stockholm. 
Rev. V. Van Der Beken, 
General Secretary, France. 

382 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

chapters will tell more of the works of mercy and various 
lines of church and philanthropic activity undertaken by the 
British Endeavorers. 

For the most part, Christian Endeavor in Great Britain 
has developed along the same lines that the Society has fol- 
lowed in America, and many of the plans used in America, 
like the "Quiet Hour," the "Tenth Legion," the "Increase 
Campaign," etc., have been found of equal value in Great 
Britain. It has also developed national characteristics of its 
own, as the Society is sure to do, owing to its flexibility and 
adaptability of method. 

The Sunday-School Union was the first sponsor for 
Christian Endeavor in Great Britain, and, when there were 
but a few societies in all the country besides the original 
British society in the High Street Church of Crewe, invited 
the writer to tell the British public something of the new 
organization. This was in 1888, and the invitation was re- 
peated in 1891, when the quartette of American ministers 
already named visited a score of different places in Great 
Britain, including such important centres as Bristol, Ports- 
mouth, Taunton, Boston, Colchester, Sunderland, besides 
holding a number of meetings in different parts of London. 
They undertook the journey at their own expense, except so 
far as travelling-expenses from place to place in England 
were concerned, and they were everywhere most kindly and 
hospitably received. 

Q^^^^ From this time the cause went rapidly for- 

Conventions ward. The conventions are upon the same gen- 
Great erous scale as in America, and Manchester and Bir- 
Bntain. rningham and Shefiield and Glasgow and Belfast 
and Newcastle and Bristol are all memorable in Christian 
Endeavor convention annals. The national convention of 
1904, held in London, was particularly memorable because of 
the formation of the European Christian Endeavor Central 

christian Endeavor in Europe. 383 

Bureau. Representatives from a dozen different countries in 
Europe met in a room of the Sunday-School Union on the Old 
Bailey, and formed the European Union, which is destined to 
do a great and most-needed work throughout all the Continent, 
bringing together the forces that speak so many different lan- 
guages, and yet are all united in the bonds of Christian En- 
deavor. Since the Society began to gather strength and head- 
way in Great Britain its affairs have been wisely managed 
by a National Council representing all denominations and all 
parts of the United Kingdom. This Council chooses the 
president of the Union, and also a chairman to preside over 
its own deliberations every year. 

Nor has the president been any mere figurehead, but has 
always done efficient service, travelling hither and yon, from 
Land's End to John O' Groat's, wherever he was called by the 
Endeavorers. Even so busy a man as the Rev. F. B. Meyer 
found time to accept the presidency of the British Union with 
all that it involved, for one year, and sacredly set apart one 
day out of every week from his multifarious duties to answer 
Christian Endeavor calls from far and near. Rev. John R. 
Fleming, during the year of his incumbency of the office, 
stimulated the literary as well as the spiritual side of Christian 
Endeavor, and still continues to guide the literary circles with 
courses of studies in general reading, in the Bible, and in 
church history. The eloquent voice of the Rev. Joseph 
Brown Morgan, one of the earlier presidents, was heard in 
every part of Great Britain pleading for the principles of 
Christian Endeavor. 

The Rev. W. Bainbridge was most active during the year 
of his presidency in presenting Christian Endeavor to the eye 
as well as the ear by means of beautifully illustrated lectures. 
The Rev. E. R. Barrett was untiring in his efforts, during his 
incumbency, while the present president, the Rev. Bishop E. 
R. Hasse, is no less zealous in his efforts for the advancement 

384 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

of the cause. A different denomination each year is repre- 
sented in the presidential chair, and all these incumbents are 
busy men with large parishes of their own to look after. 

But, while presidents come and presidents go, the Rev. 
W. Knight Chaplin, the secretary of the Union, remains at 
his post, which he has occupied from the formation of the 
national union. With marvellous industry he not only attends 
to his secretarial duties, but edits The Christian Endeavour 
Times as well, preaches on Sunday to his own congregation, 
and goes here and there throughout Great Britain to scores of 
conventions at the call of the Endeavorers. 
Scotch, The different parts of the United Kingdom, 

Irish, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, have developed their 

and ' ' '^ 

Welsh own Christian Endeavor unions, and have their own 

annual conventions, meetings large in numbers and 
of wide influence. Somewhat like the State unions in Amer- 
ica, they manage their own affairs, but are in sympathetic 
relations with the national union. The Scotch, Irish, and 
Welsh contingents all have their characteristics, and all add 
their own individual harmonious note to the Christian En- 
deavor symphony. The Isle of Man, too, has its own vigor- 
ous "Manx Union," with an admirable monthly magazine of 
its own devoted to the interests of Christian Endeavor. 

Some of the local unions of Great Britain are of great 
strength and importance, the London Union, indeed, being 
the largest in the world, with more than seven hundred socie- 
ties, divided into nineteen divisions, each doing what it can 
for the spiritual uplift of the world's metropolis. 

The Yorkshire Union and the Lancashire and Cheshire 
Federation also number tens of thousands of Endeavorers, 
and, like many other vigorous local unions, have a distinct and 
most vigorous life of their own. A considerable number of 
societies are not as yet connected with the national union, so 
that the total number is larger than the reports indicate. 

christian Endeavor in Europe. 385 

To attempt to characterize the work of these unions in 
detail would be a hopeless task. A volume should be given 
to each one, but the writer can say from personal visits to al- 
most every one of them that no more enthusiastic companies of 
Christian Endeavorers meet together in any part of the world 
than are found in these British unions. Indeed, he would 
give the palm to them for hearty and uplifting congregational 
singing, and for genuine enthusiasm which stirs a speaker's 
heart and brings out the best that is in him they divide the 
honors with their Australian brethren, if they do not excel all 
others. British and Australian audiences are far more demon- 
strative and inspiring to address than those in America or in 
most other parts of the world. 

The different divisions of the Methodist Church, with 
the exception of the Wesleyan, have fostered Christian En- 
deavor more heartily than the other denominations, and have 
reaped the advantage of such fostering care. Especially have 
the Primitive Methodists made great progress of late years in 
the number and vigor of their societies. The rise and prog- 
ress of the Church of England Christian Endeavor Union 
with its helpful meetings and its admirable magazine has been 
most gratifying. 

Next to Great Britain in the number and 

Vigorous , , . ,^, . . f-^ , . . 

Growth Strength of its Christian Endeavor societies comes 
Germany. Germany, where the work is practically only ten 
years old. A romance of religion is the story of 
Christian Endeavor in Germany. Had the writer been told 
ten years ago that by this time there would be three hundred 
societies in the Fatherland, nine well-equipped Christian En- 
deavor districts, holding their annual conventions, a general 
secretary, two field secretaries, a Christian Endeavor maga- 
zine, a Junior paper, and a large amount of Christian En- 
deavor literature, he would have said like the sceptic of old, 
"If the Lord would make windows in heaven, might this thing 



Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

be?" But it has all come to pass, and in a most natural and 
gradual way, so that the extent of the growth can hardly be 
realized. Not that the numbers are as yet very large; but 
when the obstacles overcome are considered, and the indiffer- 
ence with which the Society was received at first is remem- 
bered, the growth seems little less than marvellous. 

Under the blessing of God, to whom he first of all would 
ascribe these successes, the growth of Christian Endeavor in 

Scandinavian Delegates to Christian Endeavor Convention in Berlin. 

Germany is due to the Rev. Frederick Blecher, who from 
the beginning has been the hard-working, self-sacrificing, de- 
voted secretary, never discouraged, always cheerful and hope- 
ful of results. Willing to foster small beginnings and to take 
hold vigorously of discouraging "propositions," he has won 
for himself an enviable place among the leaders of Christian 

Many important and influential conventions have been 

christian Endeavor in Europe. 387 

held in Germany during these ten years, but the crown of them 
all was the European convention in Berlin in 1905, where, as 
Mr. Blecher writes: 

^'Christian Endeavor became for the first time widely 
known in the capital and to the higher Christian circles. The 
highest church officer of Berlin, General Superintendent D. 
D. Faber, welcomed the convention in Circus Schumann, and 
many denominations shook hands and worked together, in our 
Fatherland a rare thing indeed. 

"If before that convention we had much resistance, open 
or secret, we find now many open doors, and much more inter- 
est (though also critics) ; and the number of societies and mem- 
bers is constantly growing. 

"Our German United Society is divided into nine unions, 
which all have conventions once or twice a year, blessed con- 
ventions, where especially the Lord is deepening the work; 
for the dififerent parts of our country have all their individual 
needs, and there they can best become fulfilled. I think that 
is a great advantage of the state unions. 

"We are so glad that through the extended distribution 
of our literature our influence is extending in the most north- 
ern countries of Europe, in Austria, Poland, Sweden, the 
Baltic provinces, and others." 

Mr. Blecher sends many testimonies from 
German German pastors to the value of the Christian En- 
Endeavor deavor Society in their churches, which would 

Missionary. '-* * j ' _ 

make interesting reading, did space permit of their 
introduction. We can add here only that two field secretaries. 
Pastor Urbschat and Mr. H. Laus, assist Pastor Blecher in 
his work, and that the Rev. S. Hugenschmidt has just been 
sent as a missionary by the Christian Endeavor forces of Ger- 
many to the Caroline Islands to work under the auspices of 
the American Board, which has long been engaged in the 
evangelization of these islands. When these were taken over 
by Germany, the operations of the American missionaries 
were greatly disturbed; and now, to show the sympathy of 

388 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

German Christians, and especially of German Endeavorers, 
with this work, these young people, with the full approval of 
their pastors, support this missionary of the- American society, 
a truly remarkable instance of international and interdenomi- 
national brotherly love. 

The financial success of the German Union has long been 
a source of surprise, possibly of envy, to Endeavorers in other 
lands. That a company of young people so comparatively 
small, and few of them wealthy, can with ease support so ex- 
tensive a work in their own land, besides sending a missionary 
to the other side of the world, and then have something left 
over for the advancement of Christian Endeavor in neighbor- 
ing countries, is indeed surprising. But the explanation is not 
far to seek. To good financial management on the part of the 
leaders is added systematic generosity on the part of the mem- 
bers, each one of whom contributes half a mark a year (twelve 
and a half cents in American money, or an English sixpence) 
for the advance of Christian Endeavor. 

For a little time Germany received financial aid from the 
United Society in America, but very soon, in the true spirit of 
Christian independence, it began not only to care for its own, 
but to help the "regions beyond." 

In the Lutheran countries to the north of Germany Chris- 
tian Endeavor is also making vigorous headway, except in 
Denmark, where as yet it has scarcely begun its work, though 
one or two societies exist in the kingdom. 

Scandi= Sweden has long been the leader in Scandi- 

navia. . . . ,^, . . T^ 1 

navian countries m Christian Endeavor matters. 
The writer on three occasions has received a very cordial 
welcome from the Christian people of Sweden, and both in 
the state church and in the free churches, especially those 
of the Baptist denomination, the cause is growing strong. 
The king of Sweden himself has expressed to me his interest 
in the cause, and his second son, the devoted Prince Oscar 

christian Endeavor in Europe. 389 

Bernadotte, takes a deep interest in the societies, as he does in 
all Christian work for the young. Sweden now reports more 
than two hundred societies, and Professor Rang, of the Lu- 
theran Church, and Mr. August Palm, of the Baptist Church, 
deserve especial credit for being the pioneers of the Society 
in their respective denominations. 

In Norway Christian Endeavor is of much more recent 
growth than in Sweden. In fact, it hardly obtained a fair start 
until in 1905 the Rev. Horace Dutton, who has done so much 
for the cause throughout Europe, settled down for a serious 

A Christian Endeavor Convention in Sweden. 

campaign among the Norwegians, going from city to city and 
from pastor to pastor to explain the principles of the move- 
ment, to dispel prejudices, to remove misapprehensions, and 
to commend the Society to a most earnest company of Chris- 
tians, who have become thoroughly enthusiastic Christian En- 
deavorers. Though the societies are not many at this writ- 
ing, yet Norwegian Christian Endeavor will have a large and 
honorable place, I believe, in the history of the future. 

In Finland the Society has had a most auspici- 

Growth ous beginning. On visiting Helsingfors in 1902 I 

Finland. deemed it my duty to explain to the audience that 

gathered in the hall of the Young Men's Christian 

Association the principles of Christian Endeavor in the sim- 

390 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

plest and most elemental way, supposing that few, if any, of 
my auditors had ever heard of the Society before. What was 
my surprise to be addressed after the meeting by a young Finn, 
who told me in very good English that he belonged to a Chris- 
tian Endeavor society in Helsingfors, and that there were a 
number of Endeavorers present! This was Professor Sax- 
back, who has since been the leader throughout the Grand 
Duchy. It seems that he had been in America, and, living in 
Milwaukee, had become a member of a society there. On 
his return to Finland he established the organization in his 
native city, and now we find that there are more than twenty 
societies in Finland that are doing an excellent work. 

Since Finland is a part of Russia we can easily pass on 
to other parts of this vast empire. In St. Petersburg we find 
at least one strong society in the Anglo-American Church, 
which Baron Nikolai, well known in court circles as well as 
among the Christian forces of St. Petersburg, speaks of as "a 
blessed haven of rest" for him. But the largest development 
of Christian Endeavor in Russia is found in the Baltic prov- 
inces, especially in the Lettish provinces.* There the So- 
ciety has found an enthusiastic friend in the Rev. Robert 
Bahtz, who has become the field secretary of the cause in this 
part of Russia. His enthusiasm breathes in every word of 
his letters. This short extract from one tells of the beginning 
of Christian Endeavor among the Lettish people: 

A^ong *T send you the good news that through the 

the grace of God the Young People's Society of Chris- 

^^*'^' tian Endeavor has found a foothold in the Baltic 

provinces of Russia. For this the glory is God's alone. His 
name be praised in all lands and all languages! Through the 

* The latest reports at the close of 1905 record 36 societies with 579 members 
in the Russian-Baltic Christian Endeavor Union, of which 16 are in Livland, 
7 in Kurland, and 13 among the Letts in other parts of Russia. Though the Society 
has not yet found its way into the Greek Church of Russia, there are some who 
predict that its largest field in the future, when thoroughly understood, will be in 
that church. 

christian Endeavor in Europe. 


Lettish paper, The Evangelist, the cause of Christian En- 
deavor has become known among the Lettish people, and we 
hope that it will have a great future among them. There are 
already, four societies: one German in Dorpat, and in Riga, 
Rujen, and Tuckum each one Lettish society. Hallelujah! 
We have already a hundred members in Russia." 

In Austria and Bohemia the work has been promoted by 
the American missionaries * and Pastor Alois Adlof is the 

First Christian Endeavor Convention Held in Russia at Rujen, Livonia. 

efficient secretary of the work, which is yet in its infancy in 
those countries. 

In Hungary greater progress has been made, and sixteen 
societies are reported. The worthy leader of the work is 
Professor Szabo, of the University of Budapest, whose father- 
in-law, the Rev. Theodore Biberauer, first became interested 
in the movement in Hungary about ten years ago. Professor 
Szabo has published in Hungarian religious periodicals many 
articles about the Society, and to his enthusiastic leadership 
are largely due the substantial beginnings of the work in this 

* The Rev. A. W. Clark, D.D., and the Rev. J. S. Porter. 

392 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

great progressive country. Pastor Julius Forgacs is the secre- 
tary of Christian Endeavor work in Hungary. There are 
some Junior societies as w^ell as societies for young people, 
and one of the latest efforts is a society for the university men 
of Budapest. 

In the Balkan States, too, Christian Endeavor 
is well represented. If the numbers are not large, 
the quality is of the very best. Both in Bulgaria 
and in Macedonia the work is started. In Phil- 
ippopolis, Samokov, Sofia, and Salonica are societies, and 
there are beginnings which promise larger things in the years 



Executive Committee of Hungarian Christian Endeavor Union. 

to come. Perhaps the most interesting centre of Christian 
Endeavor in the Balkan States is Monastir in Macedonia, 
where there are no less than four societies. In these four so- 
cieties are people of six nationalities, Bulgarians, Servians, 
Albanians, Wallachians, Greeks, and Americans. In Samo- 
kov, among the warm-hearted Bulgarian students the writer 

christian Endeavor in Europe. 393 

witnessed a remarkable scene of the outpouring of the Spirit 
of God, and he will never forget the cordial welcome 
which he received in Monastir a few years ago. Though 
it is in the very heart of the most disturbed district in all 
Europe, though bandits from the mountains and Turkish 
soldiers quartered upon the people made life miserable for the 
inhabitants, though our meetings had to be held by daylight, 
and all had to be behind locked doors and gates before dark, 
yet here we found a company of Endeavorers that will do 
credit to any town of the size in England or America. Turk- 
ish rule forbade the girls' meeting us at the station; but, as we 
approached the school compound, we were welcomed by the 
cchoolgirls singing in good English, 

"God bless you, God bless you; 
God be with you in the coming days!" 

The missionaries of the European Turkey mission of the 
American Board have done much for the cause of Christian 

In the Latin countries Christian Endeavor has 


Latin naturally had more obstacles to contend with, and 

a slower growth than in the Teutonic lands where 
Protestantism prevails. Nevertheless, on the whole it has 
given a very good account of itself. The hearty welcome ex- 
, tended to Christian Endeavor at the beginning by Mr. Greig 
of the McAU Mission has already been described. Dr. Mc- 
All himself was no less cordial and friendly, though, when the 
writer first went to France, this Scotch apostle to the Gauls 
was near the end of his life's work, and could do but little 
actively to show his interest. But the Society has always 

* Among them should be especially mentioned Dr. Bond and Miss Matthews 
and Miss Cole of Monastir, Dr. Marsh of Philippopolis, Miss Haskell of Samokov, 
Dr. House and Mr. Haskell and Mr. Holway of Salonica. Miss Ellen Stone, the 
well-known missionary who was captured by brigands, and her companion in 
captivity, Mrs. Tsilka, are also active Endeavorers. 


Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

flourished in the McAll Mission. It has also found its way 
into many of the Reformed Churches, and at the end of our 
first quarter-century France reports 120 societies. 

Some of the most interesting and useful societies in 
France have been in the foreign churches of Paris, the Ameri- 
can Church in the Rue de Berri, the Wesleyan Church in 
the Rue Roquepine, and the students' meeting in the Latin 

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Spanish Christian Endeavorers, 
Dressed in the Costumes of Different Provinces. 

Quarter. One of the best illustrations of what a young man 
away from home on a short visit to a foreign city can do is 
furnished by the story of Mr. W. H. Lewis, who accompanied 
the Bering Sea Arbitration Commission to Paris some twelve 
years ago as the secretary of one of the commissioners. An 
earnest Endeavorer in Washington, he was no less an earnest 
Endeavorer in Paris. He started the society in the American 
Church, which has had so long and honorable a career, and 
greatly encouraged societies in other parts of Paris, so that 

christian Endeavor in Europe. 395 

before he left it was possible to hold a meeting of the Paris 
Union, where the hymns and prayers and psalms in two lan- 
guages were heard by the one Father in heaven. The French 
Christian Endeavor Union is of but recent formation, and 
Pastor Van der Beken, the secretary, has proved wise and 
efficient in his administration. 

To show that Christian Endeavor bears the same fruit in 
parts of the world where it is only just established as in the 
oldest Christian Endeavor centres, room must be made for the 
story of some little girls in Marseilles who belong to a Junior 
society, and who give up their afternoons to admirable sun- 
shine work. "Two or three of them go together," we are told, 
"with a violin, a little collection of good things which their 
mothers have helped them to get together — some potatoes, a 
box of matches, candles, some bread and meat and butter, and 
so on. They sing hymns to each old woman they call on, and 
one of them prays. If they are very young and timid, one of 
them repeats the Lord's Prayer." No wonder that the ac- 
count adds, "These little 'district visitors' are very popular in 
the neighborhood." 

Christian Endeavor in Italy has not as yet had 
Italy. ^ ^^^y vigorous growth, though there is much to 

encourage it even there. The beginning of the 
work here, as in Scandinavia, was due largely to the Rev. 
Horace Dutton, and now the union is fully equipped with the 
Rev. G. Cervi of the Wesleyan Methodist Church as secre- 
tary, the Rev. M. H. Shaw of the Baptist Church as president, 
and Dr. Gray, the veteran Presbyterian pastor of Rome, as 
treasurer. "We thank God," says Dr. Gray, "for the societies 
that exist. That which has given us especial cause for satis- 
faction is found in the fact that all who have made trial of 
Christian Endeavor have been satisfied with its results, and 
deplore only that they did not know of it sooner." 

In Rome, Florence, Naples, and Turin Endeavor socie- 


Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

ties are found, and a regular Christian Endeavor department 
is kept up in the weekly Gioventu. 

One would expect in advance that the sturdy little repub- 
lic of Switzerland would prove a fruitful field for Christian 
Endeavor, and such is the case, at least in the limited section 
of Switzerland where the Society has had a chance to prove its 
work. The movement is as yet largely confined to Geneva 

p.- - -- 

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Christian Endeavor Society of Geneva, Switzerland. ^ 

and the vicinity, but here is found a vigorous and aggressive 
local union, which has undertaken to entertain the World's 
Convention and the quarter-century convention in 1906. The 
history of this convention will come into the annals of the 
next quarter-century of Christian Endeavor, to be sure; but 
by way of anticipation I may be allowed to remark, perhaps, 
that from what I have seen of the Geneva committee and their 

christian Endeavor in Europe. 


arrangements the convention promises to be one of the most 
memorable in all the annals of Christian Endeavor. Mr. 
Charles Briquet, a young merchant of Geneva, is the secretary 
of the union, and the leading spirit in the work, and he is ably 
supported by many other eminent pastors. 

There remains only the story of Christian En- 

inthe deavor in the Iberian Peninsula. In Spain the first 

Peninsula. SOciety was formed in the International Institute for 

Girls, then located in San Sebastian, a noble mission 

school, which has since been removed to Madrid. Through 

A Junior Christian Endeavor Society in Spain. 

the influence of Mr. and Mrs. Gulick and the other 
teachers all the girls who have gone out from this school 
for many years have gone out as earnest Christians and thor- 
oughly equipped Endeavorers. In their own home towns to 

398 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

which they have gone and in the schools in which they have 
become teachers they have formed Endeavor societies, and it 
is largely due to their influence that many of the fifty-one 
societies in Spain have been established. Miss Catharine 
Barbour of this mission, who was greatly beloved in her life 
and lamented in her death, was especially active in introduc- 
ing the work. 

Other missions, however, have taken up the work, and 
the societies are now found in nearly every place where Prot- 
estant work is undertaken.* 

During the past year, too, the Society has spread from 
Spain to the Madeira Islands and the Balearic Islands. The 
Rev. William H. Gulick, the beloved father of the movement 
in Spain, writes, "It is the unanimous testimony of Christian 
observers that no systematized agency hitherto existing in our 
congregations has at all equalled the societies of Christian En- 
deavor for the discovering of talent and the developing of the 
same along practical lines of evangelistic work." Dr. Gu- 
lick's efforts are heartily seconded by some of the ablest native 
Spanish Protestants, and in addition to the admirable En- 
deavor monthly, Esfuerzo Cristiano, published in Madrid, 
the societies of Valencia issue a monthly bulletin called El 
Pequeno Esfuerzo. Of the half a hundred societies in Spain 
twenty are Junior societies and seven are Mothers' societies. 
In this respect the Spanish Endeavorers, in proportion to 
their numbers, lead the world. Their example, it is hoped, 
will ere long be followed by the mothers of many other lands. 
' The story of Christian Endeavor in Portugal may well 
be a brief one, since there are as yet but two societies, one in 
Lisbon and one in an Episcopal church near Oporto. "We 
are thankful to our heavenly Father," says the Rev. Diogo 
Cassels, of Oporto, "for being able to say that we have a little 

* Don Vincente Mateu is the president, and Don Carlos Araujo, Jr., the sec- 
retary, of the Spanish Union. 

christian Endeavor in Europe. 


company of fifty-five Christian Endeavorers, many of whom 
attend regularly our choir practices, and take a hearty part in 
the church services. Not a few help at our cottage services, 
teach in the Sunday-school, visit the sick, collect money or 
work for missions to the heathen." To Mr. J. Barreto must 
be given the credit of the introduction of Christian Endeavor 
into Portugal. Young, enthusiastic, attractive in person and 

Spanish Junior Christian Endeavor Society of Valencia. 

speech, he communicated his enthusiasm to other young peo- 
ple in Lisbon; and never has the writer seen a more joyous 
company of young Christians than he once met in that beau- 
tiful city. Soon afterwards Mr. Barreto went to Switzer- 
land to complete his studies. But Christian Endeavor has 
struck root in Portugal, and in the years to come, I believe, 
will bear abundant fruit. 



" What the great world of heathendom wants is not angels 
in heaven, but men and women with the spirit of heaven 
down here on earth. Christian Endeavor was born into the 
world to help bring this vast human need and the divine 
supply together. Some of the principles underlying this 
movement fit very closely into the problems that confront 
us in the Dark Continent. Yonder on the shores of the 
great Victoria Nyanza we are a little force of seven mis- 
sionary Endeavorers in a tribe numbering a million people. 
But what are we among so many? Seven against a million! 
Can we compass the need ? Nay ! But we can train a 
force of native workers, who in God's hand will do the 
work much more quickly and effectively than we could do it 

Rev. Willis R. Hotchkiss, Africa. 

OME years ago a German missionary climbed 
the Cheops Pyramid, that giant structure that 
has been an indestructible monument through 
so many centuries of the past. And what did 
she find engraved upon a stone on the sum- 
mit? C. E., our well-known symbol of Christian Endeavor. 
It is true that old Egypt knew nothing of our movement; 
but young Egypt that is just beginning to rise out of the 
sloughs of superstition and ignorance of past centuries has 
taken up the subject, and had carved the symbol." So writes 
a German Christian Endeavorer. The author may be al- 


christian Endeavor in Africa. 


402 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

lowed, perhaps, to supplement this introduction to Christian 
Endeavor in Africa with some observations of his own, writ- 
ten in Cairo in 1896, but two years after the first society was 
started there. 

"The oldest civilization in the world and the youngest 
Christian organization in the world have met together. Egypt 
and Christian Endeavor have kissed each other, to adopt the 
Oriental imagery of this country. 

"Here under the very eyes of the 'far-seeing Sphinx' I 
find a Christian Endeavor welcome and the Christian En- 
deavor spirit. At last 'forty centuries look down' on this 
child of less than sixteen winters. 

"The foster-parent of Christian Endeavor in Egypt, who 
has, so to speak, acclimatized the Society in the land of the 
Pharaohs, is the Egyptian mission of the United Presbyterian 
Church of America. Some two years ago, the first society 
was started, and now there are three or four societies, includ- 
ing at least one Junior society at Asyut, a long way up the 
Nile, where is one of the chief stations of the Board. But 
especially to Dr. White and Miss Thompson of the mission 
should the thanks of all Christian Endeavorers be given for 
introducing the Society and watching over its interests."* 

From that day to this in the land of the Pyramids Chris- 
tian Endeavor has made steady progress, and has developed 
some peculiarly interesting characteristics. 

For instance, there is a society in Alexandria especially 

for young men, which makes a specialty of trying to win in a 

social way Syrians and Copts, and even Mohamme- 

Work dans and Jews, inducing them to mingle with Prot- 

Egypt. estants and to study the Protestant religion. 

"Already," says Miss Grace Chalmers Brown, 
who writes most interestingly of Christian Endeavor in Egypt, 
"prejudices have been removed, and gradually the young 
men learn the sweet and simple truths of Protestantism. Al= 

* From " Fellow Travelers." 

Christian Endeavor in Africa. 


404 Christian Endeavor in All Lands, 

ready this society has proved itself a bulwark to the church." 
"The Endeavor society in the Cairo boarding-school has 
been influential in deepening the spiritual life among the 
girls. The Egyptian girls have expressive and pathetic faces, 
and to see them stand, a whole assembly of them, in a Chris- 
tian Endeavor service, is one of the beautiful and interesting 
sights of historic Egypt. An English-speaking society in 
Cairo has long been in existence, and has been visited by scores 
of English and American Endeavorers. But the most strik- 
ing, and I might say marvellous, result of Christian En- 
deavor effort to be found in Egypt," says Miss Brown, "is 
in the Bulak quarter of Cairo. In this society were seven 
young girls, all most active workers in Christian Endeavor. 
They united in praying for special work among the Moham- 
medans, and the result of months of secret prayer was a great 
revival." The society has extended up the Nile as far as 
Asyut, and is thoroughly intrenched in the fruitful mission 
of the United Presbyterians. 

The first Christian Endeavor society in Welt 
West Africa was established in Lagos in 1897. It began 

with only five members, and now has about two 
hundred; and through its influence other societies have been 
formed in the regions round about. It has sometimes been 
objected to this mission that people in the home land (Ger- 
many) do not understand the character of the negroes, think- 
ing that they are only two-legged animals and cannot be ele- 
vated, and it is useless to send missionaries to them. But it is 
interesting to see how God has also used our black brothers for 
the work of His kingdom. 

Lagos is a city of ninety thousand inhabitants, with many 
modern conveniences, such as electric light, the telegraph 
and telephone, railroads, etc. At first the Christian En- 
deavor Society attracted but little attention, but now its influ- 
ence is very great. The pastor has found that the members 

Christian Endeavor in Africa, 


of his society are a great help in all the work of the church. 
The young women of the society go out in little groups every 
day in the week to visit in as many of the huts as they can and 
speak with all the people; and not less than two hundred per- 
sons have in this way been led to Christ. They have also 
formed a mission circle to raise money for the work in the in- 

Christian Endeavor Society of Lagos, West Coast of Africa. 

terior of the country. In New Calabar and in South Nigeria 
they carry the gospel to the market-places, and speak of Jesus 
to the people gathered there. Some of those who formerly 
were cannibals have come to believe in Christ. One Chris- 
tian Endeavorer, who worked at first quite alone, has in this 
way brought almost a whole neighborhood to receive the gos- 

4o6 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

pel. Two officials of the European government have also 
joined in the work and become active members, and serve the 
society in many ways. 

In Central Nigeria one of the chiefs has be- 

An ° 

Endeavor comc a member of a Christian Endeavor society, 
and enjoys wearing his badge. Through his influ- 
ence other chiefs have been brought to Christ, and have built 
for themselves and their people a chapel. In Ekiti a Chris- 
tian Endeavorer gathered together nearly three hundred of 
the natives, and taught them to read. 

The following extract from a letter written by the secre- 
tary of the Old Calabar society, a native of the Gold Coast, 
gives an interesting glimpse of the work of Christian En- 
deavor there : 

"After I had been engaged five years in the service of the 
government in south Nigeria I had a furlough of three 
months. I intended to spend half the time in Lagos and half 
in my home in Acera; but I changed my plans without myself 
knowing why, and remained the whole time in Lagos. One 
week after my arrival there I became acquainted with Dr. 
Mojola Agbebi, who invited me to his house. Through fre- 
quent visits there and in the Christian Endeavor society I came 
to realize my great sinfulness, and turned to the Lord whom 
I had forgotten for so many years. I became a member of 
the Christian Endeavor society and a fellow worker. This 
visit in Lagos was greatly blessed to me, and I returned to my 
work with renewed health and energy, feeling as happy as 
though some one had given me a very costly present. 

"Dr. Agbebi had given me a Christian Endeavor badge, 
and told me always to wear it, and to try to start a society in 
Old Calabar. I had followed the first part of his advice, for 
my badge always reminded me of the society which had led 
me to Christ." 

Another native government employee saw the badge, 
and proved to be an Endeavorer himself. The trio soon 

Christian Endeavor in Africa. 407 

started a society, which speedily flourished, and thus the work 
started in south Nigeria. 

Many will be surprised to learn that the German Chris- 
tian Endeavor Union is in copartnership with a church in 
Kamerun. Naturally the Germans were much interested in 
the development of Christian Endeavor in their colonies, and 
last year they were rejoiced to hear that in one of the native 
churches in Kamerun Christian Endeavor had made a 
beginning. It is pleasant to learn that the Duala Endeavor- 
ers are pushing the work with great earnestness and enthu- 
siasm, and they themselves bear all the expense of the work, 
for these natives in Duala are self-supporting. Surely with 
such a beginning we shall expect to hear in the coming years 
of good work and great blessings from Christian Endeavor in 
j^ About fifteen years ago a missionary was trav- 

the elling with a Christian negro up the Congo, in 

Congo. , , . . • • 1 1 f 

order to plant a mission station in the heart of 

Africa. They settled in Luebo, but before the young mission- 
ary had learned the language God called him home. But 
other missionaries pressed forward to take his place, and to- 
day Luebo has a Christian community of more than a thou- 
sand, and Ibange, a few miles away, has as many more. Be- 
cause there were few missionaries they soon decided to train 
up helpers by means of Christian Endeavor, and a society 
was formed with about fifty members. All of these members 
can read and write (the language was first reduced to writing 
by the missionaries), and the Endeavor society in Ibange i<5 
still larger. All of these young people are evangelists. They 
go out to the neighboring villages, and hold prayer-meetings 
and schools, visit the sick, and in many other ways sow the 
good seed. Some of them spend only part of the day in this 
way, and others go to distant villages, and are days and weeks 
and even months on the way. The young women under the 

4o8 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

leadership of two colored Bible women work chiefly among 
the women and girls. And so it has come to pass that mission 
work in this region depends largely upon the Christian En- 
deavor societies. The committees of the society are exactly 
adapted to the needs. The meetings of the society are "held 
in the mission house, since kerosene is so expensive that they 
cannot light the church. They have their song-book in the 
Baluda language, and a short passage of Scripture and the 
topic itself must also be translated for them. At the close of 

How Some Christian Endeavorers Travel in South Africa. 

each meeting every member reports briefly on the work he has 

One of the large societies of the world is at Jakusu near 
the Stanley Falls. It began with six members, and now there 
are 170 active members. The meetings of the society are 
so popular that the bell which usually rings for other church 
services is never necessary to call the young people to the En- 

christian Endeavor in Africa. 409 

deavor meeting. As the hour of the meeting approaches, peo- 
ple come streaming out in all directions from all over the 
town; and often there are between three and four hundred 
present. In one year the society contributed more than three 
hundred marks, most of which was given as a contribution to- 
wards a new mission ship on the Congo. "Gott tut grosse 
Dinge dort im dunkelsten Afrika," truly says the German 
writer who sends the report of this interesting work in the 

Those who are interested to know how our pledge looks 
in the primitive language of the Congo Free State will read 
below a few words of it: 

"Nandombe nzambi bukale Buandi. Ankalexe. 
Ndi ngambila nzambi ne. 'Ntu nasua kuenza 


Nantendelele nzambi ku dituku." 

It was in January, 1896, that different mission- 
Liberia ^^y workers from several evangelical denominations 
banded themselves together to promote the work of 
the Christian Endeavor Society in Liberia, and to unite the 
already existing societies into one union. The work pro- 
p:ressed well. But before long it was interrupted. One 
missionary was stricken w^ith fever. Death took away an- 
other, and the work was given up. But the Lutheran mission 
took up the movement; and it was soon progressing rapidly 
once more, and is now making good headway. Many of these 
Liberian Christian Endeavorers go two or three hours' jour- 
ney through the thick, dangerous African "bush" to attend the 
meetings each week. 

In the Mpongwe dialect the name is translated "Nkumba 
y'onanga wi Kriotyan," "the Society for Christian Earnest- 
ness" or "Christian Enthusiasm." The pledge there requires 

4IO Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

this addition, "I will read the Bible every day, or get some one 
to read it to me."* 

In Madeira, the "Island of Paradise," as it is sometimes 
called, the first society was started in 1904. It has several 
Portuguese members as well as English-speaking ones. 
,j,^^ If Africa is the Dark Continent, it has a bright 

Bright End end, whcre the Boers and British alike, though di- 

of the . ' , , • . 1 • • , 

Dark vided on so many political questions, unite to spread 

Continent. ^^^ knowledge of Christ and His kingdom through- 
out all these vast domains. It is in this part of South Africa 
that Christian Endeavor has won its largest victories. 

The writer's first visit to South Africa, in 1897, was made 
under somewhat discouraging auspices. Sailing from India 
on a coolie ship, he landed in Durban after a long and lone- 
some voyage; for he was the only white passenger on the ship, 
and the voyage dragged through more than three weeks of 
time. Though he found some earnest friends of Christian En- 
deavor, both in Durban and in Johannesburg and Cape Town, 
yet on the whole there was little enthusiasm for the cause. It 
had started, especially in Durban, under somewhat unfavor- 
able circumstances; and in some cases societies had been 
formed that were Christian Endeavor in name only, with no 
pledge and with some of the important features eliminated. 
These naturally failed after a time, and made it all the more 
difficult for new headway to be gained. 

But the ardent Endeavorers of South Africa were not to 
be daunted, and the last ten years have shown marvellous 
progress. Very different was the state of things, in both 
Natal and Cape Colony, that the writer found on a second 
visit in 1904; and he will not soon forget a meeting that was 

* The facts about the Society in the Congo and Kamerun, Lagos, Nigeria, and 
Liberia are condensed from " Bilder aus dem Jugendbund in Aller Welt," the 
excellent German history of Christian Endeavor, by the Rev. F. Blecher. The 
work done by the Endeavorers of the Baptist mission in the Congo, and the story 
of the Endeavour, the steamer which plies the Congo, and was built by the Baptist 
Endeavorers of Great Britain, are mentioned in another chapter. 

Christian Endeavor in Africa. 


then held in the public hall of one of the great Dutch churches 
in Cape Town ; for it was the most remarkable example of the 
power of Christ to weld together estranged hearts in Chris- 
tian love that he had ever seen. 

It was soon after the close of the South Afri- 


Marvellous can war. Feelings on both sides had run high, 
in^* '"^ and there was naturally much political bitterness. 
Cape Town, g^^ ^^ ^.j^j^ meeting came Boers and Britons alike. 
The president of the Dutch union was the chairman of the 

Executive Committee of the South American Christian Endeavor Union. 

meeting, and presided most graciously. The president of the 
English-speaking union gave the address of welcome. 
Around the hall were the Christian Endeavor mottoes in both 
languages, English and Dutch. We repeated together the 
twenty-third Psalm, some in one language, and some in the 
other. In the same way we joined in the Lord's Prayer, and 

412 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

at the close all stood together and sung, some in Dutch and 
some in English, 

''Blest be the tie that binds 
Our hearts in Christian love ;" 

and with the benediction repeated in two languages the happy 
love-feast adjourned. 

Miss A. E. Bliss, of Wellington Seminary, a pioneer of 
Christian Endeavor in South Africa, who has done splendid 
service for the cause in South Africa, recently presented at 
a rally of the Western Province Union an interesting histor- 
ical sketch. In this she tells us that the first white society 
was started in the Huguenot Seminary in Wellington in 1887, 
ias one result of a visit to the United States by a teacher who 
became very much interested in Christian Endeavor work in 
her brother's church. But the growth was slow at first, and 
we read of but few societies before 1896, though one was 
formed in King William's Town in 1890, one in Graaf-Reinet 
in 1892, and one in Stellenbosch in 1894. 

That year it was found, at a Keswick convention held in 
Wellington, that seven societies were represented; and a 
union was formed, which grew to fifteen societies before the 
end of the year. The Rev. Dr. Andrew Murray was chosen 
president, and Miss L. Sprigg, the daughter of the eminent 
statesman. Sir Gordon Sprigg, who was^^then the premier of 
the Colony, was chosen secretary. These were indeed wise 
choices. Dr. Murray, known the world around as one of the 
saints of the earth, gained a standing and recognition for the 
Society which no one else could have gained for it. Ever 
since that day he has been the honored and beloved president 
of the South African Union. Miss Sprigg was energy itself, 
and gave to the cause several earnest years of service. Litera- 
ture was sent from America, and was widely distributed; and 
Miss Bliss, in speaking of the writer's first visit to South 

christian Endeavor in Africa. 


Africa, which he feared was a failure, is good enough to say 
that it contributed much to the advancement of the cause. 

Mr. George Kilbon, the son of a missionary to the Zulus, 
was the first travelling secretary. When the war broke out, 
the work of the societies was necessarily greatly interrupted, 
and Mr. Kilbon returned to America, as there was but little 
that he could do then. 

Seventh National South African Christian Endeavor Convention at Durban, 1905. 

But God brought good out of seeming evil, and one 
jy^^ of the most interesting chapters of Christian En- 

Boer deavor history is the story of the Boer prison En- 


and deavorers in St. Helena, Ceylon, Burmuda, and 

Their Work. Poj-^^g^i^ which wiU be found in another place. 

When these young men came back to South Africa, they 
entered with enthusiasm into Christian Endeavor work, re- 
viving societies that the war had broken up, and forming new 
ones, while some two hundred of them volunteered for mis- 
sionary work, and went to schools at Worcester and Welling- 

414 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

ton to be trained for special service. As the result, in part, 
of the efforts of these former prisoners, the Dutch Union grew 
even faster than the old South African Union, which was de- 
pleted by the loss of many Dutch societies which joined the 
Dutch Union. However, the cause of Christian Endeavor 
has been advanced by this division, which at one time seemed 
disastrous to the South African Union, and in the fall of 1905 
357 societies were reported, of which 249 were in the Dutch 
Union, and the numbers vv^ere constantly increasing. 

Toward the end of 1904 the Rev. Carl Stackman, an en- 
thusiastic Endeavorer of Connecticut, at the call of the South 
African Union went out to be their field secretary. He has 
worked with enthusiasm and zeal, and has endeared himself, 
not only to Christian Endeavorers, but to other Christian 
workers of South Africa. The Rev. Gerald Willoughby, of 
Johannesburg, formerly a pastor in Cape Town, was president 
of the union for two years, and did not a little by his vivacity 
and untiring zeal to promote the cause. Miss Sprigg has 
been succeeded by Miss Cleghorn of the Episcopal Church, 
who is no less efficient and untiring in her efforts for Chris- 
tian Endeavor. Indeed, the Society has been especially for- 
tunate in South Africa in enlisting noble men and women in 
its service. 

Many names shpuld be mentioned, but one must on no 
account be overlooked. Mr. Polhemus Lyon, an American 
merchant residing in Cape Town, has by his generosity and 
unfailing interest tided the union over more than one financial 
difficulty; and by his sterling Christian character and his wide 
reputation as a prominent merchant has contributed much to 
its advancement in all parts of South Africa. The Dutch 
Union, too, has enlisted the services of the most eminent pas- 
tors in South Africa, such men as the Rev. Mr. Marchand of 
Cape Town, the Rev. J. P. G. Meiring, of Johannesburg, and 
others. There are now unions in the Transvaal, the Orange 

christian Endeavor in Africa. 


River Colony, Natal, and a Western Province Union, besides 
flourishing city unions in the large towns. 

The American missionaries in 
Natal co-operate with the English En- 
deavorers in the Natal Union, and are 
often heard at their meetings. Already 
there are the beginning of Christian 
Endeavor among the Zulu churches. 
Among the missionaries who have 
done most for the cause, among both 
the white people and the black, is the 
Rev. Charles N. Ransom, an Ameri- 
can Endeavor of great spiritual power, 
who has communicated his zeal to 
many others. 

This chapter cannot better be 
closed than by quoting the words of 
Dr. Andrew Murray at one of the 
earliest conventions, words which not 
only show his Christlike and consecrated spirit, but strike the 
key-note of Christian Endeavor for Africa and every other 

Rev. D. G. W. R. Marchand, 

President, Dutch Reformed 
Church C. E. Union. 

"We must remember that we are saved that God may 
work through us ; what we do depends on what we are. Keep 
right with God, and He will use you. God must have you 
every day and hour and moment to be able to make use of 
you. 'Moment by moment' in touch with God is indispen- 



" India's conversion will have been hastened by one gener- 
ation, at least, through the coming in of Christian En- 

Rev. Jacob Chamberlain, D.D., India. 
" With a century of the vigorous application of Christian 
Endeavor principles in China, idolatry will be vanquished, 
and temples will give place to churches." 

Rev. H. G. C. Hallock, China. 

HRISTIAN ENDEAVOR in Asia has greatly 
added to the breadth and, if we may say so, to the 
color of the movement. In this great continent 
is nearly half the land surface of the world, and 
more than half of the inhabitants. Here are 
Endeavorers of every shade, from the high-caste Brahman 
with regular Aryan features, to the blackest coolie of India. 
In these lands there is more of picturesqueness in the En- 
deavor conventions and meetings than in all the rest of the 
world put together. Flaming banners covered with curious, 
and to unaccustomed eyes cabalistic, characters; weird songs 
and chants ; committees unheard of in other parts of the world ; 
and a range of work undertaken which extends through all 
the Christian Endeavor gamut, from the lookout and prayer- 
meeting committees, to which we are all accustomed, to the 
"graveyard committees" of India, and the "Junior finger-nail 
committees" of Japan, are characteristic of Asia alone. 


Christian Endeavor in Asia. 



Workers of Various Nations. 
Rev. I. Inanuma, Rev. James H. Pettee, D.D., 

Japan. Okayama, Japan. 

Rev. George H. Hubbard, 

Foochow, China. 
The Late Rev. A. Miyake, Osaka, Rev. George W. Hinman, 
Japan. _ China. 

Rev. William I. Chamberlaii 
Vellore, India. 
Rev. Herbert Halliwell, Rev. Tasuke Harada, 

India. Tokyo, Japan. 

4i8 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

Moreover, it is interesting to remember that Christian 
Endeavor found one of its earliest homes in Asia. It flour- 
ished as if indigenous to the soil ; for, though transplanted 
from America, it is by no means a tender exotic in Asia. 

Whether the first society outside of North America was 
formed in China or Ceylon or Honolulu will perhaps never 
be known with accuracy; for in 1884, only three years after 
the beginning of the Society in America, when it was scarcely 
known even there outside of New England, little Christian 
Endeavor organizations were formed in all these lands. It 
is quite probable that the Junior society in Ceylon preceded 
the others by a few weeks or months. 

The beginning of the work in both China and India has 
been described in other chapters, and the continent is so vast 
that I can only sketch in outline the wonderful and unique 
developments in the great divisions of Asia. These divisions 
naturally fall under three heads: the Mongolians of China 
and Japan; the Hindus of India, with the allied races; and 
the people of the Mohammedan countries that lie nearer 

Perhaps in no country in the world has Chris- 
Christian ^j^n Endeavor been found to be better adapted to 

Endeavor . . . . 

in China. the people than in China. It fits their racial char- 
acteristics. The Chinese Christians seem to under- 
stand it intuitively. Their training in industrial and civic 
guilds has fitted them to grasp the idea of the society with a 
compact organization and a definite line of operations. For 
a long time the strength of the movement in China was largely 
confined to Foochow and vicinity, and even to-day it is 
stronger there than in any other province. The father of the 
society, the Rev. G. H. Hubbard, who, it will be remem- 
bered, as a young missionary from Connecticut started the first 
society in Foochow, is still actively connected with the work, 
having been president of the union. In this province most 

Christian Endeavor in Asia. 419 

happily the Church Missionary Society co-operated with their 
American brethren in advancing the Christian Endeavor 
cause, and now in the missions of the two boards are nearly 
150 societies of Christian Endeavor. 

But the Society has a way of spreading when it once gains 
a foothold. Like the religion of the Master whom it seeks 
to serve, it cannot long be confined to any one province or 
country, and very soon Endeavor societies began to be heard of 
in the Presbyterian mission of Canton,* in Shanghai, and later 
in North China. 

Here it was that Christian Endeavor received its first 
great baptism of blood in 1900. In the Boxer uprising scores 
of Endeavor martyrs, as brave as any who shed their blood in 
the first century or the fifteenth, died unflinchingly for their 
faith. But they did not die in vain, for the whole Endeavor 
movement has been quickened and made more heroic by the 
noble martyrs of China. It was the writer's great privilege 
to be in China just before the Boxer uprising. Only a few 
Endeavor ^^Y^ before the railway was torn up, he journeyed 
Martyrs from Peking to Pao-ting-fu, where one of the most 
Boxer awful massacrcs in all those dreadful months of 

carnage occurred. Here he saw the heroic Pitkin 
and the no less heroic ladies, Miss Morrill and Miss Gould, 
and the martyrs of the Presbyterian compound, and many of 
the Christian Endeavorers who in another month had given 
their lives for their faith. 

In Peking he saw all the missionaries and many of the 
native Christians who were shut up for so many months in 
that awful siege, and he will never cease to thank God for the 
lessons of unswerving Christian heroism which he there saw 

*The Rev. A. A. Fulton, D. D., of this mission was particularly active in 
Christian Endeavor work in the early days, both in China and during his furlough 
in America, where he effectively urged the " two-cents-a-week " plan for missions. 


Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

In North China the Rev. William S. Ament, D. D., one 
of the heroes of the siege, has been perhaps more than any 
other one the leader of the Christian Endeavor forces, 
though missionaries of almost every board have co-operated 
heartily with him.* Indeed, this is true throughout China, 

A Zigzag Bridge in China, Built to Confuse the Evil Spirits. 

where all the missionary organizations are represented in the 
Christian Endeavor movement, except the Methodist Episco- 
palians of the United States, who have formed Epworth 
Leagues and changed the name of their former Endeavor 

* Among the many who have been especially helpful to the Christian Endeavor 
cause in China should be mentioned Miss Emily Hartwell of Foochow, the Rev. 
Dr. Fitch and Miss Mary Posey of Shanghai, Prof. Martin of the Church Mission 
College of Foochow. Scores of other names are honorably recorded in the records 
of Chinese Christian Endeavor. 

christian Endeavor in Asia. 421 

Though the China Christian Endeavor Union has ex- 
isted for some years, no general secretary to give his whole 
time to the work was appointed until 1902, when the Rev. 
George W. Hinman of Foochow was chosen by the Union 
to this position and his support was guaranteed by the United 
Society in America. For more than two years he labored 
untiringly and with great good judgment, as did his devoted 
wife, in extending the cause throughout the Celestial Em- 

The account of his trip to central China among the missions 
of the China Inland Mission is unusually picturesque. 
"Especially in the rarely visited interior," he says, "the pre- 
sentation of the Christian Endeavor movement has awakened 
the interest of the missionaries and native Christians in a way 
that is indeed inspiring. Everywhere the name of Christian 
Endeavor has been a guaranty of welcome and a rallying-note 
for enthusiasm." Some extracts from the story of his visit 
on this journey to Chen-cheo are of interest, not only as it tells 
of Christian Endeavor activity, but as it describes some of 
the little-known customs of the interior. 

Secretary "A day's joumey from Cheo-kia-keo in the 

PktuSque springless two-wheeled native cart, through ripen- 
story of ing harvest-fields of wheat, small millet, buckwheat, 
Travel. castor-oil beans, sweet potatoes, peanuts, cotton, and 
sugar-cane, and we come in sight of the walls of Chen-cheo, 
famous as the city to which Confucius was once refused en- 
trance. For this reason the magnificent Confucian temple is 
located outside the city wall instead of, as usual, in the finest 
location inside. 

"We were treated much better than Confucius, for a 
little company of Endeavorers came out nearly two miles to 
meet us, and welcomed us enthusiastically with greetings of 
'Peace' and the waving of willow branches. But their wel- 
come did not stop there, for in the absence of the lady mis- 
sionaries of this station the Endeavorers had prepared every- 


Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

thing for our entertainment in the mission house, and fur- 
nished all the supplies necessary, even to the coal for cooking 
our meals. They meant to indicate the heartiness of their wel- 
come, I imagine, by the thickness of the frosting they put on 
the cake prepared for us. It went ahead of anything I had 
seen before." 

"Among the exercises [at the public meeting] was one 
which might be called 'illustrated parables,' though many 
other incidents in Christ's life besides the parables were sug- 

The White Pagoda in Foochow. 

gested and explained. A little girl came in with a Chinese 
broom and paper lantern, and began anxiously searching for 
the lost coin, while an older member explained the meaning 
to the audience. Then followed a boy with five pieces of 
Chinese bread and two paper fishes; a little girl with two big 
cash to put in the treasury; a boy with a little lamb over his 
shoulder; a sower with a bag of wheat, which he sprinkled 
out over the audience; a little girl with a large glass 'pearl'; 
and a boy who held up a cotton serpent on a little cross. Each 

christian Endeavor in Asia. 


of these was explained by a different one of the older mem- 
bers, and the whole arrangement and management of the pro- 
gramme reflected great credit on the young president of the 
Endeavor society." 

"Our food at this and many other places along the route 
was supplied from the menu of the inns, and generally con- 
sisted of strips of dough boiled in a sort of oily pork gravy, 
with scrambled eggs and unleavened steamed bread. Not 
bad at all when you could get persimmons to go with it, and 

Japanese Endeavorers at Osaka. 

tea which was not made of willow leaves. The cost of our 
entertainment you may judge from the following items: 
Sleeping accommodations for each person, three cents a night; 
eggs, cooked, three-sixteenths of a cent apiece; persimmons, 
one-sixteenth of a cent apiece." 

"The society at Shi-ki-tien is interesting on account of 
some novel committees. There are the 'pure-body commit- 

424 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

tee,' in the place of the common temperance committee, which 
opposes all kinds of impurity; the 'heavenly-foot committee,' 
which advocates the unbound foot; and also the 'heavenly- 
union committee,' which in the Chinese way advises and 
helps to arrange marriages of the Christians with other Chris- 
tians rather than with heathen." 

At the end of our first quarter-century there are about 
four hundred societies in China, but the number is growing 
so rapidly that these and other statistics from missionary lands 
will be but "ancient history," and inaccurate ancient history at 
that, before this book is published. 

In Japan, as well as in China and India, Chris- 
Society tian Endeavor has enlisted in its active interest some 
'" of the most eminent of the missionaries and Tapa- 

Japan. -' ^ 

nese Christians alike. Dr. James H. Pettee, well 
known as a writer and poet, and with more than twenty-five 
years of missionary experience in Japan to his credit, has 
from the start been the leader among the missionary forces in 
Christian Endeavor, and is to-day the treasurer of the United 
Society in Japan, giving much time and thought and execu- 
tive ability to the promotion of the cause. The Rev. Tasuke 
Harada, one of the most eminent Japanese ministers, has been 
from the beginning the president of the union, and another 
Japanese minister is the travelling secretary, giving all his 
time to promoting the work. 

Though the Society has not seemed to meet the needs of 
the Japanese Christians so strikingly or universally as it meets 
the needs of the Chinese, yet the movement is on a most sub- 
stantial basis, and is growing stronger year by year. At this 
writing there are 140 societies, and the conventions are vigor- 
ous, enthusiastic, and uplifting gatherings. Even war with 
all its distractions did not interrupt the genuine progress of 
the movement, and the last of the thirteen annual conventions, 
but the first one to be held outside of Japan's four great cen- 

Christian Endeavor in Asia. 


tral cities, Kobe, Osaka, Kyoto, and Tokyo, was the best of the 
thirteen. It was held in Okayama, Dr. Pettee's home city, 
and was bright with banners and vibrant with spiritual energy. 
At this meeting it was decided to engage in special work in 
behalf of Christian soldiers and their families, and 
Interesting ^q Dush Sunday-school work more energetically, 

Features ... . 

In Japan. thus showing that Christian Endeavor in Japan does 
not live for itself alone, but for the spread of the 
kingdom of Christ through every agency. 

The " Banner Convention " of Christian Endeavor 
Held in Japan in 1903. 

During the war several "Warriors' Families' Endeavor 
Societies" were formed among the families of Japanese sail- 
ors. The Empress herself, we are told, became interested in 
the organization, and sent a generous contribution to its treas- 
ury. The Endeavorers of Japan, too, joined in the work of 

426 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

the Young Men's Christian Association among the troops in 
Manchuria, and two of the three Japanese sent out to labor 
among the soldiers were Christian Endeavorers. 

How I wish I could introduce all my readers to a genu- 
ine Japanese shimbokukwai, which is usually held in connec- 
tion with a Japanese convention! This is a sociable of a dis- 
tinctive Japanese variety, which cannot be reproduced in any 
other land. The gay costumes of the Japanese maidens, their 
bright eyes, and shy, smiling faces, the picturesque and dainty 
lunches, reproducing oftentimes in various viands Fuji- 
yama, or some other noted spot in Japan, the quaint poems, 
half recited and half sung in old Japanese styles, with extrava- 
gant gestures and in falsetto tones, and, above all, the radiant 
good fellowship and wonderful courtesy which is such a 
characteristic of the country, all combine to make the "shim- 
bokukwai" the most memorable social feature of an Endeavor 
convention that I have ever attended. 

To show, however, that the Japanese conventions have 
their due proportion of the devotional as well as of the social 
element, let me take my readers to the top of a famous hill 
behind the city of Kobe, where in the spring of 1900 the 
national convention was held. Most of the meetings of the 
convention were held in the churches of Kobe, but an early 
morning prayer-meeting was scheduled for the top of this 
hill, to be held in the pavilion of an old Shinto shrine. 

Very early in the morning, almost before daylight, hun- 
dreds of Endeavorers might have been seen making their way 
up this hill, under scores and scores of beautiful "torii," which 
indicate the approach to an old heathen temple. By the side 
of the path were giant cryptomerias, their branches meeting 
overhead. At six o'clock all had assembled on the top of 
the hill, and the meeting began. Below lay the great city 
of Kobe, just awaking from its slumbers, beyond lay the rip- 
pling waves of the bay and of the open Pacific. At six 

christian Endeavor in Asia. 


o'clock the meeting began. The leader opened briefly, and 
then gave the meeting into the charge of the assem- 
bled Endeavorers. Beginning at one end of the 
long line, which was facing the eastern sky, they 
began to ofifer sentences of prayer. One after an- 
other followed, until nearly a score had presented 
their earnest petitions. Just at this moment the first beams 
of the sun appeared over the eastern sea, and smote us full in 
the face, and at that instant, without premeditation, one of 








fe' f 

V^^ *S 

A Japanese Women's Christian Endcavur Sueiety. 

the Endeavorers began to sing in Japanese the old familiar 

"The morning light is breaking; 
The darkness disappears; 
The sons of earth are waking 
To penitential tears." 

428 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

No one could have been in that meeting without realiz- 
ing that in the Sunrise Empire, as well as in all the rest of the 
world, the Sun of Righteousness was rising, the morning light 
was breaking, and the darkness fleeing away. 

To tell the storv' of Christian Endeavor in 


Great India worthily would require a volume rather than 

in a portion of a chapter, and yet the Society has only 

India. begun to do its work. All the missionaries believe 

that its greatest triumphs by far are in the future. In various 
parts of the Indian Empire, fostered by missionaries who had 
learned something of the Society^ in their home lands, socie- 
ties began to spring up soon after the little beginning in Cey- 
lon in 1884. But it was not until 1896, in connection with a 
visit of the writer to India, that the United Societ}^ for India, 
Burma, and Ceylon was organized, and systematic work for 
Christian Endeavor throughout India began. This was a 
somewhat portentous name for a new and struggling move- 
ment that had then comparatively few friends throughout the 
vast empire; but the faith of the missionaries and the native 
Christians who formed the union was by no means small, and 
they chose a name which showed the expansiveness of their 
hopes, and which has well been justified by the results, for 
Christian Endeavor is now found in almost ever\^ part of 
India, Burma, and Ceylon. 

It was not until nearly four years later that this Union 
saw its w^ay, with the financial help of the United Society of 
America, to employ a general secretary who should give all 
his time to the cause. The Rev. Franklin S. Hatch, who 
was then the beloved president of the Massachusetts Chris- 
tian Endeavor Union, was chosen for this work, and spent 
three fruitful years in India. He w^as especially successful 
in commending the cause to the missionaries at their summer 
assemblies and in their own fields, and travelled from one end 
of India to the other, visiting Burma and Ceylon, and Kash- 

christian Endeavor in Asia. 



< .s 

< -o 

H a; 






430 Christian Endeavor in All Lands, 

mir as well, in the interests of the cause. When asked what 
original ways of carrying on the meetings the Hindu En- 
deavorers have, he told about a boys' meeting he attended, 
where after a boy had spoken the leader would ask, "Boys, 
does he live the way he has been talking?" Generally the 
reply would be a "Yes" in chorus. Once, however, a boy 
called out, "No, he told a lie yesterday." 

At a large meeting of young women, when the hour was 
nearly up, and only about three-fourths of those present had 
taken part, the leader said, "All who have not yet taken part 
may rise." Twenty-five or thirty rose. "When you have 
taken part you may sit down," said the leader, who was an 
Indian girl. Every one took part in that meeting. 

Here is a strictly literal translation of the first part of the 
usual pledge, put back again into English from a Hindu 


"Lord Jesus Christ on power for trusting, I promising 
am that whatever He wishes that I do I its work of doing en- 
deavor will, that I daily Bible-reading and praying my life 
of rule fix will. And I my church of every way in helper re- 
main will, especially every Sunday and week of middle serv- 
ice in present being from, on this condition any such cause 
interference not be to whom that I heart of purity with my 
Saviour before ofifer not can, and that as far as I can I full age 
Christian life to live endeavor will." 

Mr. Hatch agrees with the other missionaries 
among who havc Written concerning the matter that the 

Ka^rens music of the Endcavorcrs in Burma is better than 
in any other part of the empire, at least according 
to Western standards of music. The Rev. H. I. Marshall, 
an American Baptist missionary to Burma, writes interest- 
ingly about a Christian Endeavor convention of the Thara- 
wadi Karens, and especially of their singing. 

christian Endeavor in Asia. 


"The evening was given up to a concert. The Karens 
love their hymn-book next to their Bible. I am not quite 
sure but they are more attached to it than to the Bible. In 
the old days of the Burman rule they were forbidden to meet 
for worship. But under cover of the darkness they would 
gather in the thick jungle, and read the Bible and pray. If 
they sang then, they were sure to betray themselves. That 
was the greatest hardship they had to endure. Many a time 
did the muffled songs betray them to their persecutors. But 


Street Scene in Calcutta. 

this evening they have no such fear. They can swell the good 
old songs that we have all known as I never knew a congrega- 
tion at home to do." 

Mr. Hatch tells an amusing story of the struggles of the 
little boys of India to learn proper business methods of con- 
ducting their societies. "How shall we elect oflicers?" asked 
the Juniors of a large society in the famous Lone Star Mis- 

432 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

sion of the Baptists. "Suppose you ask them to choose a nom- 
inating committee," Mr. Hatch replied, "for I like to see the 
boys and girls do their own organizing." They did so. 
"One boy made an enthusiastic speech. I could see it was 
enthusiastic, though I could not understand a word of it. He 
ended his brief plea by nominating himself/' 

In 1904 the Rev. Herbert Halliwell, a Baptist 
cIiHstlan pastor of England, succeeded Mr. Hatch in the 
Endeavor travelling secretaryship, as the commission of the 

Secretary. ° j r i 

first secretary was for only three years, and other 
duties had compelled Mr. Hatch to return to America. Al- 
ready Mr. Halliwell, as associate general secretary, has made 
a large place for himself in the hearts of India Endeavorers, 
and promises to have a long and most useful life in India. 
He had already had experience in Africa as a missionary, 
which will prove most valuable to him. The Christian En- 
deavor central office has been removed from Calcutta, where 
it was first established, to Allahabad. "My bungalow," he 
says, "faces the Jumna River; across the river can be seen 
a few scattered houses and a temple, whilst a few yards east 
of my gates stands another temple; and a couple of hundred 
yards north yet another heathen temple. If I take a walk 
of less than two miles along the river-bank, I come to the 
confluence of the Ganges and the Jumna, deemed to be one 
of the most sacred spots in all India, where many, many thou- 
sands of pilgrims assemble yearly to wash away their sins. 
Comrades, what do these facts mean to you and me? How 
do we contemplate intrenched, fortified, militant, defiant 
heathenism? Here is Satan's stronghold. Arc we prepared 
to do our share in overthrowing the kingdom of darkness 
under the guidance of King Immanuel?" Surely Christian 
Endeavor has come to India to answer this pregnant question. 
Mr. Halliwell records the names of three new committees 
of which he heard at a recent convention in the Punjab ; first, 

Christian Endeavor in Asia. 


a "stirring-up committee" (a specialized form of lookout com- 
mittee) ; second, a ''graveyard committee," to look after Chris- 
tian cemeteries and provide Christian burial; and third, the 
"peace-making committee," whose name carries its own mean- 

To mention the names of all the missionaries in India 
who have done especially helpful work for Christian En- 
deavor would be to record many of the most prominent of 
them all. The Arcot mission of the Reformed Church of 

Some Endeavor Leaders in India. 

America first of all gave its hearty adherence to the Christian 
Endeavor movement, and all its missionaries have been espe- 
cially active in promoting the cause. Dr. Jacob Chamber- 
lain, the veteran missionary and distinguished author, has 
often spoken for the Society both in America and in England. 
One of his sons, the Rev. William I. Chamberlain, has just 
been succeeded by Rev. William Carey as president of the 


434 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

India Union; and another son, the Rev. L. B. Chamberlain, 
has been the honorary general secretary. 

Madura has lone been another centre of Chris- 
Madura tian Endeavor influence. Nowhere in the world 
Marathi are morc enthusiastic or picturesque conventions 
Missions. j^^j^ ^j^^j^ those in this city, where is found the 
largest heathen temple in all the world. Dr. J. P. Jones, the 
Rev. John Chandler, and others have long been prominent 
in this work. Of late years the Marathi mission of the Ameri- 
can Board has also been one of the chief centres of Christian 
Endeavor in India. In Ahmednagar is the second largest 
society in the world, with more than six hundred members, 
so large, indeed, that it has to meet in nine sections, and is sur- 
passed only by Dr. Russell H. Conwell's famous fourteen in 
'the Baptist Temple. The eminent Dr. Robert A. Hume of 
this mission has been president of the union, while his brother, 
the Rev. E. S. Hume, and many other missionaries of this 
Board have been active in the work. The same can be said 
of the Lodiana mission of the American Presbyterians, which 
has given Mr. Bandy and Mr. McGaw, Dr. Ewing and other 
leaders, to the work. The Baptists, too, in the Bengal mis- 
sion, and in Burma, and in the Telugu mission have been pio- 
neers and leaders in their respective districts. No more effi- 
cient editor for a Christian Endeavor publication is found 
anywhere than the Rev. William Carey of Barisal, the editor 
of Indian Christian Endeavour and the newly elected presi- 
dent of the Union, while the Rev. Herbert Anderson, of Cal- 
cutta, another member of this mission, has recently closed a 
successful term of office as the beloved president of the India 
Union. The Disciples of Christ have been particularly active 
in the Central Provinces. In the United Society are now en- 
rolled, as we close our twenty-fifth year, 613 Endeavor socie- 
ties, while doubtless there are others not yet recorded; and 
the future is bright with promise. 

christian Endeavor in Asia. 


In When we come to the Mohammedan countries, 

meda™' though there are far more discouragements and 
Countries, difficulties, yet we find an equally earnest and de- 
voted band of Christian Endeavorers. It is impossible to ob- 
tain exact statistics from Turkey, for in some sections of that 
country no societies are allowed by law. But they have 
plenty of Christian Endeavor, even if they have to spell it 
with a small e. In Harpoot and Mardin, in Marash and Ce- 
sarea, in Smyrna and Constantinople, in Erzerum and Van 

Girls' Christian Endeavor Society in Marsovan, Turkey. 

and other places, are earnest companies of Christian 
Endeavorers. They show their faith by their works, too, 
in Turkey as well as elsewhere; for we read of many such 
instances as this: "In Marash the members of the society 
in the First Church saved enough money among them- 
selves to send a blind member to Oorfa, to be taught there to 
read and other useful things, and then come back to teach 
other blind children, as up to the present nothing has been 

436 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

done for such unfortunates. They also intend to print some 
books in Turkish for the use of the blind." 

I have already spoken of the encouraging work in Persia, 
in one district of which alone (Urumia) are found more than 
fifty Christian Endeavor societies. 

In Syria are recorded seventeen Endeavor so- 
Syria cicties, some of the most active being found in con- 

^"f .. nection with the Presbyterian mission at Beirut. 
In Palestine, distinctively, are two or three socie- 
ties. Miss M. Jennie Street in writing interestingly of them 
says: "Above all, they learn first to show piety at home. 
When one girl was ill of typhoid fever, she was wondrously 
patient and gentle; and always her Endeavor visitors were 
greeted with the eager request, 'Please read to me from the 
Bible.' Another of the Endeavorers who was called to the 
home on high, being dead, yet speaketh; and through her 
gentle influence her brother, who was formerly rough and 
reckless, has lately confessed himself on the Lord's side." 
Here is the way the familiar hymn of Miss Havergal's, "Take 
my life," etc.. looks in the Syriac when put into English 

"Ihfath Hyatee leeyakoon, 

Takreesha ya Rabbu lak; 
Wahfath zamanee shakeeran 

Feehe dawaman amalak." 

As I close this chapter, which has already exceeded the 
intended limits, I remember that I have not spoken of the in- 
teresting beginnings of Christian Endeavor in the Nestorian 
Church of Persia, or of the work in Siam and the Laos coun- 
tries, of which I have had no recent record, though admirable 
work has been done, especially among the Laos people. In 
other parts of this vast continent, too, are the beginnings of 
Christian Endeavor, which the historian of the next quarter- 

christian Endeavor in Asia» 437 

century will record, no doubt, with still more earnest thanks- 
giving and praise to Him who during the first twenty years 
of its existence in Asia has accomplished through Christian 
Endeavor so much more than its most ardent friends at the 
beginning could have dared to hope for or expect. 





" Christian Endeavor of the best type means church 

Rev. James Blaikie, Hobart, Tasmania. 

" The estabh'shment of societies of Christian Endeavor has 
proved to be of untold value to the church, and there are 
possibilities yet untried in the movement for the culture of 
the immature and undeveloped faith and character of the 
Christian in struggling and isolated communities." 

Rev. J. E. Neivell, Samoa. 

|N island, after all, is but an indefinite geograph- 
ical expression. The continents are big islands. 
Some of the islands are small continents. But 
for convenience in this history are grouped to- 
gether all lands that are not included in the 
mainland of Europe, Asia, Africa, and America. Australia, 
to be sure, is nearly as large as the continent of Europe, but 
for the purposes of this history it is placed in the "island 
world," and because of its size and importance and advance- 
ment in Christian Endeavor deserves the first place. 

The introduction of the Society into Australia, some of 
her great conventions, and her admirable publications have 
already been described. It remains to be told briefly how 


christian Endeavor in the Islands. 439 

into every one of the great states of the new commonwealth 
the Society has quietly and unostentatiously, but most suc- 
cessfully, made its way. The populous and wealthy states 
of New South Wales and Victoria, rivals in everything else, 
have also been generous rivals for the first place in Christian 
Endeavor, each one, however, rejoicing in the other's vic- 
tories and enlargements. Just now the centre of the official 
work of the Australasian Union is in Sydney, though Mel- 
bourne has much of the time been the residence of the presi- 
dent and the general secretary. 

Beautiful Adelaide, too, has long been a centre of Chris- 
tian Endeavor activity for South Australia, as has Brisbane 
for the great state of Queensland. 

For a long time Western Australia was the: 
In the Cinderella among the colonies. Even ten years 

ago but little more than nfty thousand white in- 
habitants occupied this vast territory^ clinging closely to the 
settlements along the coast. But gold, the great magnet of 
the nations, was discovered in Coolgardie and Kalgoorlie, 
four hundred miles from the seashore, and the magnet was 
strong enough to draw tens of thousands of people into the 
most inhospitable wilderness in the world. Here in the 
"Golden Mile" is found the richest piece of ground yet dis- 
covered in all the world. 

Happily others besides gold-seekers have sought these 
shores, and these wonderful new cities of "the Gold Fields," 
where less than fifteen years ago was a howling desert, have 
their Christian Endeavor societies and their Christian En- 
deavor unions. So have the beautiful capital city of Perth 
and the agricultural districts of the state as well. 

In Tasmania, perhaps. Christian Endeavor has flourished 
less than in the greater island; but here, too, it has a strong- 
hold in many of the churches, and the last Australasian con- 
vention, held in the finely situated city of Hobart, "the revival 

440 Christian Endeavor in All Lands, 

convention," gave a new impetus to the cause throughout this 
smiling and fertile island. 

In New Zealand the cause was not so fortu- 
nate in its beginnings as in its greater brother Aus- 
tralia. Some societies were started upon a basis 
that did not warrant a long life or a very useful existence, be- 
cause the members were afraid of the covenant pledge and 
the stricter religious obligations of the Society. But these 



King William Street, Adelaide, 
Showing the City Hall on the Right, Where the Convention Met. 

faults have been largely remedied, and in Auckland and 
Wellington and Christchurch and Dunedin and in other cen- 
tres of New Zealand are also found vigorous centres of Chris- 
tian Endeavor activity. 

In some respects Australasian Endeavor stands pre-emi- 
nent. Nowhere in all the world are the conventions sustained 

christian Endeavor in the Islands, 441 

year after year with greater enthusiasm and vigor. Their in- 
tellectual standards are high, and their spiritual standards still 
higher, while the eager responsiveness of the assembled thou- 
sands is characteristic of the dash and the vigor with which 
young Australians enter every phase of their life, whether in 
business, amusement, or religion. 

Among the most memorable months in his life the writer 
counts the four which, separated by an interval of twelve 
years, he spent in the Island Continent. On his first visit, 
even before the steamer dropped anchor in Sydney harbor, he 
saw a little steam-launch, coming out to meet her, flying a big 
Christian Endeavor pennant, which was given to him, and 
which he keeps among his treasured souvenirs ; and all the way 
along, as he traversed the great stretch of two thousand miles 
of coast from Sydney to Brisbane, and back again from Bris- 
bane to Adelaide, the enthusiastic Endeavorers welcomed him 
and his. 

On the second visit he found Christian Endeavor mar- 
vellously advanced in numbers, vigor, and efficiency. That 
the early societies had not in any measure lost their first 
love was shown at the conventions, which, though all of them 
were "extras," not occurring at the regular time for the an- 
nual gatherings, but called "Dr. Clark conventions," were 
even larger and more full of spiritual power and human in- 
terest than the first. 

Some memories stand out with especial vivid- 
The _ ness in my mind; the singing, for one thing, when 

Singing t i i i % i • • 

in i have heard ten thousand voices rmg out the 

iT"'' chorus, 

"!'. "Crown Him Lord of all;" 

Civic ... 

Welcome, the civic receptions, for another, when mayor and 
councilmen in all parts of Australasia have wel- 
comed us at stations or steamer, and afterwards in their coun- 
cil-chambers, showing, as I felt, far more than a personal in- 


Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

terest — a real regard for the progress and welfare of Chris- 
tian Endeavor. 

The unusual devotion of some eminent business men as 
well as pastors to the cause has also impressed me, and has 
often urged me on to new personal endeavors when I have 
seen such busy men as the Rev. F. E. Harry, the Rev. George 
T. Walton, Mr. John B. Spencer, Mr. J. Neale Breden, Mr. 
J. Neale Taylor, and others, of Sydney; Mr. W. G. Piper, of 

Some Leading Christian Endeavor Workers in Australia. 

Melbourne; Mr. H. E. Beany and the Rev. James Mur- 
sell, of Adelaide; Mr. Ferguson, of Brisbane; the Rev. Silas 
Mead, of Perth; Mr. T. Williams and Mr. J. B. Overell, of 
Hobart, and scores of others whom I might mention, and 
whose names it seems invidious not to record. I have seen 
Christian Endeavor enthusiasm and whole-hearted devotion 
in other lands, but never more wonderfully manifested than 
in Australasia. 

christian Endeavor in the Islands. 443 

The Rev. Egerton R. Young, the eminent missionary to 
the North American Indians, and no less eminent as a lec- 
turer, writes: "I was greatly impressed with the splendid 
character of Christian Endeavor in Australia. The societies 
have settled down to solid, permanent work, and more than 
ever are attaining the great object which the founder had in 
view in its inception. The societies in the southern world 
are in a healthy state from a spiritual standpoint." 
Christian ^^^ Australian Endeavorers, too, have not for- 

Endeavor gotten their Lord's command to preach the gospel 
the to every creature, and they have begun near their 

origines. ^^^ Jerusalem, by carrying the good news to the 
aborigines at their very doors. Nothing has ever impressed 
me more with the inherent power of the religion of Christ 
to lift up the lowest and the most degraded than the society 
that I visited at La Perouse, near Sydney. This is composed 
wholly of "blackfellows," so called, the aborigines of Aus- 
tralia, who are said to be the lowest and most degraded peo- 
ple upon the face of the earth; so low, indeed, in their native 
wilds, that they often live in what resemble nests made from 
sticks and grass, rather than houses. Mothers sometimes eat 
their own children. Yet here in La Perouse is a genuine and 
vigorous Christian Endeavor society, officered by blackfel- 
lows, and conducted by them entirely, under the supervision 
of their beloved Christian Endeavor missionary. And when 
in the great convention at Sydney, at the consecration-meet- 
ing, I saw a little spot of black among the white faces in the 
gallery, and saw the La Perouse society arise and repeat their 
verse, and send down their word of welcome, "Mooyang 
Gnilling," I felt that there was no Macedonia in all the world 
which might not be reached and uplifted if only some one in 
Christ's name would go over and help. 

Another happy feature of the work in Australia is the 
remarkable unanimity of Christian people in promoting it. 

444 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

It has been before related how the great united Methodist 
Church, the strongest in all Australia, has adopted Christian 
Endeavor as its own child, and has never tried to drive it out 
of the church family or supplant it with another. 
Chnstian j^ some sections, too, the Church of England takes 
'" , ,. more interest in the work than in almost any other 

Australia. -^ 

land, and I have heard a rector of this church de- 
clare In public that he liked the Society because it was not 
like a safety-match that you could light only upon its own 
box, and that the Christian Endeavor banner, with the sig- 
nificant initial letters upon it, stood on church occasions for 
Church of England, and on special Christian Endeavor occa- 
sions for Christian Endeavor, and answered equally well for 

Many of the islands of the southern seas, as well as the 
great Island Continent and its nearest neighbors, have proved 

a fruitful field for Christian Endeavor. The Sa- 
[," moan Christian Endeavor Union is an established 


and forceful factor. Here is the title-page of the 
first Samoan Endeavor publication: 


O sina upu e faamatalaina ai lona uiga ma le Feagaiga ua 



Na faatuina le sauniga o le Au Taumafai i Malua i le 
aso e lo o lulai, 1890. Na fai le filifiliga, o le a faatasi ai le 
Au Taumafai mo Samoa i se Faatasiga, Me 12, 1904. 

"Ina o mai ia, se'i faatasi atu i tatou ia leova i le feagaiga e 
faavavau, e le galo lava." (lere 1. 5) 





Christian Endeavor in the Islands. 445 

The Rev. J. E. Newell, the president, founder, and chief 
promoter of the Samoan Union, says that the title given above 
means "The Endeavor Band for Christ;" underneath is the 
universal rallying-cry, "For Christ and the Church," while 
the title-page bears this historic note : "The institution of the 
Endeavor Band was inaugurated at Malua on the tenth of 
July, 1890. The Samoan Endeavor Union was constituted at 
a large representative gathering on May 12, 1904." The 
motto text is from Jer. 50:5. Then the manual goes on to 
tell of the rise of Christian Endeavor, and especially of the 
movement in the South Seas, Hawaii, the Loyalty Islands, 
New Caledonia, the Caroline Islands, Samoa, the Tokelau, 
Ellice, and Gilbert Islands. 

The story of the Society in these multitudinous islands 
of the southern seas is of peculiar interest, and often a note of 
heroism and devotion to the death is sounded. Some of the 
Endeavorers of the first society in the Samoan Islands went 
out, literally with their lives in their hands, to preach the 
gospel in the neighboring savage and cannibal islands, and 
never returned. 

Says the Rev. J. Hadfield of the work in the Loyalty 
Islands: "The Society develops reliance, forethought, judg- 
ment, and courage. It teaches how business and other meet- 
ings should be conducted in an orderly and profitable manner. 
It cultivates the faculty of effective public speaking, and opens 
up a long vista of new ideas in the direction of representative 
government. Certainly no outside force has come among 
us since the first introduction of Christianity sixty years ago 
that promises such rich and far-reaching results." 

On the Caroline and the Marshall Islands are thirty-four 
Christian Endeavor societies. In the latter a society is found 
in every church. 

Out of a total population of 6,092 in the Loyalty Islands, 
before the end of the first quarter-century of Christian En- 


Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

deavor there were found to be 1,988 Endeavorers, who had 

raised $8,000 for missions. 

It will be remembered that the German Endeavorers 

have just sent a missionary to the Caroline Islands to work 
under the auspices of the American Board. An in- 
teresting incident has just come from Dr. C. F. 
Rife, the superintendent of Christian Endeavor in 

these islands. 

In the 



Girls' School, Kohala, Hawaii. 

"I want to tell you about one of the members of the Chris- 
tian Endeavor society in Kusaiae. He is a deaf mute, the 
only one on the island, and was considered not very intelligent 
by the natives. I demonstrated that he could hear certain 
sounds, and that his intelligence was as much as one could 

Christian Endeavor in the Islands. 447 

have who had such limited opportunities. About six or seven 
years ago I told him by signs that tobacco was injurious for 
him. He had been a smoker, and forthwith made a sign 
that he would throw away the pipe. He has abstained from 
its use to this day. Some time ago he joined the Christian 
Endeavor society. A few weeks ago I was at the village 
where he lives, the chief village on the island, and attended 
their meeting. It was really pathetic to see this young man 
stand, after a number had testified, and give his testimony. 
True, no one understood a 'word' of what he said; for the 
sounds might be called audible breathing, but it afifected me 
more than any other. I told the people that they were his 
Bible; for, although he cannot read a word, he watches them. 
He knows they have espoused the cause of right, and seeks 
their company." 

The cosmopolitan character of Christian Endeavor in 
Hawaii and one of the interesting meetings in Honolulu have 
already been described. The recent growth there is some- 
thing remarkable, and is due in part to the way in which the 
Christian Endeavor method adapts itself to the Hawaiian's 
idea of worship. "The older Hawaiians are too apt to mo- 
nopolize all the time of the meetings," we are told. Alas! 
this fault is not confined to Hawaii. To circumvent this ten- 
dency and also to give as many as possible a chance to take 
part in each meeting, the native societies are divided into 
classes. These classes each contain from two to ten or twelve 
members, who file out before the assembled society, and sing, 
read, or repeat something either separately or together. Then 
the meeting is thrown open for individual efifort. No won- 
der the writer adds, "One rarely attends a dull meeting in the 

native societies." 
In the The societies in the Philippine Islands are 

Tsiands'"^ naturally of especial interest to American Endeav- 

orers. The Rev. Dr. S. B. Rossiter speaks of the 
Society as of "almost universal extension." The Rev. Leon- 

448 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

ard P. Davidson of the Presbyterian mission was one of the 
pioneers of the work in these islands, and the first Christian 
Endeavor superintendent He was soon called, however, to 
his heavenly home, after but a few months of work. In Cebu 
he left a few Endeavorers, however. The number has grown 
to hundreds, we are told, not only in Luzon, but in the north- 
ern and southern Visayan Islands. 

"On the island of Cebu," says Mrs. Elizabeth W. Jan- 
sen," the Endeavorers are stoned while holding their open-air 
services and in their private devotions. Their assailants are 
incited by the priests and protected by the police. When 
threats failed to make them untrue, bribes are tried, some 
having refused as much as five hundred dollars to renounce 
their religion. The Endeavorers have been compelled in 
their poverty to buy land for a cemetery; burial having been 
refused their dead in a Roman Catholic cemetery." The 
self-sacrifice of these Cebu Endeavorers is evidently very 
great. Already they have built a church at Campestello, and 
some are holding meetings in the home of a former insurgent 
general, who is an active member. Their efiforts extend even 
to the bandits in the mountains, some of whom, there is good 
reason to believe, will soon renounce their freebooting ways 
and become earnest Endeavorers. 

In New Caledonia the French missions are established, 
but here, too, are Endeavor societies, and we learn from Ac- 
tivite Chretienne that the revival crusade has been under- 
taken by the Endeavorers' going from place to place to win 
back backsliders and to arouse Christians to win the uncon- 
verted to Christ. Nearly five hundred persons have been 
reached in this way in one campaign, and touching stories are 
told of the return to the faith and to Christian living of those 
who have been corrupted by the whites and their civiliza- 
tion (?), and of the conversion of those who had never before 
accepted Christ. 

christian Endeavor in the Islands. 449 

■In the great island of Formosa are some Christian En- 
Formosa deavor societies under the care of Japanese Chris- 
Mada2as= ti^^is ; and a Japanese army officer, who is also a 
car. captain in the Christian Endeavor army, has repre- 

sented Formosa at a Japanese national convention. 

In the still greater island of Madagascar before the 
French occupation were nearly a hundred Christian Endeavor 
societies. By the change of government and the general in- 
terruption of missionary work owing to the conquest of the 
island, some of these were broken up; but the work has re- 
covered to a degree, though recent statistics and reports are 

When we come to the islands of the Atlantic, we find a 
wide and fruitful field for Christian Endeavor. The roman- 
tic beginning in Jamaica has been followed by a steady and 
constant growth, until from the statistics latest at hand we 
find that there are 234 societies, of which 84 are Juniors, with 
more than one thousand members. Jamaica is the gem of the 
West Indies, and Jamaican Christian Endeavor is the Chris- 
tian Endeavor gem of the Atlantic, so ^what should be more 
appropriate than that the sprightly little monthly representa- 
tive newspaper of the societies should be called the Christian 
Endeavour Gem? 

A pioneer of Christian Endeavor in Jamaica 
Jamaica is the Rcv. Dr. Randall, who is also the pioneer of 
fsiands^ the Disciples of Christ in Jamaica; and his son, 
of the_ Mr. John E. Randall, the efficient and beloved sec- 

Atlantic. r 1 T • TT • 

retary of the Jamaican Union, has done more for 
the cause than any other one. Giving up a generous salary 
in the civil service of the island, he has taken the united pas- 
torate of two colored churches which are under the care of 
the Disciples of Christ of America; and this gives him even 
more time than before for his loved work in Christian En- 



Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 






Porto Rico, 


Though Jamaica is by far the best-cultivated field in the 

island world of the Atlantic, yet it is by no means the only 

island where Christian Endeavor is established. The 

island of Trinidad is an especially fruitful field 

for Christian Endeavor. In many places in Cuba, 

in Porto Rico, in the Bahamas and the Bermudas, 

and in the Windward and Leeward Islands, there 

are also societies. Haiti and Newfoundland each 

have at least two good societies to their credit. In 

Barbados is a good Endeavor union composed of flourishing 


Even in Iceland the Society is not 
unknown. One of the most interesting 
and memorable meetings that the 
writer has ever attended was in Reik- 
iavik. It began late in the evening; 
but it was still light and no lamps were 

P. ^HHV needed, for one could see to read on 

J^^^' .^^. those July nights until midnight in 
Iceland's little capital. A large audi- 
ence came together, and the speaker 
had for his interpreter Miss Olafia 
Yohansdotter, a lady who had added to 
fine natural abilities the advantages of 
much travel in England, on the Conti- 
nent, and in America. She interpreted 
most fluently what I had to say into 
classical Icelandic, the language of the Sagas and the Eddas. 
The audience which crowded the hall was attentive and sym- 
pathetic, and at the close a member of the Icelandic parlia- 
ment, or Althing, a successor of the old legislators of Thing- 
valla, a thousand years ago, arose and expressed his interest 
and earnest hope that Christian Endeavor might yet accom- 
plish much for Iceland. 

Miss Olafia Yohansdotter,- 
Icelandic Interpreter. 

christian Endeavor in the Islands. 451 

The scattered farms throughout the island, and the ab- 
sence of towns or even villages for the most part, make it im- 
possible for Christian Endeavor to do its work in the usual 
way throughout much of Iceland; but we already read of one 
society, and there seems to be an unlimited field for Rural 
Family Endeavor. 

Though Great Britain really belongs to the island world, 
her Endeavor societies have been treated in another chapter; 
and it is only necessary to add that in the Shetland and Orkney 
islands, in the Channel Islands, Guernsey and Jersey, in 
Minorca and Majorca, in the Madeira Islands and the Azores, 
the society has gained a foothold, and in some of them it is 
an important factor of the religious life. 

We are told in the Scriptures that the "isles shall wait 
for" Him. Surely it is God's good pleasure that Christian 
Endeavor in the islands of the sea shall prepare the way of the 
Lord in the isles of every sea, which so long have been wait- 
ing for Him. 





" The Christian Endeavor Society has been, and is, a 
great developer of stalwart Christians, pillars of the church, 
consecrated young people who can be depended on for the 
furtherance of any and all of the varied activities of Chris- 
tian service." 

Hon. John H. Mickey, Governor of Nebraska. 

;NE of the most romantic and interesting chapters 
in the annals of the first twenty-five years of the 
Christian Endeavor Society is the story of the 
development of the societies in the Boer prison 
camps in St. Helena, Ceylon, Bermuda, and 
Portugal. So thoroughly did the Society seem to meet the 
religious needs of these expatriated warriors, so complete and 
thorough was their organization in spite of the difficulties 
they had to overcome, and so large results in the way of mis- 
sionary activities and the evangelization of Africa have flowed 
from their devoted Christian lives in the prison camps, 
that the story will always be an incentive to heroism and re- 
ligious zeal. I am indebted for these facts largely to the 
Rev. Charles F. Mijnhardt, who was the president of the 
Christian Endeavor union among the prisoners on the island 
of St. Helena, and who obtained from his own observation 


Among the Boer Prisoners. 453 

there, and from accounts obtained from returned Boers in ttie 
other camps, the details which are here given. 

The societies were started even before the prisoners 
reached St. Helena, for while they were encamped in Simons 
Town near Cape Town, a society of ninety-one members had 
been organized. But the removal of the prisoners to the vari- 
ous islands compelled a reorganization when they reached 
their destination. They met with many difficulties, since 
many of the Boers had known nothing of the Society before 
they reached the prison camp. Some thought the pledge was 
too strict; others objected to the singing of hymns which were 
not based on David's Psalms, or prescribed by the synod of 
Dordrecht. So keen was the party feeling, indeed, that some 
went so far as to aver that the society, although having an 
outward semblance of religion, really had in view a political 
object, inasmuch as it was suspected to be the intention of the 
Endeavorers on their return to South Africa to choose from 
their number the president of the Transvaal and the mem- 
bers of the Volksraad. 

But these strange misapprehensions were soon removed, 
and "they began to learn," says Mr. Mijnhardt, "that the 
Christian Endeavor Society was the one form of Christian 
service subject to the church, that was needed in South Africa 
and in the prison camps as well. We Endeavorers thank God 
for our banishment, because it has brought us to know the 
value of consecrated Christian service." 


Societies For eight months the St. Helena society had 

St. Helena. ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ meetings in the open air, often with the 
rain beating in the faces of the worshippers and the 
wind making it almost impossible to hear the speakers. 
Afterwards they managed to rig up a "tin shanty" composed 
of biscuit-tins and aloe poles. Those who know the aloe will 
not recommend it for strength or durability. It is really a 
soft pulpy mass, surrounded by a thin covering of wood; but 

454 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

it was the only material available, and many a time this little 
shanty rang with the praise of God. 

As more prisoners came, more societies were needed to 
give a chance for the expression of the Christian life in word 
and deed. They had pledge cards printed at St. Helena, 
but never seemed to have enough, the members came so fast. 
The first societies were at the Deadwood camp, and were 
made up of men from the Transvaal. But after a time an- 
other large camp, formed mostly of Free Staters, was estab- 
lished at Broad Bottom. Then they formed two local unions, 
one in each of these two great camps, which were about seven 
miles apart, while a district Christian Endeavor union united 
the two; and the members visited each other alternately, once 
in two or three months, to discuss the general business of the 

A convention was once held midway between the two 
camps, though it was very difficult to get permission for the 
large number who wished to attend. But, in all, 386 Endeav- 
orers from both camps attended this convention, and discussed 
very much the same topics as Endeavorers in England or 
America — missions and the Quiet Hour, and the relation of 
Endeavor to the church, and what more they could do for 
their unconverted companions, and other similar topics. 

In April, 1900, the first contingent was taken to St. 
Helena, and two years later it was found that there were 
eleven societies in the Deadwood camp and eight in Broad 
Bottom, nineteen in all, with a total membership of nearly a 
thousand. By this time they had managed to procure an un- 
used cooking-shed, which, having been properly patched up 
and also enlarged, would hold about two hundred. This they 
called "Excelsior Hall." 

Many a glorious meeting they had in it. The different 
societies all met there on different evenings of the week, and 
from Monday night to Saturday night the hall was never 

Among the Boer Prisoners. 455 

empty between six P. M. and nine P. M., for one meeting was 
scarcely over before another lot would good-naturedly 
squeeze in, receiving a warm hand-shake of welcome at the 
door. Let me here quote a few of Mr. Mijnhardt's ardent 

The ^ "O, how we learned to know and love one an- 

Sorrow'^^' o^hcr during those years of captivity! Once — it 
at was midnight of the old year — we Endeavorers 

Separation, gathered in our hall for a bit of prayer and 
praise. We shed tears, many of us, but not at the thought 
of our loved ones' being so far away from us. No, we 
thought: 'Alas, these glorious meetings wil) one day have 
to come to an end ; we shall have to separate^ and go out into 
the cold world to fight alone. Here we have so much sweet 
fellowship, such concord, such unity.' 

"Just think of it; amidst all the hardships attendant on 
the life of a prisoner of war, amidst all that one naturally 
misses and even finds necessary, we are yet saddened at the 
thought of having eventually to part from one another. Such 
is the love of Christ shed abroad in the hearts of His children! 

''Apart from our weekly meeting, we had a short prayer- 
meeting of half an hour every morning at 6 and sometimes, 
according to changes in camp regulations, at 6.30. 

"I am sure that that early prayer-meeting helped most of 
all to make our society a blessing. Those who attended could 
always be reckoned on, and were always the most faithful 
members. We had a different subject to pray for every day 
of the week, for example, Sunday, the church; Monday, the 
spiritual life; Wednesday, missions; Thursday, Christian 
Endeavor societies, etc. We appointed a leader for each 
day, and many a young convert there learned to pray and 
speak in public for the first time. O, the solemnity of that 
quiet half-hour, as we sang upon our knees, 

" 'I believe God answers prayer; 
I am sure God answers prayer; 
I have proved God answers prayer, 
Glory to His name!' 

456 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

"We would come forth strengthened and refreshed. In 
those meetings we often spoke of the importance of the 'Quiet 
Hour,' and many a one would go back to his hut or tent to 
spend another hour with God and his Bible before commenc- 
ing the duties of the day." 

We are also told that a "Lending-Hand Workers' Ge- 
nootschap" was formed, meaning a society where different 
kinds of articles were made by the Endeavorers, such as pen- 
holders, bone brooches, boxes, etc. These were sent to the 
colony and sold for fifty-eight pounds. "If, therefore, a 
young man got up in the meeting and waxed eloquent on 
missions," we are told, "wishing he could fly that he might be 
there at once, we merely asked him to come and prove his sin- 
cerity by lending a hand at the turning-lathe or by polishing 
a piece of wood." 

The Endeavorers also erected a cafe, whose 
How sign-board bore this legend in Dutch: 



Raised ' ^^^^^•^'-^ ni\i, 

Money. Jn aid of the suffering women and children 

In South Africa." 
Here they sold tea, coffee, and cake at a penny, such articles, 
also, as cofifee, sugar, and milk, and cleared thirty-five pounds. 
Through the sale of envelopes and stamps thirty-seven 
pounds more were raised for the widows' and orphans' fund. 
They also conceived the idea of erecting an orphanage on 
their return to South Africa, to be called the "Christian En- 
deavor Orphanage of Transvaal and Orangia." The spirit 
of this plan has been largely carried out in the support of an 
existing orphanage near Johannesburg. 

In the prison camps of Ceylon the same zeal and enthu- 
siasm were manifested as in St. Helena. Here ten societies 
were formed with a membership of eight hundred. Once in 
three months they were allowed to have a united meeting, 
when all the societies met to discuss the subject for that week. 

Among the Boer Prisonerse 457 

"What a wonderful sight it was," writes one of the number, 
"to see so large a number of zealous Endeavorers and to hear 
eight hundred voices roaring out a hymn like so many can- 
non! No wonder that one felt like another man after such 
a meeting. Often I would hear some one say: 'How the time 
simply flew!' 'For my part he could have continued as long 

again, and talked another hour.' 'How beautifully 
Prfsoners we worked together!' " 
jp I Many of the prisoners in Ceylon had had but 

few educational advantages, and great pains were 
taken to supply such deficiencies. Here, as on St. Helena, 
bearded men thought it no shame to attend school, learning 
their texts as any boy would. The literature committee of the 
union distributed books, and saw to it that they were read; 
and most of the Endeavorers were eager to attend the day- 
school and the Sunday-school. In one of the classes the ques- 
tion was asked, "Who discovered America?" The reply 
came promptly, "Saul, sir." "Let this not be taken as a stand- 
ard of our intelligence, however," writes one of the prisoners, 
"since many English soldiers, believed, as one of them said to 
us, 'We thought yous fellows was all black.' " 

A boys' home was established by the Endeavorers, where 
orphans and neglected ones were taken in and cared for. In 
the same hut the "Albion printing-press" afterwards turned 
out a little weekly paper called De Strever (The Endeav- 
orer) and for nine months it appeared regularly. The sub- 
scription-price was ten cents a month, and the editor was soon 
able to send the profits to the women and children in the con- 
centration camps. 

Six of the 365 islands of Bermuda were occu- 
Bermuda pi^^l by the Bocr prisoners of war, and each island 
!L"^, , had its Endeavor society, with about five hundred 

Portugal. -^ ' . 

members in all, not counting the children, of whom 
more than two hundred were organized into a Junior class. 

4^8 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

Every evening family prayers were held by the Endeavorers, 
and every morning there was an early prayer-meeting. 

A little Christian Endeavor paper was also published, 
but the societies were so scattered on different islands that they 
had no opportunity for a convention, which proved so help- 
ful in other camps. 

To Portugal a thousand men were taken from Delagoa 
Bay, all of whom when they started, save about thirty-five, 
were sick. Some died on the way to Portugal, and there were 
comparatively few earnest Christians among those that reached 
the prison camp. These commenced a prayer-meeting, which 
was held twice a week. Very soon, we are told, "God's Sprit 
began to convict of sin; many turned from their evil ways; 
and the first night as many as seventy gave themselves to God." 
In the early morning one could hear the men earnestly pray- 
ing among the rocks. An Endeavor society was formed, and 
eighty joined at once. The society worked under great diffi- 
culties, for the members had no convenient place in which to 
gather; so they resorted to the rocks. But this gave them a 
fine opportunity for personal work, and it was quite usual to 
see the members of the various societies conversing with the 
unconverted in quiet nooks. 

The social committee did good and effective work in wel- 
coming new arrivals or visitors from one of the other camps. 
Little more than a month had passed when the 80 had 
become 183. This was in the camp at Peniche. Another one 
was at Caldas da Rainha. Here there were 70 young men 
who might be reached, and the society began with a member- 
ship of 25, but the Endeavorers did not rest until they had 
captured 64 out of the 70. Some of the members who had 
mastered the Portuguese language preached Christ among 
the inhabitants. After a little more than a year the Boers, 
men, women, and children, bade farewell to the shores of 
Portugal. Many of the Portuguese had become sincerely at- 

Among the Boer Prisoners. 459 

tached to them, and bitter tears were shed. One man brought 
a Portuguese lady with him, had the bans published in one of 
the Dutch churches of Johannesburg on reaching home, and 
now is happily married. Some women were transported to 
this camp, together with their fathers and brothers; and more 
than one little romance which happily ended can be traced 
back to the prison camps of Portugal and the Bahamas. 

But the sequel to this story of Christian En- 
Wonderfui dcavor in the Boer camp is the most remarkable of 
eque . ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ their captivity to arouse a won- 
derful missionary spirit among them such as had never been 
known in South Africa before. Missionary subjects were 
favorites in the Christian Endeavor meetings in prison. 
Though they had exceedingly little money, a tithe, often a 
fifth, of what they earned by whittling out bone Christian En- 
deavor badges and other trinkets was set apart for mission- 
ary use. 

In the societies in Portugal a missionary meeting was 
held once a month, and twelve declared themselves ready to 
become missionaries on their return. In St. Helena 60 vol- 
unteered for missfonary service while in camp, and alto- 
gether 175 young men dedicated themselves to the service of 
God as missionaries wherever He should send them. 

The whole attitude of many toward the natives was 
changed during their imprisonment. One bright young fel- 
low said during a meeting, "I used to try to ride over the little 
Kaffir boys on our farm with my horse, and once I actually 
did override one; but, if ever I should meet that little boy 
again, I shall take him with me on the horse, and tell him how 
Jesus loves him." "I unhesitatingly assert," writes Mr. 
Mijnhardt, "that the Christian Endeavor movement among 
our prisoners contributed largely towards making these men 
realize their responsibility towards the heathen. Missions 
had with us a most prominent place in the society. Our sub- 

460 christian Endeavor in All Lands, 

jects were often missionary subjects; but, more than that, we 
began to do something for missions." 

Sixteen young Kaffir boys who had been captured with 
the Boers were transported to St. Helena. They were taught 
to read, and soon they began to pray in their own language in 
the meetings. We can well imagine that "it had a tremendous 
meaning for the young Endeavorer who had not much en- 
thusiasm for missions to go to those Kaffirs, and read and pray 
with them." 

The mission-study classes, a missionary man- 
Their ual-labor society, which sold its products for eighty 

Return. pounds, the missionary books that were read, and 
the missionary collection-box which was often passed, all had 
a great influence in stimulating the missionary zeal. On their 
return to South Africa these 175 young men began to fit them- 
selves by hard study for missionary work. The missionary 
institute for their training was established at Worcester, Cape 
Colony; and the Drostdy, which used to be the residence of the 
local magistrate, or Landdrost, during the time of the Dutch 
possession of the colony, was purchased for ten thousand 
pounds by the representatives of the Dutch churches. The 
missionary spirit had come to pervade all the Dutch churches, 
as well as the prison camps, and they gave most generously 
for this new institution. Moreover, more than two hundred 
promises were received within a few months to pay for the 
cost of the board, lodging, and schooling for one missionary 
candidate at twenty-four pounds a year, so that all the 175 
Christian Endeavor volunteers among the prisoners were more 
than provided for. 

The young men in the institute, however, do not rely 
upon the gifts of the churches altogether, but spend as many 
hours in manual labor each day to support themselves as they 
spend in study. A number of these will not be able to do 
much in the way of mental development, we are told, being 

Among the Boer Prisoners. 461 

already too old, and not having had educational advantages 
when young. But all can do something for the natives of 
Africa, and some of those who could not go as educated mis- 
sionaries have gone to the far interior as missionary farmers." 
The report of the proceedings of the opening of this mission 
school ends with these glowing words of good cheer: 

"So the proceedings of the never-to-be-forgotten days 
came to an end, days which are the beginning of what we 
believe to be a new epoch in the mission history of our be- 
loved Dutch Reformed Church. That a light may have been 
lit at Worcester that will penetrate into the dark heart of 
Dark Africa ever remains our earnest prayer. To the Lord 
be thanks, to Him the honor, from Him the expectation." 



" Floating Christian Endeavor has demonstrated its possi- 
bilities. For a period equal to four enlistments of three 
years each it has won its trophies for Christ afloat. Hun- 
dreds of sailors have through it been pointed to the ' Lamb 
of God which taketh away the sins of the world.' Its gradu- 
ates are to-day preaching and living the gospel in all parts 
of the world. 

" Missions to the sailors have been tried for many years 
with meagre results. Now let us build up and strengthen 
this mission of the sailors to their comrades. And soon the 
time will come that wherever flies our flag afloat, the grander 
banner of the cross will also soon spread its snow-white 

Chaplain Robert E. Steele, U. S. Navy. 

NE of the most interesting developments of Chris- 
tian Endeavor, and one of the most surprising, is 
its work upon the sea. No one would have been 
bold enough to predict twenty-five years ago, or 
even in more recent years, that the Society had a 
mission, and a large one, to sailors. 

That a society which seems so peculiarly wedded to a 
local church, with its pledge of constancy and its forms of 
service, many of which, from their very nature, can be per- 
formed only upon dry land, should find its place on ships of 
war and merchant vessels, and thus go into every harbor of the 


Chrstian Endeavor Afloat. • 463 

world is indeed surprising. It is only another illustration of 
God's guiding hand, and of the flexibility of the Society and 
its adaptability to all classes and conditions of men. The 
pledge stands for a general principle. It means loyalty to 
Christ and His service, wherever and however that service 
can be performed, and the specific promise of devotion to the 
local church and the work and meetings of the society means 
only that that is the way in which most young people can best 
do what "He would like to have them do." 

The sailor boys have evidently found an especial pleas- 
ure in the link which the Society affords between them and 
their Christian companions on shore. Through it they have 
received letters of cheer and comfort from many an Endeav- 
orer, and more material, but no more real, tokens of good will 
in the shape of comfort bags, calendars, and the good things 
of Christmas and Thanksgiving, and have often been enter- 
tained most generously by the Endeavorers on shore. 

The first Floating Endeavor society was organized on the 
United States revenue marine steamer Dexter in 1890, and 
since then more than two hundred such societies have been 
started. Some of them necessarily have but a short life, for 
the sailors are changed from ship to ship; their terms expire, 
or for other unavoidable reasons the societies are often broken 
Floating ^P ^^^ must be frequently reorganized. 
Societies However, on many famous ships Floating En- 

Famous deavor societies have been organized. Among the 
^^^' victims blown up in Havana harbor on the Maine 

were members of a Floating Endeavor society. There 
was an active Floating society on Admiral Dewey's flagship 
Olympia when she entered Manila Bay on that memorable 
first of May, 1898, and many Endeavorers were found in 
Sampson's fleet at the battle of Santiago. There was an En- 
deavor society on the famous Oregon in her historic journey 
around Cape Horn to take part in the battle for Cuba's free- 

464 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

dom. On H. M.S. Powerful was another society of marines, 
whose members were drafted into the South African war, and 
who fought in the siege of Ladysmith. 

In the late war between Russia and Japan in the Japa- 
nese navy were Christian Endeavorers, and multitudes of 
other brave Jack tars on less conspicuous ships plying in peace- 
ful waters in the commerce of the nations have belonged to 
floating Endeavor societies. 

On the United States revenue steamer Gallatin, which 
was wrecked on the New Hampshire coast a number of years 
ago, was a Floating society. Many poor fellows went to the 
bottom. One of the rescued sailors said afterwards that he 
lost every prized possession that he had, except his Chris- 
tian Endeavor badge, and that was pinned to his shirt. An- 
other mourned that he had lost his pledge card; but, said he, 
"I have not lost my pledge, for that is engraved upon my 

One of the most interesting developments of Floating 
Christian Endeavor, paradoxical as it may sound, is found 
upon the shore, in the great Japanese port of Nagasaki. Here 
some ten years ago the United States warship 
Endeavor Charleston was lying at anchor. On board was a 
Nagasaki vcry active Christian Endeavor society, whose 
leader was one Carlton H. Jencks, one of the most 
remarkable and gifted young men who ever went to sea. The 
boys of the society soon found, when on shore leave, that there 
was no place in all the great city of Nagasaki where a decent 
sailor could get a meal or a night's lodging. There were re- 
spectable first-class hotels, but these were beyond their means. 
All the other places were low dives and dram-shops, and one 
street where these were especially numerous in Nagasaki is 
known to this day as "Bloody Street." 

The Christian Endeavorers said, "These things ought not 
so to be, and we are the boys to make them better." So they 

christian Endeavor Afloat. 



Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

"passed the hat" first among themselves, and by mortgaging 
their wages in the future raised in cash and subscriptions, it 
is said, six hundred silver dollars. Then they could go to 
others with a good conscience, and ask for more; and their 
comrades and officers and friends on the shore contributed 
enough monev so that they were able to purchase a commo- 

John Makins, 
Manager of the Christian Endeavor Seaman's Home, Nagasaki, Japan. 

dious building, which they christened the ''Christian En- 
deavor Seaman's Home" and pu,t it under the control of a 
board of Nagasaki missionaries. Now this plant is worth 
ten thousand dollars in gold. 

christian Endeavor Afloat. 





In one year this home furnished more than ten thousand 
meals to sailors and nearly three thousand lodgings. Fifty- 
six meetings were held with a large aggregate attendance. 
The home has a good reading-room, a dining-room, a soda- 
water fountain, which is largely patronized in that steamy 
climate, baths of all kinds, and bedrooms; and the writer can 
testify, from a personal visit, of its cleanliness, comfort, and 
excellent management. 

In one of the dormitories is a large picture of Carlton 
Jericks, the moving spirit in the founding of the 
home, who met an untimely death with hundreds 
of others on the ill-fated Maine, when it went to the 
bottom in Havana harbor. Mr. John Makins has been the 
most efficient manager of the home during most of its exist- 
ence, and when, after a residence in America, he returned re- 
cently to his loved work, he was received with great enthu- 

Miss Antoinette P. Jones has been 
assiduous from the beginning in pro- 
moting the interests of Floating Chris- 
tian Endeavor, of which department of 
the work she is the superintendent. 
She is unwearied in her efforts, and is 
a most voluminous correspondent, 
writing to sailors in all parts of the 
world, encouraging them in all their 
endeavors, and keeping them in touch 
with their friends on shore. 

Mr. J. M. Wood, of the Brooklyn 
Navy Yard; Chaplain Steele, formerly 
of Hampton Roads, and later of Bos- 
ton ; and many others, have done yeo- 
men's service. Chaplain Steele is es- 
pecially interested in the Society because, as he says, "it 

Antoinette P. Jones, 

Falmouth, Mass. 

468 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

is the only distinctly religious effort for the sailors of the 
navy." The Young Men's Christian Associations are doing 
most admirable service, but on the sea are largely social in 
their functions. Christian Endeavor in the navy insists upon 
outspoken religion, and the badge which sailors are proud to 
wear, though they are often ridiculed by their companions 
for wearing it, stands for "Christ Exalted" there as every- 
where else. 

On the new Maine, which has taken the place of the 
wrecked ship of the same name, is also a flourishing society. 
One of the boys at a recent meeting has told how their ship- 
mates sometimes scoff at them when they see the badge of 
Floating Christian Endeavor, calling out, "Floaters, float- 
ers!" The Endeavorers take the chaff good-na- 

Floaters ^ 

and turedly, and respond, "Well, it s better to be a 

floater than a sinker, anyway." 

Miss Jones has written many interesting accounts of the 
Floating societies and their work. In the marine corps espec- 
ially the society seems to flourish. She tells how the sailors 
have helped the missionary work in distant Guam, going to 
the meetings of the society on shore, as well as maintaining 
their work on shipboard. A Floating Endeavorer on the U. 
S. S. Newark declares that he has found out only since going 
into the navy that "it is not enough to be just 'not a bad fel- 
low,' but that God wants us to be all in all for Him," while 
another sailor writes: "A friend started me travelling on 
the right road. He would take me in one of the small boats 
of the ship, get his Bible, and read and talk with me; and in 
that way I was converted." Often this personal directness 
of Andrew and Peter is repeated in the experience of our 
sailor boys. 

A simple little story that illustrates the trials as well as 
the opportunities of Floating Endeavor comes from Liver- 
pool, where there is a flourishing branch of the Floating So- 

christian Endeavor Afloat. 


ciety, and it relates to a vessel in the Mediterranean fleet of the 
Royal Navy. One of the sailors writes : 

"In our line of life we are liable to be called on at any 
hour of the day or night to do work which is not always of 
a very pleasant nature. One night one of our people, a 
Christian, had a job to do on a boiler, which was lighted up. 
Everything did not go on very well, and burnt fingers were 
the order of the day (or night). Instead of using bad lan- 

Floating Christian Endeavorers, U. S. Cruiser Chicago. 

guage, he sang a hymn and smiled. The job was finished and 
forgotten ; but some time afterwards a stoker who was on 
watch at that time came out on the Lord's side. Afterwards 
he told us that he first began to think seriously on that night 
when our brother kept his temper. It was something new to 
him, and he wondered how it was; and now he is one of our 

470 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

brightest believers. So much for what may sometimes ap- 
pear trifles to us. There are no trifles with God." 

The reflex influence of Floating Endeavor, like that of 
missionary Endeavor, is good for young people on shore, 
where their activities have been engaged and their sympathies 
aroused for their brethren on the sea. In many ports meet- 
ings have been held for the sailors, ships visited regularly 
whenever in port, reading-rooms provided, and all sorts of 
kindly things done for those who go down into the sea in 
ships. San Francisco, San Diego, New York and Brooklyn, 
Boston and Liverpool, Chicago and Bufifalo, and ports on the 
Great Lakes have shared in these generous ac- 

Shore ,• •-•^o. 

Work tivitieg. 

I****.! Mr. Giles Kellogg,, an earnest laborer among 

the sailors on the Pacific coast, has written most 
interestingly concerning the work as he has seen it. He tells 
of one sailor on the British ship Senegal who was brought in 
chains into a California port in mutiny. After reaching shore 
he went to the Christian Endeavor meeting in San Diego, and 
there expressed deep repentance for the past, and yearning for 
pardon. Soon he entered upon a course of training as an 
evangelist, and went to work among the men of the fishing- 
port of Milford Haven in England. Pulling about among 
the vessels in the harbor and visiting them in turn, he has 
been the means of leading many to accept the Saviour whom 
he found. 

Christian song has been greatly blessed to the sailors, 
who love to hear the sweet voices of fair Endeavorers, from 
whose society they are so completely shut out for the most of 
their lives. Among those who have given themselves to this 
work is a niece of the Hon. John D. Long, the late secretary 
of the navy. 

"When the sympathetic contralto notes of Miss Long's 
voice," we are told, "sang the simple and heart-touching 

Chrstian Endeavor Afloat. 471 

gospel appeals, many were noticeably affected. As the 
singing went on, and a verse of 'Are you coming home to- 
night?' was given, a card was passed along from the midst of 
the seamen, on which was written the name with words say- 
ing that a mother's prayers were answered, and that her boy 
was coming home to God that night." 

Miss Long was not spared for many years to continue to 
sing the gospel, but after the event just described her life and 
means, we are told, were given to public evangelistic singing 
for Christ, not only on the Pacific coast, but on the Atlantic 
coast as well. 

The Endeavor launches at San Diego, at Vineyard 
_, . ,. Haven, where Captain Edwards has been such a 

Christian ' ^ 

Endeavor powcr for good among the sailors, and at many 

Launches. 11111 r 

Other places have been real steam messengers of 
the gospel, which they have carried to a multiude of hardy 
men who sail the seas. 

Often the sailors return the compliment by visiting the 
Endeavorers at home in their meetings or social gatherings, 
where they do quite as much good as they receive. I have 
never seen the attendants at a staid New England prayer- 
meeting so moved and intensely interested as by a visit of 
twenty Floating Endeavorers from the new Maine, which was 
then in the Charlestown Navy Yard. As one after another the 
sailors rose and told of their meetings, of their joys and their 
trials, the ridicule they endured and the peace they found in 
the service of Christ, there was such a touch of reality and 
sincerity in all that they said that Christianity seemed a new 
thing, and a very genuine thing to all who heard them. As 
never before, these Christian people and thousands of others 
who have come in touch with Floating Endeavor have learned 
to sing with feeling that noble hymn, "For those in peril on 
the sea": 

472 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

''Eternal Father, strong to save, 
Whose arm hath bound the restless wave, 
Who bidst the mighty ocean deep 
Its own appointed limits keep ; 
O, hear us when we cry to Thee 
For those in peril on the sea. 

"O Trinity of love and power. 
Our brethren save in danger's hour; 
From rock and tempest, fire and foe, 
Protect them wheresoe'er they go; 
Thus evermore shall rise to Thee 
Glad hymns of praise from land and sea." 





" Christian Endeavor is not only reaching out, but is 
reaching in. It has penetrated the darkness of prison cells 
and sounded the glad signal-note of pardon, and sin-bound 
men can be heard crying out in the midnight of despair, as 
did the Philippian jailer, 'What must I do to be saved?' 
Many prisoners have been made free indeed through the 
glorious gospel of the Son of God." 

Mr. Frederick A. WalUs, New York. 

" Christian Endeavor is working a wonderful reformation in 
the Eddyville Prison. Many men whose lives were blackened 
by sin and crime are now serving God zealously on Christian 
Endeavor committees to bring their fellow-prisoners into this 
sweet and blessed pardon. Remarkable as it may seem, not a 
single released prisoner who was active in the prison Endeavor 
has been brought back for the second term. Only eternity can 
reveal the wonderful workings of Christian Endeavor here. 
God help you to plant a Christian Endeavor society in every 
prison in the land." 

" Your Christian Endeavor Comrades 

of the Eddyville Prison." 
Convention Message from a Prison Society. 


474 CKristian Endeavor in Surprising Places. 

ROM the beginning Christian Endeavor has been a 
surprise; a surprise in its ready acceptance by the 
Christian public, in its rapid growth, in its great ^ 
conventions, in its adaptability to all foreign cli- 
mates and conditions of life, in its development 
of new features just when they were most needed, in the 
persistence of original principles, which are found as ef- 
fective to-day as when they were first promulgated, in the 
staying power which usually makes the oldest societies, ex- 
cept when occasionally frozen out by pastoral indifference 
or ecclesiastical hostility, even more effective than when first 

Other chapters have told of surprising places in almost 
every continent, where Christian Endeavor has found a 
home. This chapter adds to the list some striking illustra- 
tions, which might be almost indefinitely multiplied. 
Christian Who would have thought, for instance, at the 

Endeavor beginning that there was any place for a Christian 

in . . 1 • <• o 

State Endeavor society among the convicts of our State 

prisons? Yet some of the largest and most devoted 
societies in the world are found in the penitentiaries. The 
first one was begun in the Wisconsin State Prison at Waupun 
on February 2, 1890, just nine years to a day after the first 
society in a church was formed. The Rev. Victor Kutchin, 
the chaplain of the prison, was the organizer; and the charter 
members consisted of 58 prisoners, of whom 35 were active 
members. The highest membership at any one period was 
204, and after less than five years 724 men had been con- 
nected with this society. The following testimony came from 
this chaplain of the first society after watching its results for 
five years: 

"By the working principles of the Christian Endeavor, 
in connection with the usual methods employed by clergy- 
men having a prison congregation^ we can easily arrive at 

In Surprising Places. 


476 christian Endeavor in All Lands, 

the degree of spirituality wherein to grade the men who 
through this means have become our special and more inti- 
mate charges. It is also a very convenient mirror in which 
the applicant for admission to the fold of the Good Shepherd 
reveals his earnestness or lack of it, and that before he is 
scarcely aware of our fully comprehending him. Where the 
conversion is actual, the changed demeanor from that com- 
mon sadness or recklessness so prevalent in penal institutions 
to one of quiet and abiding trust peculiar to the genuine con- 
vert is an indication which almost invariably indicates the 
new disciple of the Master." 

Prison societies began to multiply soon after the first one 
was formed, and are now found in more than a score of the 
largest penitentiaries in the country, and from almost every 
prison come, from those best fitted to judge, reports that the 
work done is not only most benign in its immediate efifects, 
but permanently useful. 

The usual sneer against all such efforts — and a very shal- 
low and silly sneer it is — would make it appear that the pris- 
oners profess conversion only to curry favor, or enter into the 
work to pass away the time which hangs heavily upon their 
hands. This is directly contradicted by the facts, which can 
Y^^^ be learned from any one who is conversant with 

Converted the livcs of the prisoners after their discharge. 

Prisoners t-» • o • c • 

" Hold The Utah State Prison Society, for instance, was 

organized in 1899, and Mr. Robert J. Jessup, one 
of the organizers, after six years of watchful interest says he 
cannot recall more than two members who after their dis- 
charge from confinement deliberately walked back into the 
ways of sin, and both of these men were "dope fiends," whose 
will-power had been destroyed by the drug. 

In 1903 two of these Utah prison Endeavorers, one the 
corresponding secretary, and the other the vice-president, of 
the society prevented several murderers from escaping from 
the prison, at the risk of their own lives. 

In Surnrising: Places. 


The New Mexico Prison Society recently celebrated its 
tenth anniversary. Messages were received from former 
members. One is superintendent of a gospel mission at Co- 
hoes, N. Y. ; another has served as superintendent of a Sun- 
day-school and president of a Christian Endeavor society in 
Kansas; another is a coal-miner in New York; another is 
in business in Texas; one is doing good carpenter work in 
Santa Fe; and still another assists in the county jail work in 

The White Christian Endeavor Society in Frankfort State Prison, Kentucky. 

Las Vegas, and recently read a paper before the Santa Fe 
Baptist Association. 

The three Endeavor societies in the Kentucky Peniten- 
tiary at Frankfort recently conducted a successful Bible con- 
test in which 26 men took part, and each was given a handsome 
Bible. In all 11,155 verses were memorized, and this was 

478 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

only one of several like contests held in that prison. The 
writer well remembers a visit to this prison, and his introduc- 
tion to the three societies through the kindness of the warden 
and the chaplain. In the prison for white men were a large 
number of Endeavorers, who presented him with 
In the a curious canc made of rings of horn skilfully glued 

Kentucky together. In the prison for black men was another 

Prisons. ° ^ 

society almost as large, whose president was the 
poet of the prison, and who greeted their visitor with a poetic 
effusion full of undeserved compliments, and then presented 
him with a block of hard coal, but a little blacker than the 
face of the poet, carved into the shape of a closed Bible. 

In the woman's prison he was greeted by another com- 
pany of Endeavorers, who gave him a beautiful bunch of 
carnations, another Christian Endeavor surprise, and showing 
the same sympathy, generosity, and kindness of heart that 
Endeavorers outside of prison walls often manifest. 

Among the souvenirs which I prize most highly are three 
gavels made in different prisons, and beautifully made, too, 
by Endeavorers who worked after hours to make them for 
use in calling together the great conventions. Two of these, 
adorned with silver bands, and finely inlaid, were given at 
the convention in Nashville, and the Rev. S. N. Vail, 
representing the Kentucky Endeavorers, happily said in pre- 
senting one of them to the presiding officer: 

"I deem it a great honor and privilege to present to this 
convention a gavel fashioned and made by a convict, serv- 
ing in the stripes and chains of Eddyville prison. He made 
this gavel with a penknife and a little file, in his cell, after 
his day's work, and in the light of a candle or lamp furnished 
by friends outside of the prison walls. 

"This brother was led to his Saviour by the Endeavor So- 
ciety; and the polish and taste he has given to the otherwise 
rough material in this gavel are emblematic of the change 

In Surprising Places, 479 

effected by the gospel in that prison. Instead of cruelty, it 
has brought into those wards sweet sympathy, converted the 
bare ground of the prison yard into a greensward studded 
with beautiful flowers, whose daily mission (in the light of 
an open Bible) is to teach those unhappy inmates the great 
lesson of trust in God. It has filled the cells and workshops 
of that institution with the benevolent atmosphere of the Sun 
of Righteousness, while a number of its convicts are rejoicing 
in the forgiveness of sin and the hope of eternal life through 
Jesus Christ." 

While I am engaged in writing this history, 
A Letter a personal letter has come from an inmate of the 
Anamosa. lowa State Penitentiary at Anamosa, which in its 
substance is like scores of others that have come to 
the writer. For eight years this society has been in existence. 
"We are permitted," says my correspondent, "to meet for 
twenty-five minutes every Sunday afternoon. One of the 
prisoners takes charge of the meeting, and we are at liberty 
to speak on the topic, bear testimony, lead in prayer, or sing, 
with as much freedom as if we were outside prison walls. 
Four times a year, on holidays, we hold a special meeting 
which is of unusual interest, many more men taking part, 
with more freedom than at the regular Sunday afternoon 
meeting. One friend of mine was converted here as the result 
of the society. He went out to lead an honorable Christian 
life, engaged in Christian work, and died this summer faith- 
ful to the last." 

In all, many tens of thousands of convicts have been con- 
nected with these prison societies, and several hundreds of 
" Comrades ^^ese have become "Comrades of the Quiet Hour," 
of the showing that the deepest spiritual things appeal 

Hour" to these men who have worn prison stripes. In- 

in Prison. ^^^^ ^j^^ ^^^^^ cvangclist, Mr. Dwight L. Moody, 

once said to me that he had found some of the best men he 
knew among the Endeavorers in the prison society in New 

480 Christian Endeavor in All Landso 

Mexico, and they were murderers, too, who in a moment 
of passion, when crazed by drink, perhaps, had taken the life 
of a fellow man, but who, when given time to think and re- 
pent behind prison bars, had been thoroughly converted. 
Here is a verse of a beautiful poem written by a prisoner in 
the Massachusetts State Prison, and published in The Mentor, 
the prison paper: 

"Only a convict! On Calvary 

A leader once of a desperate band 
Now calls in his dying agony 

To his fellow sufiferer near at hand, 
'Lord, when Thou reignest, remember me!' 

And hears, to his wondering, glad surprise, 
'Thou shalt be with me in Paradise.' " 

Who will say after these examples of what Christ can do 
within prison walls that such conversions are always "made 
to order"? 

The Endeavorers outside of prison walls have shared 
in the benefits of this work for the prisoners, which they have 
usually been instrumental in starting. Their sympathies have 
been awakened and their vision of the possibilities of the 
power of Christ have been widened as they strive to 
obey His command, and have heard His gentle voice in ap- 
proval say, "I was in prison, and ye visited me." 

Another surprising place for a .society of 
tha^ Christian Endeavor to appear is in a deaf and dumb 


asylum. One surely would not expect an organ- 
ization whose active members are pledged to take "some part 
aside from singing in every meeting" to be found in an insti- 
tution where no one could utter a single word. Yet there are 
several such societies, and I have never been more touched 
than when in conventions on both sides of the water I have 
seen a little company of bright, eager-faced Endeavorers, 

In Surprising Places. 


Christian Endeavor in India. 
A Christian Endeavor Society in the School for the Blind at Bombay. 

31 ^ 

482 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

whose other senses seemed to be more alert because of their loss 
of hearing, watch the rapidly moving fingers of the interpret- 
er, who with lightning-like signs interpreted what I had to 
say. However fast I spoke, he was sure to keep up with me. 
It was always a marvel to me how he could talk so rapidly 
with his ten fingers, and how his audience could hear so ac- 
curately with their eyes, and catch every distinct shade of 
meaning; for this was evident from the lights and shadows 
that passed over their faces as they saw the humor or the 
pathos of a little story, or grew serious with some appeal to 
their noblest natures. 

One such society in Edinburgh is called the ^'Ephphatha 
Society," in memory of our Lord's word when He looked up 
to heaven, and said unto the deaf and dumb man, "Ephpha- 
tha, that is, Be opened; and straightway his ears were opened, 
and the string of his tongue was loosed, and he spake plain." 
How marvellously among these deaf-mute Christians has 
Christ's miracle been repeated! Through the hands of their 
friends they have learned to hear. Through their own hands 
they have learned to speak. They can testify to the love of 
Christ as well as any one. They can offer prayers that their 
companions can understand. They can enjoy a union meet- 
ing as much as those who have five senses all in perfect condi- 
tion. No wonder that they take the name "Ephphatha," "Be 
opened," for the Master has not only opened their ears 
through their eyes, but has opened their hearts to receive His 
word and do His will. 

Amon Another unlooked-for place in which to find 

the Christian Endeavor work is among the life-savers, 

the brave and resolute men who patrol our stormy 
coast. In several of these stations Christian Endeavor so- 
cieties have been formed, and to others Endeavorers have gone 
with much profit to themselves as well as to the life-savers. 
The Rev. C. D. Crane, the efficient secretary of the Maine 

In Surprising Places, 


Union, has done not a little for these lonely heroes, and has 
sometimes held a meeting out-of-doors in order that the "look- 
out," who was not allowed to come inside during his hours of 
watch, might be present. All the life-saving stations on the 
coast of Maine have thus been visited by Endeavorers. 

Christian Endeavor was started for the young people, 
and always has been and always will be a young people's 

On the Valdez Glacier in Alaska. 

society; but that is by no means the same as saying that there 
can never be an old people's society, or a middle-aged peo- 
ple's society. In fact, there have been many such. Indeed, 
I have seen a picture of a Grandmothers' society in Japan, 
where every wrinkled face and bent form told of many years 
of service for others. 

4^4 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

Mothers' societies are comparatively common, though 
not nearly as numerous as they should be. The first one was 
started in the first Presbyterian Church of Topeka, Kan., in 
April, 1893, by Mrs. Barton, whose son, Fred C. Barton, was 
superintendent of the Juniors at that time. It was started to 
help the Juniors, and this must always be one of the great 
objects of the Mothers' society. That first Mothers' society 
is still flourishing, and the members often meet at the homes of 
one another, and spend a social day, sewing for some one who 
for any reason has an extra amount of work on hand, while 
regular meetings are also held in the homes of the 
s^ciet^es different members. Many a work of love is quietly 
accomplished by these ladies, such as visiting the 
sick, calling upon the strangers, sending flowers and other 
tokens of kindly remembrance. Why would not this be a 
good kind of woman's club to establish in every church, whose 
members might not become so familiar, perhaps, with the 
ethics of John Stuart Mill or the pessimism of Schopenhauer, 
but whose practical ethics might be improved by prayer and 
practice of good works for others? 

In proportion to the whole number of Endeavorers, Spain 
has more Mothers' Endeavor societies than any other coun- 
try, nearly a seventh being of this character, but there is a 
great and unoccupied field for this kind of Endeavor all over 
the world. 

Another society of older people has been formed in Sol- 
diers' Homes, and this, too, is a surprising development; 
but the writer has seen a long row of veterans of the Civil 
War, some scores of them, following the convention addresses 
and joining in the convention songs with all the ardor and en- 
thusiasm of the youngest Endeavorer. God bless these veter- 
ans, who have enlisted in the army of Christ, as well as re- 
sponded to their country's call for service. 

Other societies have been formed among policemen, 

In Surprising Places. 


among street-car employees, among travelling men, in schools 
for the blind, among the employees of hospitals for the in- 
sane and other hospitals, and in several large manufacturing 
establishments. The transient nature of the constituency of 
these societies sometimes makes it difficult to continue them 
long; but, while they have existed, they have done much good. 
The Travellers' societies have been largely merged into the 

4 W*^ ^ 

f f I 

. i ^ 

Some C. E. Veterans in the National Military Home, Leavenworth, Kansas. 

"Gideon Bands" for commercial travellers; but the initial 
impetus for this work, for which we all crave the largest suc- 
cess, came from Christian Endeavor circles. 

A most interesting society has been organized among the 
officers and clerks, compositors and other employees of the 
United Society of Christian Endeavor and The Christian En- 
deavor World at their office in Boston, called the "Home 

486 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

Office Society." Delightful little prayer-meetings are held 

every week. Charming sociables bring the work- 

iSome ers together occasionally for a "good time," and an 

Office example is thus set which may well be followed 

Society. , r T- J u u • 

by other Endeavorers, whose busmess society may 

be as helpful to the spiritual and social life as their church 




" To me one of the supreme values of the Christian En- 
deavor Society is its international character. The lines go 
out to every part of Great Britain, to the capitals of con- 
tinental Europe, to the wide-reaching realms where Chris- 
tendom comes into contact with Islam and the more ancient 
religions of Asia ; to brethren in Australia and New Zealand, 
in southern Africa and in the isles of Japan. A composite 
photograph of the national representatives of Christian En- 
deavor would show us the races of mankind and womankind 
the world over." 

Rev. John Henry Barrows, D.D., 
late President of Oberlin College. 

iT is not inappropriate at this point, perhaps, to de- 
vote a brief chapter to some of the journeys taken 
by the writer in connection with the introduction 
of Christian Endeavor into foreign lands, especi- 
ally as it gives him an opportunity to illustrate 
some of the vital principles of Christian Endeavor which 
come more forcibly to a traveller's attention on such journeys 
than at any other time. 

As was natural, the first journeys in the interest of Chris- 
tian Endeavor were made to Great Britain, the mother coun- 


488 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

try, which so soon largely adopted the daughter's method 
of organization for the young. The first of these was made 
in 1888, and the second in 1891. But the first journey around 
the world was not undertaken until the fall of 1892, when, 
almost immediately after the great convention in New York, 
the writer with his wife and eldest son started to circumnavi- 
gate the globe in the interests of Christian Endeavor. This 
journey took them to the Hawaiian Islands, to all the colonies 

A Beauty Spot in New Zealand. 

of Australia with the exception of Western Australia, next 
to China and Japan, back along the Chinese coast to Singa- 
pore, Ceylon, Madura, Calcutta, and Bombay, through the 
^^^ Red Sea and the Suez Canal to Egypt and the Holy 

First Land. Then to Beirut and Syria, across Turkev, 

Journey. . ,, , ,«.,,. ^ 

through the very heart of Asia Mmor to Constanti- 
nople, by way of Greece, Italy, Switzerland, and Spain to a 

Four Journeys Around the World. 489 

national convention in Great Britain, and thence to their own 
home. This journey occupied nearly a year, and was full of 
delightful experiences, some of which have been detailed in 
another volume,* and resulted in the establishment of the 
Society in some countries, and it is hoped in its strengthening 
in other lands. 

T^^g In 1896, at the call of Endeavorers in India 

Second and South Africa, the president of the United So- 
ciety undertook another journey, this time going 
alone, visiting Egypt again, and going more thoroughly over 
portions of India. At this time the United Society for India, 
Burma, and Ceylon was formed. Immediately afterward, the 
writer sailed from Madras to Durban in a coolie ship, a long 
and lonesome voyage of twenty-three days, when he was the 
only white passenger. But the friends he made and the meet- 
ing he was able to attend in Natal, the Transvaal Republic, 
and the Orange Free State (before these two were annexed by 
Great Britain), as well as in Cape Colony, well repaid him 
for the discomforts of the voyage, and he was glad to be able 
to do a little something to arouse a larger Endeavor spirit 
in Africa, where the work is now flourishing so vigorously. 
While in South Africa, he met President Kruger of the 
Transvaal and President Steyn of the Orange Free State, both 
of whom were interested in his mission. 

Sailing from Cape Town up the coast of Africa, he 
joined his family in Southampton after a six months' absence, 
and was enabled to spend some time with them among the 
Endeavorers of Great Britain and the Continent before re- 
turning home. 

In the year 1900 an urgent call came from the Endeavor- 
ers of China that he should attend their Fifth Annual Con- 
vention, and so with Mrs. Clark and another son this journey 
was undertaken, and a delightful convention was enjoyed in 

* " Our Journey Around the World." 


Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 






by way of 


Foochow, as well as many other meetings in Shanghai, 
Ningpo, Peking, Tung-cho, and Pao-ting-fu in China, as 
well as in most of the large centres in Japan. 

In Japan, also, they were permitted to attend a most 
delightful national convention in Kobe, and to renew the 
friendship formed with the devoted missionaries on a pre- 
vious journey. The travellers left China just before the 
Boxer uprising, though no one at the time knew of the dread- 
ful massacres that would break out in another fortnight; and 
in order to get to London in season for the World's 
Convention of 1900 they decided to travel across 
Siberia by the newly opened Trans-Siberian route. 
This was then entirely unknown, as steam commu- 
nication had been opened for only a few days when 
they started, and they were the first travellers of 
any nation to go around the world by this route. There 

were many unexpected 
delays and much discom- 
fort, and the journey oc- 
cupied forty-two days 
instead of the twenty-five 
it was expected to take, 
twenty of them being oc- 
cupied with the journey 
up the Amur River, 
which just then was at its 
shallowest. But the 
journey was safely ac- 
complished at last, and 
London was reached the very day before the convention be- 
gan, instead of with a margin of two weeks as was expected. 
In 1903 the repeated and urgent calls of the Endeavorers 
in New Zealand and Australia were responded to, and on 
the last day of the year, together with his daughter as travel- 

by Wheelbarrow to a Christian En- 
deavor Service in China. 

• Four Journeys Around the World. 491 

ling companion and secretary, the writer started on a fourth 
journey around the globe. In some respects this was one of 
the most interesting of all, as he was permitted to 
see some of the natural wonders of New Zealand 
and Australia, as well as to note the remarkable 
progress which had been made in Christian Endeavor circles 
since his previous visit twelve years before. The Gold Fields 
as well as the great cities of Australia were visited, and, sail- 
ing from Albany, on King George's Sound, the travellers 




Mayoral Reception to Dr. Clark at Wellington, New Zealand, January 30, 1904. 

made their way in a stanch Scotch ship across the "roaring 
forties" to Durban, thence around the Cape of Good Hope 
to Cape Town, and back to England by the usual route. 

Owing to the delay of the steamer in crossing the great 
ocean between Australia and Africa, the plans for this 
visit to South Africa were seriously interfered with, and 
the week which it was originally hoped could be spent 
in this continent was reduced to three or four days, But 
time enough was given to see many hearty and earnest 
friends of the cause in Durban and Cape Town, and to be 
cheered by the splendid results of the earnest Endeavor- 


Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

ers of South Africa. Before reaching home on this journey, 
too, a visit was made to France, where the French national 
union was formed, to Switzerland, and to Germany. 

Many other journeys across the Atlantic have taken the 
writer on different occasions to Great Britain and Germany 
and Spain and Portugal and Scandinavia and Russia and 
Bulgaria and Bohemia and Macedonia; to Italy, France, and 
Switzerland; to Belgium, Holland, and Iceland. 

He would be a dull scholar indeed who could go to this 
travel school for so long without learning something of God's 
ways with man, and the divine favor to the cause which it was 
especially the traveller's business to promote. These journeys. 

Ta$m tint a. Ft;b>.23. 

Route of Dr. Clark's Fourth Journey Around the World, January to July, 1904. 

too, might well induce humility of spirit, as they have re- 
vealed how in every land it was "not by might, nor by power," 
not by human wisdom or skill of organization, but through 
the divine good pleasure and kindly care, that the Society has 
flourished and grown strong. 

One chief impression which has been made upon the 
writer's mind in these many journeyings is that of the blessed 
reality of Christian fellowship the world around. It can 
hardly be realized by my younger readers how comparatively 

Four Journeys Around the World. 493 

new is the development of this idea in its world-wide aspect. 
Christian ^°^ ^^^ Christian traveller cannot go to any con- 
Feiiowship siderable section of this world except Tibet with- 


'out finding that Christian brethren have been there 
before him, and without receiving the right hand of Chris- 
tian fellowship. Fifty years ago this could not possibly have 
been said. Twenty-five years ago it was less true than now. 
Even thirteen years since, when the first journey outlined in 
this chapter was taken, it could not be said with the emphasis 
with which it can now be asserted. Christian Endeavorers 
may well be thankful that their organization has had some- 
thing to do with the extension and promotion and permanent 
establishment of this world-wide fellowship. 

There are two songs which Christian travellers hear now 
more commonly than any other two all around the world, 
and they both show the yearnings of the heart for this kinship 
in Christ, which is growing more wide and strong with every 
passing year. These two songs are 

"Blest be the tie that binds 
Our hearts in Christian love," 

and "God be with you till we meet again." 

These two songs have been translated into every tongue, 
and are sung in every clime. The Christian Endeavor So- 
ciety has had much to do with popularizing them, especially 
the latter, which, it is said, was first sung in public at a gather- 
ing of any considerable size in a Christian Endeavor union 
meeting more than twenty years ago. 

Another impression has been that of the immense value 

of missionary work and the genuine heroism and devotion of 

missionary workers. The heroes of the modern 

HeroismT^ world are found very largely on the mission fields. 

For the Christian martyrs of to-day we must look 

to China and to Turkey; and it is the deliberate opinion of 


Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

the author, after seeing missionaries of all denominational 
boards in all parts of the world that there is no class of men 
in any calling who, on the average, are so well educated, so 
tactful and efficient in their work, so devoted and consecrated, 
and on the whole so successful, as the missionaries of the cross. 
It can safely be asserted that none others are doing so much 
to change the face of the earth for good, physically, mentally, 
morally, and spiritually, as the missionaries who have gone 

A Scene in Scandinavia. 

out from Christian lands to the "regions that sit in darkness 
and the shadow of death." 

One more impression that relates particularly to the So- 
ciety of Christian Endeavor and its work is that of the adapt- 
ability of its methods to all climes and conditions. It has 
proved to be so entirely flexible that it can be used by the raw 

Four Journeys Around the World. 495 

heathen who twelve months ago never heard the gospel 
preached, as well as by the most cultured young 
people in any city in Great Britain or America. 
The Hindu boys and girls who come from heathen 
homes, and do not profess to be Christians, are formed into 
societies whose only pledge is that they will read the Bible 
and study about Christianity, and this is for them genuine 
Christian Endeavor. 




How We Traveled in the "Boxer" Country. 

After all, human nature is very much the same all over 
the world. The tint of the skin, the language or the accent, 
the training and traditions of early life, these are all acci- 
dents and of but little moment, compared with the underlying 
need of every soul for communing with God, for fellowship 
with Christ and His people, for aspiration and endeavor to 
do service for one's fellow men for Christ's sake. These 
longings and fundamental aspirations are found in every 

496 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

heart, and these are met by the simple methods and the sane 
and sensible programme and principles of Christian En- 



" As a training for citir:enship, for usefulness in the churches 
and in the communities, its systematic, uniform, and united 
activities, stimulated and sustained by the obligation of a cov- 
enant with God and men as binding and exalting as the 
' Solemn League and Covenartt ' of Scotland's noblest days, are 
of the first order of practical importance." 

Hon. Henry B. Macfarland, 
President of the Board of Commissioners of the District of 


" The Society has proved a most potent and effective influ- 
ence in the elevation of the race and the advancement of our 
Christian civilization." 

Hon. Charles E. Littlefield, 
Member of Congress from Maine. 

]T was at an international convention in Montreal in 
1893 that, so far as is known, the proposition was 
first made that Endeavorers should take up good 
citizenship as one of the regular features of their 

In the address of the president of the United Society 
for that year this idea was dwelt upon at length, and with 
these words this part of the address closed: 

"This convention can pass no votes or resolutions that are 
binding upon individuals or societies, — nor can any State or 
local union,— but it can and should lead us in this and every 
32 497 

498 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

such matter more fully to recognize our individual responsi- 
bility as citizens as well as Christian men and women. Some 
phase of this very important subject of good citizenship, 
viewed from the Christian standpoint, may well occupy our 
attention at more than one of our Society prayer-meetings and 
at more than one local-union gathering of the year to come. 
How may we become better citizens? How may we be truer 
patriots? Let us give to these a worthy answer." 

In an entirely unexpected way has this suggestion been 
carried out, and not only in occasional local-union gatherings 
and society prayer-meetings, but in almost every American 
and British convention of any considerable size from that 
day to this has good citizenship been a prominent feature of 
discussion and a frequent obJQCt of fervent prayer. In all 
parts of the world, too, has the idea been taken up; and 
China and India, as well as English-speaking lands, have 
their good-citizenship rallies. 

Is it too much to believe that the marvellous 
JM^ civic awakening of the past two years, the like of 

Awakening which has never been known in America, when 

in America. i i • , , , , , 

corruption and bossism have been downed, and 
righteousness exalted as never before in the history of the 
nation, is due, in some measure at least, to the civic awakening 
in the hearts of many young Christians? 

Since the convention of 1893 tens of thousands of prayer- 
meetings have been held with Christian citizenship for their 
topic. Thousands of addresses have been made at local 
unions, district meetings, State conventions, and national as- 
semblies, some of them by the ablest orators in the country, 
on this burning theme. The evils of the day have been vig- 
orously attacked, corruption in high places has been unspar- 
ingly denounced, and the loftiest patriotism has been held 
up as the ideal before every young American. These meet- 
ings could not have been without a vast influence; and, 

Citizenship Endeavors. 499 

though many other causes have contributed to the splendid 
moral upheaval of 1905, the Christian Endeavor Society may 
modestly claim to have done its share. 

It can easily be conceived that the great danger of bring- 
ing the flaming torch of patriotism to the inflammable spirits 
of youth would be that good citizenship might sometimes be 
spelled "partisanship," and the distinction between our party 
and our country's good might be obscured. Especially when 
some great moral issue was before us and advocated more 
vigorously by one party than another, it has seemed difficult 
for some to distinguish between the two. Some politicians 
have taken advantage of this to try to capture the whole En- 
deavor movement and carry it ofif into the hands of their 

One of the most unpleasant and bitter controversies, bit- 
ter on one side at least, was aroused by the refusal of the 
Society to become annexed to a particular political party; 
and some good and able men felt that Endeavorers were not 
living up to their profession unless all who could vote voted 
in one way. But the Society weathered this storm, and it has 
been an accepted principle that it cannot be made the tail of 
any political kite. 

But Endeavorers have not been content with simply list- 
ening to eloquent addresses, or passing empty resolutions. 
In hundreds of cases they have exerted a potent influence on 
the right side in municipal, State, and sometimes national 

As is natural, since intemperance is the most 


Society flagrant and outstanding sin of the generation, tem- 
Temperahce P^rance matters have received especial attention. 
Oftentimes the Endeavorers have lined up under 
different political banners for "no license" when local-option 
laws gave them a chance to vote. In Boston their earnest 
efforts recently induced one of the largest department stores, 

500 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

which had opened a liquor department, to close it out and 
advertise widely that no drop of liquor should ever be sold 
on their premises. In Newcastle-on-Tyne in England a simi- 
lar liquor nuisance has just been abated in the same way. 
Many other like instances might be narrated. But the 

Dnnking-Fountain Erected by Christian Endeavorers. 

good-citizenship committees have not by any means, confined 
their efforts to opposition of this sort, but have been positive 
and constructive forces for good, in establishing drinking- 
fountains, ice-water tanks in public places, cofifee-rooms and 

Citizenship Endeavors. 


temperance cafes, reading-rooms and amusement-rooms for 
children and young people, who might otherwise be on the 
street, and in a multitude of efforts of this sort, the mere 
catalogue of which is too long to record. The Cleveland 

y Union has been particularly active in the establishment of 
drinking-fountains, while recently, we are told, at the inter- 
section of three busy streets in Philadelphia, the Delaware 
branch of the Philadelphia Union has erected a beautiful 
fountain of Barre granite, where even dogs as well as horses 
may get a cooling drink, while a supply of ice-water is kept 
constantly in the pipes to refresh the thirsty pedestrian, driver, 
and street-car man. 

The Ohio Endeavorers were wide awake in the last elec- 
tion* in opposing the corrupt politics which had become in- 
trenched in that State. 

No president was ever more popu- 
lar than the present occupantt of the 
White House, who with the desire of 
reform has cleaned out so many dark 
and dirty political corners. The re- 
form governor of Missouri, Governor 
Folk, was himself an Endeavorer in 
his earlier days, and most valiantly 
has been carrying out the principles of 

' the Society in city and State. The 
Hon. Samuel B. Capen, who is not 
ashamed to wear the Christian En- 
deavor badge, and who was the chair- 
man of the comm_ittee that prepared 
for the greatest Christian Endeavor Hon. S. b. Capen, ll. d. 

Boston, Mass. 

convention ever held, has been a prom- 
inent reformer in Boston and Massachusetts State politics, 

* 1905. 

t President Roosevelt. 

502 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

and has frequently spoken wise and eloquent words about 

Christian citizenship at our conventions, local and national. 

Unjust war has been peculiarly abhorrent to 

Efforts , , . ^ . ^^, . . -P^ , 

for the latest generation or active Christian bndeavor- 

Peace. ^^^ With joy they have hailed every effort in the 

interests of peace and arbitration; and, when the historic 
commission met at The Hague, the American representatives, 
we are told, were heartened and encouraged in their efforts 
by hundreds of congratulatory telegrams and letters from 
Christian Endeavor societies and conventions all over the 
United States. 

The International Congress advocated by Mr. Raymond 
L. Bridgman, and favored unanimously by both houses of the 
Massachusetts legislature and in other States as well, has es- 
pecially enlisted the sympathy of Christian Endeavorers, and 
many thousands of petitions like the following have been sent 
to the Senate of the United States: 

To the Senate of the United States of America'. — 

The undersigned, representing the Christian En- 
deavor Society {town) {State), earnestly 

desiring the abolition of war and the federation of the nations, 
respectfully petition your honorable body, as has already been 
done unanimously by the legislature of Massachusetts, to au- 
thorize the President of the United States to invite the govern- 
ments of the world to join in establishing, in whatever way they 
may judge expedient, an International Congress, to meet at 
stated periods to deliberate upon questions of common interest 
to the nations, and to make recommendations thereon to the 



Mr. Amos R. Wells through The Christian Endeavor 
World has been particularly active in arousing interest in 
this forward step in the interests of universal peace. 

Citizenship Endeavors. 503 

Nearly akin to this effort is the "International Brother- 
hood," which was launched by the Lincolnshire and Cheshire 
Federation of Christian Endeavor unions of Great Britain, 
and first came before the public in a large way at the London 

convention in 1904. 
national Mr. W. H. McKcllen, the secretary of the 

'Federation, has been the chief worker for the In- 
ternational Brotherhood, has enlisted many Endeavorers in 
many lands, and has secured the active interest of such ardent 
lovers of peace as Mr. W. T. Stead and others of like char- 
acter. Here are the principles to which the members of the 
International Brotherhood subscribe: 

"While we distinctively recognize the fact that En- 
deavorers belong to all political parties, and adhere to our 
principle that the Society should never be used for partisan 
political purposes, and while we fully acknowledge the right 
of our fellow Endeavorers who honestly differ from us to their 
own views, we, the undersigned, agree to form ourselves into 
an International Brotherhood, to stand for peace and good 
will among all the nations of the world. 

"We believe that war, except for the defence of liberty or 
the relief of the oppressed, is wrong, unchristian, and bar- 

"We believe in the settlement of international disputes by 
arbitration rather than by the sword. 

"We believe in exhausting every honorable means to pre- 
vent war between nation and nation, and to secure the bless- 
ings of peace. 

"To prevent the infamy of unjust war, and to extend the 
principles of International Brotherhood, we will do what in 
us lies. 

"We will pray for our brotherhood in every land, and 
that the reign of the Prince of peace may speedily prevail 
throughout the world." 

To show that the spirit of Christian citizenship is not 
confined to the Endeavorers of America we need only recall 

504 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

how the Brazilian Endeavorers recently at their convention 
gathered around the great monument that tells of their na- 
tional independence, and sang their national anthem; how the 
Chinese Endeavorers listened with rapt attention to a speech 
on patriotism at their last national convention by Dr. Arthur 
H. Smith, an address which captivated the visiting mandarins 
as well as the Endeavorers ; and how at a recent South African 
convention the "native question," the burning good-citizen- 
ship topic of the present time, was discussed by the president 
of one of the unions, the Rev. J. G. Aldridge, who pertinently 

Christian "It is a matter of congratulation that the Chris- 

Citizenship ^-j^j^ Eudcavor movement is essentially a movement 
South for the promotion of good citizenship. ... In 

Africa. Christian duty we are bound to regard the native as 

an object of peculiar care. Do not be misled by those who 
contend you will solve the problem by the sjambok and by 
making him a beast. O, no; there must be the most careful, 
far-sighted, and Christian legislation. And here, in this con- 
nection, I would impress upon you as Endeavorers to study 
well the problem and the men who seek your suffrages. I in- 
sist upon this, because to my mind there is just as much re- 
ligion in the way in which you cast a vote at an election as there 
is in singing a hymn upon the Sabbath." 

Every country has its peculiar problems and its easily 
besetting sins. In Australia it is gambling, and the Austra- 
lian Endeavorers have naturally taken up arms against this 
awful evil. A recent number of the Australian Christian En- 
deavor Golden Link contains a scathing article on the national 
sin, with a special denunciation of the city government of 
Hobart, Tasmania, which has legalized and protected gam- 
bling or the gamblers, who received many a hard blow when 
the Endeavorers met in that fair city. 

To return to America, an interesting development of the 
good-citizenship spirit is shown in Massachusetts, where 

Citizenship Endeavors. 


Patriots' Day, April 19, the anniversary of the first battle of 
the Revolutionary War, is observed by the great district unions 
of the State with a Patriots' Day rally. Formerly Fast Day 
was observed in Massachusetts at about this time of year; but 
^ . , , the good old Puritan custom fell into disuse, and 

Patriots' 111 

Day horse-races and the opening of the baseball sea- 

^' son made of the fast a farce. In some measure, 

however, Christian Endeavor has redeemed the day, and 
brought it back to its original intention. For these Patriots' 
Day rallies are held in every part of the State, and often at- 
tract audiences of thousands to the Endeavor meetings, from 
which the good-citizenship idea is 
never absent. 

But intelligent good citizenship 
needs wisdom as well as fervor, sober 
instruction as well as eloquent orators; 
and so the Christian Endeavor Civic 
Club has been inaugurated. Dr. S. B. 
Capen, before alluded to, has been ac- 
tive in the advocacy of this feature of 
Christian Endeavor, and Professor 
Wells and the president of the United 
Society have prepared a constitution 
and an outline of the work for all who 
desire them. 

The Civic Club contemplates a campaign of 
information, instructing the members in regard to 
the way they are governed, their city charter, their 
school system, their poor-laws, their municipal 
platform and political machinery. They promote the lyceum 
idea, which has fallen into abeyance of late years. They pro- 
pose "village-improvement" as well, the beautifying of parks, 
the improvement of roads, the care of public and private 
premises; all these and numerous other enterprises of the 

Hon. H. B. F. Macfarland. 






5o6 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

same kind come within the purview of the Civic Club, whose 
motto is Virgil's words, 

"The Noblest Motive Is the Public Good." 

The standing committees proposed are the programme 
committee, the publicity committee, and the village-improve- 
ment committee, whose duties can be guessed from their 

Though the Civic Club has not been adopted very 
largely in its entirety, some features it proposes have been 
entered upon with vigor by many Christian Endeavor socie- 
ties and unions; and, when the awards were made at the last 
American convention, many societies received honorable men- 
tion for good-citizenship work of various kinds. 

Hundreds of specific instances might be related of suc- 
cessful good-citizenship effort; and many an Endeavorer, 
though he has not given his life for the cause, deserves to rank 
with Robert Ross, of Troy, N. Y., who, while doing his duty 
at the polls, as a Christian Endeavorer should, was murdered 
in cold blood by Bat Shea, a ward heeler of the lowest type. 
But, after all, it is the spirit which has been infused into the 
movement which counts, rather than these isolated cases of 
reform, of heroism, or even of martyrdom, however many 
might be marshalled. 

Within the twenty-five years' span of the Christian En- 
deavor movement probably some millions of young men have 
become voters, who have been influenced more or less power- 
fully by the good-citizenship ideals of the Society. They 
have learned and acted upon the truth which Dr. Burrell of 
New York thus eloquently voiced at a great national conven- 

"The word 'Endeavor' is a gloriously significant one. It 
comes from two French words which mean 'on guard' or 'on 

Citizenship Endeavors. 507 

duty'. It recalls the worn legend of the Roman knight at 
Pompeii, who stood in his place without flinching while the 
multitudes were flying from the molten stream of death which 
the great mountain belched forth, faithful among the fearful, 
on duty to the last. That is what it means to be a true En- 
deavorer. First of all, it devolves upon us to guard the rights 
of citizenship and the purity of the franchise; that is, to be on 
guard at the polls. 

" 'There is a weapon better yet, 

And stronger than the bayonet, 

A weapon that comes down as still 
As snowflakes fall upon the sod; 

But executes a freeman's will 

As lightning does the will of God.' " 



" Endeavor is a good thing. Christian Endeavor is a 
better thing; Young People's Christian Endeavor is best of all. 
" What should be the greatest object of Christian En- 
deavor? Surely the evangelization of the world." 

Eugene Stock, 
Editorial Secretary of the Church Missionary Society of Eng- 

" This Christian Endeavor army is the grandest the v^^orld 
has ever seen. It speaks of the greatest movement of this 
generation, and is rounding out magnificently this great mis- 
sionary century. With its more than two millions of members 
it is belting the world with its light and with the enthusiasm 
of its service for Christ. And yet we are only two years in 
our teens, and we have only just begun to live and to grow. 
We have no less a purpose than to conquer this whole world 

I for God and truth." 

Hon. S. B. Capen, LL.D., 

' at the Boston Convention, 1895. 

HE missionary spirit has never been foreign to the 
Christian Endeavor spirit. How could it be? 
In one respect the two mean the same thing. 
They are but different ways of fulfilling our 
Lord's last commands. 
But more than this, the first society of Christian En- 
deavor was born in a missionary as well as a revival atmos- 


Kindling Missionary Fires. 


510 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

phere. The backbone of the first society, so to speak, was the 
Mizpah Mission Circle, which was merged into it, and which 
continued in its larger field and scope to do no less, but even 
more, for distinctly missionary causes, as was naturally to be 
expected; for instead of forty boys and girls working for mis- 
sions there were soon a hundred boys and girls and young 
men working for missions. 

Almost from the beginning missionary themes were dis- 
cussed in the conventions, and a missionary committee was one 
of the first to be established in most societies, after the look- 
out, the prayer-meeting, and the social committees. 

Moreover, as has already been seen, the Society very 
early began to find its way into missionary lands. Before 
England heard of it, or Australia, and long before the Chris- 
tian countries of continental Europe ever thought of having 
an Endeavor society, one began to flourish in China, and an- 
other in India, and another in Hawaii. The knowledge of 
these brothers and sisters in distant lands kindled the imagina- 
tions of Endeavorers at home, and kindled many missionary 
fires as well. 

In one of the earliest of the large conventions, "Phila- 
delphia, '89," the missionary idea received a remarkable stim- 
ulus. This convention numbered only some eight thousand in 
attendance, and was small as compared with more recent gath- 
erings, but The Congregationalist declared that it was "the 
largest delegate religious assembly that Christendom has yet 
witnessed, and as such is a noteworthy event." 

A still more noteworthy feature of the convention was 
the impetus given to it by the missionary spirit. Dr. Arthur 
T. Pierson, Dr. O. P. Giflord, Mr. Robert P. 
Worfd Wilder, of India, and others aroused much enthu- 

Christ." ^^^^"^ ^^ ^^^y talked of the world for Christ, and 
Christ for the world. "Some one has said," said 
Mr. Wilder, "that the majority of us are not anti-missionary 

Citizenship Endeavors. 


but o-mfssionary. I hope there is no one before me who be- 
longs to the o-missionary class. My prayer is the prayer of 
the stroke of the Cambridge University boat. He prayed that 
there might be such an outlet of men and money from his 
country that it would lead to an inlet of blessing from heaven. 
The outlet is coming." 

Mr. Wilder's prediction was in a large measure fulfilled. 

German Christian Endeavor Officers. 

Secretary Blecher is sitting at the left of the table, and Missionary 

Hugenschmidt, of the Caroline Islands, is standing behind him. 

Student volunteers began to multiply still more rapidly in 
all parts of the country, and money began to flow from the 
pockets of young people as never before. 

Mr. Stephen L. Mershon at this convention proposed a 
missionary problem, which has practically been worked out 
since in a multitude of young people's societies. 

512 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

^'Information + consecration — selfishness X by activity 
and -f- by every individual Christian Endeavor = successful 
missionary effort." 

It was at the convention in Montreal, after the return of 
the president of the United Society from his first journey 
around the world, that he proposed a special effort for pro- 
portionate and systematic giving to missions, which was after- 
wards more fully organized and carried out in the Tenth 
Legion and the Macedonian Phalanx. Here is a paragraph 
from that address, which seems to have borne some fruit: 

"May it not be the glad mission of the Christian Endeavor 
Society to introduce a new era of benevolence, not to perpetu- 
ate the grudging dole that has been wrung from tight fists in 
Proprotion= ^^^ P^^^' ^ meagre offering that will never evan- 
ate and gelize the world, but to bring in an era of propor- 
Sivhi'"^*'^ tionate and systematic giving as God hath pros- 
pered us? 

"Who will join me this year in a pledge of proportionate 
giving of at least one-tenth of what God may give us? Do 
you want a larger mission, Christian Endeavorers? Do you 
want a new crusade? Here it is. Could anything be larger? 
It reaches to the ends of the earth. It embraces every nation 
and people and kindred and tribe. It means salvation, yours 
as well as theirs. It means the filling of our missionary treas- 
uries ; for we will always give, as we have done, through our 
own wisely directed denominational channels. It means that 
no worthy cause at home or abroad will suffer. In time, as 
we grow richer and more numerous, it will mean thousands 
where now there are hundreds, and millions where now are 
given thousands. It means obedience to our Lord's last com- 
mand. It means that the twentieth century will usher in the 
glad era of an evangelized world which has heard in its remot- 
est corners the gospel message." 

In 1893-94 it was found that the societies gave in benevo- 
lence $250,000, much of it going to the cause of missions at 
home and abroad. I do not mean to imply that this was the 

Kindling Missionary Fires. 



514 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

result of the suggestion above made, for the cause of mission- 
ary enthusiasm had been steadily rising, and doubtless such 
results would have come in any event; but from this time sys- 
tematic giving was taken up as a regular and important fea- 
ture of Christian Endeavor work. Records of half a million 
of dollars each year given by the Endeavorers are now re- 
ceived, though reports in regard to this matter are obtained 
from less than a quarter of the societies in the world, and it is 
altogether probable that at .least a million dollars each year 
are contributed by the Endeavor societies for various good 
causes, and "a million dollars for missions" was proposed as 
the goal at the last convention at Baltimore. 

To be sure, this sum does not all find its way to the mis- 
sion field, either at home or abroad; for what shall be done 
with the gifts of Endeavorers largely depends upon the pastor 
and the church with which the society is connected. 
the^"^^ I^ their missionary zeal is large, the money is sent 

Money away from home. If their own needs, either reallv 

Goes. -^ _ ' -^ 

or in imagination, exceed the needs of the mission 
field, the money is used for new hymn-books or pew-cushions 
or a church spire, or for painting the walls of the meeting- 
house; and oftkn the burden of raising money to pay the last 
bills for some home expenditure is put upon the young people's 
society, as sometimes it may well be, and is gladly assumed by 
them. However, though much of the money they raise, in 
accordance with the wishes of pastor and church, may be used 
at home, the benevolences of young people for distinctively 
missionary work have been very largely increased. Special 
pains were taken not long since, by examining the records ot 
money received in the past in many denominations as com- 
pared with the money received from young people's sources 
to-day; and it was found that there had been a very large in- 
crease, and that the money given by young people was almost 
entirely an "extra asset" to the boards. 

Kindling Missionary Fires. 515 

Of late years these boards have wisely assigned to their 
Christian Endeavorers definite fields or missionaries, or have 
given them churches to build on the frontier of our own coun- 
try, or missionary boats to build, which shall ply on distant 
foreign rivers, as has been recorded in other chapters of this 
history. Dr. A. A. Fulton, of the Presbyterian mission of 
Canton, did much good on two different furloughs in America, 
in showing the Christian Endeavorers that, however 
Two= small their means, they could do something, and 

af" ^" that there were few who could not give the value 

Week Qf ^^ ordinary postage-stamp each week for the 

spread of the gospel. The "two-cents-a-week 
plan" was adopted by many Endeavor societies; and, though 
it was sneered at by some who ought to have encouraged it, as 
an unworthy limit to gifts for the salvation of the world, yet, 
until all Christians, old and young, rich and poor, come up 
to at least half this limit in the course of the year, in the 
writer's opinion it is' a plan worthy to be urged upon young 

So far I have spoken of the missionary spirit as aroused 
among the Endeavorers at home, and of the reflex influence 
upon their own lives; but what about Christian Endeavor in 
missionary lands themselves? The chapters of this history 
that relate to Asia and Africa and some of the islands of the 
sea largely tell this story. The Society has gone wherever 
the missionaries have gone, and it has proved their loyal, hum- 
ble handmaid. A volume of testimonies, sufficient to fill every 
page of this history, has been received from missionary work- 
ers in all lands. I can give but a few specimens from their 
glowing words. They represent the South Sea Islands, China, 
India, and papal Europe. 

The Rev. J. E. Newell, for more than a quarter of a cen- 
tury a leading missionary in the South Seas, after fifteen years 
of experience of the Society in Samoa, says: 


Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

''Christian Endeavor in Samoa and its related islands 
stands for a requickening of faith in the living Christ, and a 
fresh realization of the strenuousness of the Christian life. 
The first and immediate outcome of the self-consecration 
which the pledge demanded, and of which it was the just and 
adequate occasion, was the joyous and hearty acceptance of the 
authority of Christ to claim His people for any and every serv- 
ice His work required in the hard places of the great mission 
field. In Samoa, at the Malua Institution, the Christian En- 

Christian Endeavor Society, Girls' Orphanage, Marsovan, Turkey in Asia. 

deavor pledge was God's instrument for the effectual accom- 
plishment of this great and gracious work." 

No missionary of modern times has been more honored 
and beloved than the late gifted Mrs. Alice Gordon Gulick, 
of Spain, who introduced the Society into the Institute Inter- 
nacional of Madrid, and, through the girls there educated, 
into the whole kingdom. 

Kindling Missionary Fires. 517 

"The influence of the principles of the Society 
Testimony has been great upon those who have hitherto had 
of Mis= little or no opportunity for the manifestation of re- 

sionanes. , . . f ^ . ^ , 

ligious impulses m active work. 
"These girls go to their homes ready to share in the 
church-work, and spend their vacations in repeating what they 
have learned for the benefit of crowds attracted by the nov- 
elty of meetings conducted by young women." 

Says the Rev. H. G. C. Hallock, a well-known Presby- 
terian missionary of China: 

"As to the Chinese country society, the belief has been 
strengthened that it is just the thing for little, struggling com- 
munities where they cannot have a pastor, but where they have 
to carry on the work by themselves. At its organization I 
could see that the idea and aim of the Society put new energy 
and ambition into their faces. The Chinese Christians, as do 
we, like to be of use. They rejoice to feel that the work and 
meetings are their own, and so go to work with new zeal." 

The following is the testimony of the Rev. William Carey, 
of Bengal, to whose work and noble ancestry we have already 

"I have no hesitation in saying that Christian Endeavor is 
the brightest and best thing God has sent us for the young life 
of the Indian church. Given the wise and sympathetic guid- 
ance of the missionary, and it speedily becomes, in any district, 
a most effective lever for good. 

" 'It has stimulated the spiritual life of all our members.' 
'It contributes more than anything else to the growth of Chris- 
tians in knowledge and love and consecration to Christ's serv- 
ice.' Tt is the centre of the spiritual activities of the college.' 
'It has done many good works among the churches.' 

"These are some of the testimonies of my brethren in In- 
dia, recently received, and covering vernacular work in very 
differing conditions. From personal knowledge I am able to 
indorse them all." 

5i8 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

One of the great missions of Christian Endeavor on the 
foreign field is found in its work, as Mr. Hallock intimates, 
in scattered and isolated communities of Christians, where 

there are too few for a resident 
missionary, for a church, or 
even for a native evangelist, 
but where the Christians can 
be joined together by the sim- 
ple consecration and obliga- 
tions of the Endeavor Society, 
and can thus keep alive the 
sparks of divine life in their 
own hearts. Such a work has 
been successfully tried in many 
mission fields in China and 
India and in the island world. 
In the Ningpo Presbyterian 
mission, for instance, for some 
years such little groups of En- 
deavorers have come together 
annually for their convention, 
coming down the river on their house-boats, some- 
times a journey of a week or more (especially in 
getting back up the stream) ; they have lived on 
their house-boats, paid their own expenses like all 
self-respecting Christian Endeavorers, blown into 
a blaze the spark of religious enthusiasm in their hearts, and 
gone back to their isolated villages, where perhaps only two 
or three Christians live, to stand firm in the swelling tide of 
heathen corruption, and to light the dark region with their 
little torches. 

Mrs. Clark, in one of her convention addresses, has thus 
described what she saw of the use of Christian Endeavor gifts 
in mission lands: 

Beioke and After. 






ities of 


Kindling Missionary Fires. 


"One of the pleasures of travelling in mission lands has 
been the joy of seeing the many ways -in which Christian En- 
deavor is helping missionary work. I have travelled many 
miles up one of China's great rivers in a Christian Endeavor 
boat, given for a missionary's service by Endeavorers in the 
home land; I have had my picture taken by Endeavor cameras 
more times than I like to think of; I have seen Endeavor ban- 
dages applied to suffering heathen and Christians in mission- 
ary hospitals; I have listened to music from Christian En- 
deavor organs, and have travelled in Christian Endeavor vehi- 
cles of different kinds, and have heard missionary addresses in 
crowded market-places of heathen cities, illustrated by pic- 
tures from Christian Endeavor magic lanterns ; and all of these 
things, and many others that might be spoken of, are hearten- 
ing reminders to the missionaries whom they serve and of the 
interest and enthusiasm of the Endeavorers in the home lands 
who gave them." 

How blessed are the in- 
fluences that travel back and 
forth across every sea, between 
the home Endeavorers and 
those in mission lands! They 
are like the warp and woof 
made by the fast-flying shut- 
tles in some delicate and beau- 
tiful fabric. Whether the En- 
deavorers at home receive 
more blessings than their 
brothers and sisters abroad, or 
the Endeavorers in foreign 
lands receive more in gifts and 
sympathy from their comrades 
in the so-called "home 

churches," it is difl!icult to de- Before and After. 

termine ; but we can at least all 

sing with a new and larger meaning every year, 

520 Christian Endeavor in All Lands, 

"We work together, if far apart; 
Loyal and strong is each loving heart; 
One is our Master, Christ, the Lord, 
And we catch the sound of His guiding word 
Let us follow on where He leads the way 
Till we stand together in perfect day." 




" No movement, however big, no Christian, however gifted, 
can maintain spiritual hfe and spiritual strength apart from 
prayer and pondering the Word of God." 

Rev. James Mursell, Adelaide, South Australia. 
" We are placed here to do something for our God. Like 
Christ, or rather with Christ, we are to redeem the world. 
We live to bring salvation. It may be a cup of cold water 
to a thirsty one; it may be a word of kindness; it may be a 
leading, a pointing to God of some doubting one. It may be 
some great work of public reformation. May God give us 
grace to know Him better, to give ourselves more absolutely 
to Him, to serve Him better than we ever have before." 

Rev. Floyd W. Tomkins, L. T. D., 
at the Nashville Convention. 

'ERE and there throughout this history, in many of 
its chapters, are found allusions more or less ex- 
tended to the deeper things of Christian En- 
deavor. The consecration-meeting, the early 
morning prayer-meeting, the "Quiet Hour," 
which has enrolled tens of thousands, all speak of this charac- 
teristic without which the Society could not exist, without 
which its history would not be worth recording. 

A popular author has said that "in the most eminent 


522 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

Christian there is always a touch of mysticism." This is also 
true of any organization that has in it vitality and spiritual 
vigor. Because of this element, and this alone, some books 
have persisted throughout all the centuries, and have come 
down to us as fresh and unhackneyed as ever, such as Thomas 
a Kempis, Jeremy Taylor's "Holy Living" and "Holy Dy- 
ing," the thoughts of the great mystic and reformer, John 
Tauler, of Strasburg; and the little volume concerning Brother 
Lawrence, the French friar, who practised the presence of 
God, and whose fragmentary letters and conversations have 
been printed and reprinted over and over again in many lan- 
guages, and in almost as many editions as the number of years 
that have elapsed since his death. 

The works of Andrew Murray and of F. B. Meyer, prac- 
tical men as they are, promoting every good enterprise that 
makes for the advancement of the Kingdom, are instinct with 
this quality, and will give them readers for centuries after 
they have joined the majority. 

Let us thank God devoutly that this element has been 
provided for in the plans and activities of Christian En- 
deavor. Almost of necessity it would seem that this element 
inhered in an organization that made so much of the prayer- 
meeting, that insisted on private prayer and Bible-reading, 
and that every month enjoyed a consecration-meeting. 

Very early indeed in the history of the Society 
First was the importance of a life that was hid with 

Endeavor Christ in God made evident. One of the earliest 
Prayer= conventions was held at Saratoga Springs, N. Y. 

Meeting. o ^ & ' 

It was not great in numbers, but it was great iji 
spiritual power. The leaders of the Society ventured to ap- 
point an early morning prayer-meeting at six o'clock on the 
second day of the convention. Many laughed at the idea. 
They said you could not get young people to attend such a 
meeting. They loved their beds too well. They would be 

The Deeper Christian Life. 


Prominent Christian Endeavor Evangelists. 

Rev Andrew Murray, Rev. J. Wilbur Chapman, D. D., LL. D. 

South Africa. „ New York 

The Late Rev. Clarence E. Eberman. Rev. F. B Meyer, 


524 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

up late the night before, and could not reasonably be expected 
to attend a sunrise prayer-meeting. The sexton of the church 
where the meeting was to be held shared these views. The 
night before the meeting, when asked to have the chapel ready, 
he handed the writer the keys, saying: "You can open the 
door yourself, but there won't be anybody there. You may 
depend on that." 

The writer was inclined to think that perhaps the sexton 
might be right, and the next morning he was two or three 
minutes late in reaching the church. What was his surprise 
to find the sidewalk in front of the church filled with a com- 
pany of eager Endeavorers, who that morning had not given 
"sleep to their eyes or slumber to their eyelids," but had left 
their beds for the sake of attending the first Christian En- 
deavor sunrise prayer-meeting. This was one of the best ever 
held, and, so full of spiritual power was it, and so crowded 
was the large vestry, that the next morning the meeting was 
held in the main auditorium of the church, which seated some 
fifteen hundred people. 

Since then the early meeting has been a feature of thou- 
sands of Christian Endeavor rallies and conventions, though 
sometimes it is merged with the Quiet Hour service which is 
held just after the breakfast-hour, and before the regular ses- 
sions of the convention begin. 

In some unions these early meetings have become regular 
features for Easter morning or Christmas or Thanksgiving 
Day, and in winter they become pre-sunrise meetings. 

One great feature of the Society in the devel- 
Dfceper opmcnt of the deeper Christian life has doubtless 
JnThe ^^^n the consecration-meeting. Its methods are de- 

consecration scribed in another chapter, and it need only be said 
here that its deepest purpose is, as its name indicates, 
to lead the young soul to surrender itself wholly to God, 
which is the very essence of consecration. To be sure, the 

The Deeper Christian Life. 525 

meeting may sometimes become formal and perfunctory, but 
there is no need of such a result. It may always be kept, as 
it is in the great majority of societies, a vital and living thing 
that leads the young Christian to look back upon the past 
month and to devote the new month more unreservedly to the 
Master's service. Testimony to the value of this meeting has 
been given by a multitude of Endeavorers and their pastors 
and leaders in many lands. 

Undoubtedly the effort that has done most to impress the 
deepest things of the Spirit of God upon the Christian En- 
deavor movement is the so-called "Quiet Hour." It has been 
taken up with enthusiasm by hundreds of most earnest En- 
^. deavorers. A convention is scarcely complete with- 

" Quiet out its "Quiet Hours," and many local unions of in- 
dividual societies have "Quiet-Hour committees" 
to interest those who have known or thought little about this 
subject in the things which "eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, 
neither have entered into the heart of man." 

Because there may be some who read these pages who may 
not understand the inner meaning of the Quiet Hour, or what 
the old writers understand by "practising the presence of 
God," the writer may be pardoned for quoting some para- 
graphs from a little volume * that he once wrote upon this 
subject, which has had a considerable circulation. In these 
paragraphs he tries to tell his young friends just how the Quiet 
Hour may be spent. 

"Our Bible is open, perhaps to the familiar passage which 
reveals the wondrous truth that man dwells in God, and God 
in man, as John records it. 

"Seek to realize this stupendous fact, for all Scripture is 
a lie if this is not a fact. 

"Say to yourself over and over again: 'GOD IS HERE. 
God is here. God is within me. I am His child. God 
IS MY Father.' 

* " The Great Secret." 

526 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

"One of these thoughts is soul-food enough for one day. 
Live on it throughout that day, whenever in the midst of daily 
duties an unoccupied moment enables you to resort to it. 

"The next morning, for a half-hour's meditation, take 
another of these biblical truths. It may aid the sluggish spirit 
at first to write out these short but wondrous sentences in large 




Practising "But We shall not always need the written or 

Presence printed Sentence, for it will soon be engraved on our 
of souls and become part of our lives. 

^^^' "Little by little we shall go on to appreciate by 

such communion and meditation the deep truths of God's 
incarnation in Jesus Christ, of the Holy Spirit's indwelling, 
enlightening, witnessing, comforting power. But it will all 
be God, God within and God without, God here, God every- 
where, God in His word, in His world, in history, in us. We 
have come to realize, to practise (there is no other word so 
good) the presence of God. We look forward to the hour of 
this practice with supreme delight. It is refreshment, food, 
drink, clothing, health to our soul. 

"Gradually the influence of the hour goes with us through 
the day, every sorrow is sweetened, every joy doubled, every 
care is lightened, by His presence. Service becomes sweet, 
difficult tasks easy. Every hour has its song. Life becomes 
worth living." 

1 It must not be thought that the insistence on the?e deeper 
, things of the Christian life has weakened the interest of En- 
deavorers in practical activities. This whole volume is a 
refutation of such a statement. The chapters on "Practical 
Endeavors" and "Heroic Endeavor," on methods and ways 
and means, on philanthropies and benevolences, on fresh-air 
outings and social gatherings; the story of Christian Endeavor 
on the seas and in the prisons, in missionary lands and in a 

The Deeper Christian Life. 527 

score of unexpected places, all show that the idea of consecra- 
influence ^^°" ^^^ ^^ whole-hearted surrender and of deep 
on religious purpose only give vitality to all these en- 

Endeav= deavors. This is the power-house where is gen- 
**^*' erated the energy that drives all the wheels. Here 

is the fountainhead of the many streams that make glad the 
city of our God. To be "saintly toward the heavens" is not 
to be "sickly toward the earth," as all the twenty-five years of 
Christian Endeavor have proved. There are few shallower 
sneerers than those who deride the emphasis put on the prayer- 
meeting and the consecration-service and the Quiet Hour, and 
who are forever asking the young people to do rather than to 

The most eminent Christians have never yet realized the 
power which may be theirs when they are filled with the 
Spirit. To dwell upon these vast possibilities, to open up 
the unseen world to the young Christians, to show them what 
a man may become when God strengthens him and inspires 
him, this is one of the great duties of any worthy young 
people's society. Speaking of these highest attainments which 
are open even to the average young Christian, the Rev. James 
Mursell, formerly of Edinburgh, but now of Adelaide, who 
has often spoken most helpfully on this subject, says in a 
convention address: 

"These things are possible for you and me to-night. 
Now. Will you claim this gift? Will you dare to believe 
that, though you hear no rushing mighty wind, and see no 
tongues of fire, God has bestowed it, and on you? 

" 'Lord, we ask it, hardly knowing 
What this wondrous gift may be,' 

but sure of this, that for all those to whom that holy presence 
comes will shine the vision of the Christ whom dying Stephen 
saw at God's right hand, and in them will be wrought the 
readiness to go wherever He appoints ; that dares to die, if 

528 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

dying we may die to Him, and help His purpose on ; and in all, 
and through all, and above all, the assurance which no delay 
can darken, and no apparent failure can dismay, that our poor 
lives and our broken service have been caught up into the uses 
of that Holy Spirit whose mighty power shall draw all men to 



" The Society should direct its new members into larger 
usefulness. The individual is too often lost sight of in the 
generalization. He must be reached or lost to the cause. He 
has a place to fill, however humble it may be. If not filled 
by him, the cause suffers irreparable loss. 
" ' I cannot paint, nor write nor sing; 

And yet there seems for me some quiet niche to fill 
Somewhere in God's great world, I stand and wait 
Where He may find me ready for His will.' " 
Rev. Charles M. Oliphant, at the Detroit Convention. 

iT is sometimes asked, and occasionally with a cir- 
cumflex sneer: "What, after all, is the Society 
doing? What actual results that can be formu- 
lated and tabulated can you record? It is all 
very well to talk of prayer-meetings and pledges 
and consecration-meetings, where the young people can come 
together to say their little verses, and spiritually pat one 
another on the shoulder, but what is the good of it all? 
What does it result in, in actual cold, hard facts? 

The Society is entirely willing to accept this challenge. 
It is perfectly willing to attempt to show its faith by its 
works. It acknowledges that the fruit test is the only test 

34 529 


Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

of a movement, as of an apple-tree. The only difficulty in a 
history like this is in giving a sample of fruit from the thou- 
sand different branches which have been grafted into the 
Christian Endeavor tree. 

It is said that Mr. Burbank of California has an apple- 
tree growing, on which are hundreds of different varieties of 
apples and other kinds of fruit. It would be difficult for any 
horticulturist to sample them all in a reasonable space of 
time. He would have to live upon the Burbank farm, and, 
as the seasons came and went, he might hope, after a time, 
to become familiar with the products of this wonderful tree. 
In sampling Christian Endeavor fruit it is still more diffi- 
cult, since the tree spreads over so wide an area. Some of its 
branches overhang Asia, and some Africa. The different 
denominational branches in America bear fruits of different 
flavors, though perhaps all are equally valuable. In the 
country the flavor is not quite the same as in the city, but it 
is just as good an endeavor. There is absolutely no limit to 
what a Christian Endeavor society may do, except the limit 
imposed by its own church and pastor. 

Sometimes Christian Endeavor has been 
Variety thought to be too introspcctive and subjective, — 
Fruit ^^ ^^^^ chiefly with the salvation of the individual 

soul, not at all a bad thing for it to emphasize in 
the estimation of the writer, however some modern philan- 
thropists may disagree with him. But all the records show, 
from the beginning of the Christian era to the present time, 
that those who are most anxious to save others and help 
others are those who have themselves first been saved and 
helped by the grace of Christ. 

To prove the variety of the fruit borne by the Christian 
Endeavor tree it may be necessary only to quote a few para- 
graphs from the last report of General Secretary Vogt, of the 
United Society of America: 

Practical Endeavors. 


"To express in deeds the truth taught from the pulpit, 
Sunday-school, home, or public school — this is our place in 
the economy of the church's organization. And what a noble 
expression it has been this year! More than two thousand 
cheering services of song reported in hospitals, missions, pris- 
ons, etc.! Barrels of clothing and useful articles reported 
from every quarter! More than a half-million gifts of flow- 
ers! Special clubs, conducted for interesting and benefiting 
younger young people, numbering three hundred. 

"We shall especially recognize 1,305 separate societies for 
worthy effort under this head. A few words only from their 
reports must suffice to indicate these loving ministries : 'Start- 
ed jail work.' 'Secured prisoners employment after their dis- 
charge.' 'Hospital work: 
3,050 bouquets of flow- 
ers.' 'Gospel sung to 
3,000 persons.' 'Maga- 
zines to over 2,500 peo- 
ple.' 'Two hundred vis- 
itations to workhouse, in- 
firmary, and Old Ladies' 
Home.' 'Keep an in- 
valid's chair to loan.' 
'Established an employ- 
ment agency for 
strangers.' 'Opened a 
church reading-room for 
young men.' 'Organized 
industrial school for 
children.' 'Sent 84 
Bibles to prisoners.' 
'Hotel committee sends 
weekly sealed invitations 
for church services and 
church calendars to 
every hotel guest.' 'New 

hitching-posts about the church and lights within.' 'Edit, 
publish, and distribute church paper.' 'Cared for large poor 
family all winter.' 'Chorus choir for Sunday evening service.' 

Christian Endeavor Flower Committee in India 
Starting for the Hospital. 

532 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

'Invitations for church services distributed in boarding- 
houses.' 'Organized and support a coffee-club.' 'Literature- 
rack at depot kept full.' 'Regular Quiet Hour service before 
morning worship in the church.' 'Intermediates and Juniors 
are especially faithful workers.' 'Organized, drilled military 
company in the society.' 'Made fifty scrap-books for hospital 
children.' 'Furnished boys' reading-room.' 'Twelve bou- 
quets to the sick every Sunday, ii8 glasses of jelly to Old 
Ladies' Home, and 20 comfort bags to sailors.' 'Organized a 
boys' choir.' 'Christmas greetings to every prisoner in city 
jail.' 'Made quilts for Orphans' Home.' 'Ajax Club for the 
boys.' 'Gathered and pressed wild flowers for Syrian day- 
school.' Surely He who came to minister will bless the work 
of these loving hands." 

It must be remembered that these are but samples of prac- 
tical endeavors chosen from thousands that might have been 

P . As is natural, since the Endeavor Society is 

Air composed so largely of young people, their sym- 

^"^^^' pathies go out to other young people and children, 
and "Fresh-Air camps" have been a specialty of the Society 
for many years. One was organized by the Endeavorers of 
Staten Island as long ago as 1894, and last year no less than 
seven parties of Italians, Germans, and Chinese, numbering 
between thirty and forty each, were taken to "Camp Christian 
Endeavor," and enjoyed a most delightful outing. The Staten 
Island Endeavorers have been re-enforced by the Brooklyn 
Endeavorers, and now almost three hundred children, of 
many nationalities, every year, enjoy the smell of the sea and 
the breath of the flowers and trees. 

It has also been occasionally thought that Christian En- 
deavor, being so much engrossed in spiritual matters, paid 
little attention to bodily exercise, which, though not "profit- 
able unto all things," certainly has its place in the life of every 
well-regulated young person. But Christian Endeavor out- 

Practical Endeavors. 


ings, tennis clubs, and baseball clubs are by no means uncom- 
mon, and may be engaged in by all who will. 

A Christian Endeavor Tennis Club belongs to the Ver- 
mont Avenue Christian Church of Washington. "First and 
foremost," says Mr. James M. Pickens, "this club is strictly 
a Christian Endeavor afifair; a tennis tail, though it is a lively 
appendage, is not permitted to wag the Endeavor dog. Mem- 

Christian Endeavor Rest for Ranchmen at Pierre, S. Dak. 

bers are restricted to the members of the society, though 
friends are often invited to play as guests, and the club really 
has no separate existence, but is managed by a 
Door tennis committee of the society. As a rule, the 

Sports. members who take the most interest in tennis are 
the most active in the serious work of the society. Their 
court is a fine one, and there is hardly a pleasant morning or 

534 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

evening when a jolly party of players and spectators may not 
be found on it." 

This is by no means an isolated case. Here are some 
out-of-door endeavors which have actually been tried by many 
societies with good results: 

Some societies have organized Endeavor cycle clubs, that 
travel off (on week-days) on their wheels, and hold evangelis- 
tic services in neglected places. 

Christian Endeavor flower gardens have been made in 
many places to furnish all the flowers needed for the church. 

An Endeavor field-day is held once a year, with a series 
of athletic contests carefully planned and carried out with 
spirit, often on some patriotic holiday. 

Christian Endeavor walking clubs that strengthen the 
body, develop delightful companionships, and bring the 
society into all the most beautiful and interesting spots of the 

Some bird-student takes the society on a bird-walk, or 
some geologist or botanist leads a scientific excursion, or some 
astronomer takes the society out under the stars to learn the 

The Lancashire and Cheshire Federation of 
Home^"!' Christian Endeavor Unions has been especially 
active in establishing "Christian Endeavor holiday 
homes." They have one in Kent's Bank in the Furness dis- 
trict, and another at Rostrevor in Ireland. Mrs. Jennie 
Wareing, of Rochdale, and many other prominent Endeavor- 
ers in these two great counties have been especially active in 
promoting this work. Here are some breezy paragraphs, 
which tell the spirit and purpose of this most helpful 

" 'Comradeship' will be the motto-word of these homes. 
No 'side,' no 'airs,' no 'superiority' allowed. All will pay the 

Practical Endeavors. 535 

same and be treated alike. Everybody will minister to every- 
body's enjoyment. A 'jolly time' is what we want to arrange 
for, and Endeavorers should be able to make it clear that this 
can be had quite consistently with our 'striving to do whatever 
He would like to have us do.' 

"The terms are exceptionally moderate. We have tried 
to get the very best at a cost which will meet the pockets of all. 
We rely upon Endeavorers in our federation area taking up 
this new venture with heartiness. Well-known Endeavorers 
will be with each party. Daily excursions will be arranged, 
which will combine pleasure and profit." 

In a single number of the English Christian 

Numerous ^. ° 

Practical Endeavour Times we read of an "old folks' tea" 
provided by the Endeavorers of St. Albans, who 
raised the necessary amount of money, seventy-five dollars, 
chiefly by carol-singing; and of a "treat for cripples" given 
by the Willesden Green Baptist Society, where forty-five crip- 
ples enjoyed a delightful supper which was followed by a 
lantern lecture; while the Endeavorers of Lower Wincobank 
gave the old folks of the village an annual treat, and the sun- 
shine committee of the Silvertown Baptist Society provided 
a "tea" for eighty of the poorest children. Two other socie- 
ties, recorded in this one issue of this one paper, gave a feast 
to old people, and three other "sunshine committees" provided 
good things and special treats for poor children. 

The Endeavorers of southern California raised a car of 
oranges to be sold, and the proceeds were used for the relief of 
the Armenians at the time of their great persecution, and 
more than $1,200 was realized. While I am writing this 
chapter, a letter has been forwarded to me telling of help 
received by workmen in the canal zone of Panama from the 
magazines and good reading sent by the Congregational 
Endeavorers of Woodhaven, N. Y. So widespread are their 

This whole matter has never been better summarized than 


Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

by Mr. William Shaw, the treasurer of the United Society, in 
his address at the last American convention. I quote his short 
address entire, for it gives the practical results of things actu- 
ally done in the first twenty-five years of Christian Endeavor 
as succinctly as they can be put. 

''A missionary, returning to this country after an absence of 
many years was asked what feature of church life impressed 
him most. He replied instantly, 'The wonderful activity of 

Lumbermen's Reading-Room Furnished by Glengarry Co. Endeavorers. 

young people in church-work.' The changed conditions in 
our church life have come about so gradually that 
many people have failed to note them. We judge 
by comparisons. 

"Twenty-five years ago the ruling idea in the 
church was that children should be seen and not heard. The 
result was that few were seen, and none were heard. 



Practical Endeavors. 537 

"Twenty-five years of Christian Endeavor have impressed 
this fact upon the church that it is out of the young people that 
the kingdom of heaven is to be made. 

"This week 66,000 Christian Endeavor prayer-meetings 
will be held, and tens of thousands more by societies that be- 
long to, and ought to be in, our fellowship. These prayer- 
meetings are the classrooms of the church's spiritual training- 
school. Here the educational principle, *No impression with- 
out expression,' is being worked out. 

"In perfectly natural ways young people are given an op- 
portunity to give expression to their aspirations and ideals, and 
to cultivate their talents as witnesses for Christ. The possibili- 
ties of these services along evangelistic lines cannot be overes- 
timated. Here under the most helpful conditions young.peo- 
ple are faced with the question of decision for Christ, and 
here, surrounded by their companions and friends, they re- 
ceive the training necessary for growth in character and serv- 

"In our plan of Junior, Intermediate, and Young Peo- 
ple's societies, with the Mothers' or Parents' society added, we 
have a system that is scientifically correct and practically 
workable. Its degree of efficiency depends upon the leader- 
ship and material furnished by the local church. 

"Twenty-five years ago the church that had a well-organ- 
ized young people's society was the exception. To-day the 
church that does not have such a society is a curiosity. 

"Christian Endeavor made the prayer-meeting the heart 
of the movement, and has laid great emphasis on testimony 
and prayer, as it ought, for without prayer and testimony the 
church would die. The martyrs and confessors rank together. 
In the history of great deeds the 'voice crying in the wilder- 
ness' has always preceded the deed. 

"But Christian Endeavor has not only a heart and voice, 
but hands and feet as well. Through its system of committee 
work it offers opportunities for training in service for every 
member. This training is as broad and comprehensive as the 
mission of the church, and covers every department of life and 

"It recognizes the religious, social, and intellectual needs 


Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

of the young people and the claims of philanthropy and re- 
form. The system is so flexible that it can be adapted to the 
needs of the smallest, or the requirements of the largest, 
church. It unifies the activities of the young people, so that,^ 
while each department is in charge of specialists, all are united 
in the common work. 

Recognition Certificate. 

"Through the executive committee it gives to the pastor 
a cabinet by which he can touch and direct every line of work 
in which the young people are engaged. 

"Twenty-five years ago some of the churches had mission 

Practical Endeavors. 539 

circles composed entirely of girls or young ladies. Now we 
have thousands of our brightest and best young men vying 
with the young ladies in their interest and enthusiasm for mis- 
sions. Tens of thousands of missionary committees are at 
work, and thousands of mission-study classes are conducted. 

"Less than ten thousand societies reporting to the United 
Society the actual amounts contributed for beneficence for a 
period of five years gave a total of $2,187,000. Not a penny 
of this was given to the United Society or used in Christian 
Endeavor work, but eve-ry dollar was a contribution to the 
missionary and philanthropic work of the church. I venture 
the assertion that there is no organization in the church that 
has given so much, or that has enlisted so many unpaid 
workers in the service of the church, as the Society of Chris- 
tian Endeavor. 

"Twenty-five years ago the young people's religious pa- 
per was often a goody-goody child's story-paper, and the 
young people's department in the church papers consisted of 
a weak storyette. To-day our young people's papers are the 
peers of any publications, strong, aggressive, virile, practical, 
spiritual, and successful. 

"Twenty-five years ago a young people's religious con- 
vention was unknown; now they rank as the largest religious 
gatherings of our time, and exercise a commanding influence 
in the public life of our day. They challenge the attention of 
believer and unbeliever alike, and are striking manifestations 
'of the vitality of the young people's faith. 

"Twenty-five jclts ago the young people of the nations 
and denominations were isolated and unknown to each other. 
Now, with no loss of loyalty or fidelity to their own nations 
and denominations, they are united in a world-wide brother- 
hood, exalting Him who is King of kings and Lord of lords." 



" Above us loom forever 
The mighty mountains of Endeavor, 
And whoso on their summit stands 
Looks on sun-kissed table-lands. 
We grasp our mountain-staff to climb 
Their sky-enshrouded peaks sublime, 
Up where the crystal torrent pours, 
And then — we stop and do the chores." 

HE severest test of a movement is not found by 
any means in its public meetings or its great 
conventions. The numbers, the enthusiasm, 
the uplift of the singing, may produce strenu- 
ous resolves and holy emotions; but the real 
question is, "How is the life affected?" Can the obscure and 
lonely soul find help and encouragement? Can the little 
society struggling along amid worldliness and indifference in- 
spire its members to "love mercy, do justly, and walk humbly" 
before their God? Do the prayer-meeting and the work 
accomplished lead to a closer personal walk with God, and 
to more lovely home life? Do they make better sons and 
daughters and brothers and sisters? Has the Society been a 
blessing to the quiet activities of the church, as well as to 
the lives of individual members? 


In Every Day Life. 541 

The testimony that has come on this subject has been 
overwhelming, and more gratifying, perhaps, than any other 
feature of the movement. In order that I might obtain at 
first hand from Endeavorers who have actually lived the inci- 
dents which they record, or knew of them directly, I have 
asked for some testimonies from the every-day experiences of 
pastors and others. Multitudes of others of like nature have 
been put in print, and space allows only a selection from those 
that have come to me personally within a few days from 
many parts of the world. 

The stimulating effect of the Society upon the intellectual 
as well as the spiritual nature is shown by two incidents sent 
by one of the leading Endeavorers of London, the gifted Miss 
Ella M. Weatherley, who was at one time president of the 
London Union, the greatest Christian Endeavor union in the 
world. "A boy of twelve years in our Junior society was 
very much troubled because, living in an entirely godless 
house, he could not even keep a Bible, since it was at once 
taken away from him. He was very anxious as to how he 
could fulfil his pledge, and at length solved the difficulty by 
going to school ten minutes before the other boys and securing 
the opportunity of reading from the school Bible. He is now 
secretary of the Junior society, and always has a word to say 
on the topic." 

int iiect- "Among the nucleus first forming our Chris- 

uai tian Endeavor society* was a girl of eighteen, a 

factory girl who had not had the advantage of much 
education; but her heart was given to God and His service. 
She began to take an interest in the Christian Endeavor Sun- 
day-school, and obtained by this such insight into the lives of 
the children, learning at the same time methods of organiza- 
tion, that last year she was unanimously elected superintend- 
ent, and is most efficiently carrying on the work." 

* Christ Church Society, London, the Rev. F. B. Meyer, pastor. 


Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

In a 

Miss Weatherley has also told of a postman, who after 
becoming a member of the society, and because of his desire 
to take part intelligently and helpfully in the meetings, paid 
three pounds out of his meagre wages for grammar lessons, 
that he thus might honor God the better. 

One great mission of the Christian Endeavor movement 
has been to help the weak and struggling churches in home- 
missionary fields or on our own frontier. The Rev. Samuel 
B. Chase, of Lewiston, Ida., writes about the formation of a 
society of great promises in that new field. He also organized 
the first society in North Dakota, and one of the earliest in 
Michigan, beginning in each case with a very few 
young people. "I can truthfully say," he writes, 
''that the success of our work has been largely due 
to the organized efforts of our young people, who 
are always loyal and true. One of the most flourishing chur- 
ches in Michigan started with a little handful of young people 
organized into a Christian Endeavor society." 

Very numerous are the testimonies 
of those who have come into the min- 
istry through the Christian Endeavor 
door. One of these, the Rev. R. B. 
Fisher, pastor of the Cumberland 
Presbyterian church, Macomb, 111., 
writes, '*It has helped me to 'grow, 
glow, go, for Christ,' even into the 
ministry. You intend writing the his- 
tory of the first twenty-five years of 
Christian Endeavor! Why, it is im- 
possible. Neither you nor any one else 
could write it and do full justice in 
telling of what it has opened up only 
for me, a lone, solitary Christian Endeavorer." 

The testimony of pastors and other Christian workers 

A Native Alaskan Christian 

In Every Day Life. 54 


also as to the later lives of their active Endeavorers is most 
encouraging. Rev. J. B. Donaldson of Davenport, lo., who 
organized in Hastings, Minn., the first Presbyterian society, 
writes: "I well recall the young people who came and asked 
for the use of my study, and how glad I was to do for them 
what I would otherwise have felt required some 
Defi'nite"^ Self-denial. One of these young ladies. Miss Re- 
Work^"^ becca Brown, went as a missionary to Syria, labor- 
ing there for many years, until ill health brought 
her home. Another member of that pioneer society, a school- 
teacher, scarcely suffered a single communion to pass without 
bringing some of her young friends to confess Christ. From 
this society others were organized in different States, and it 
gave the first president to the Minnesota State union." 

In the Grace Baptist Temple in Philadelphia, as has been 
recorded in another chapter, are fourteen societies. One of 
these. Section H, its corresponding secretary writes, has 
developed five leaders in an all-round Christian Endeavor 
work; one young man has gone into the ministry from this 
section, four have had special training as Christian teachers; 
one young man, though far from rich, has given very largely 
to the support of a missionary abroad; many have been 
brought to Christ and into the society through this section, and 
it did its share in the late reform movement in Philadelphia 
to regenerate the city. 

The Rev. N. L. Packard of Lincoln, Neb., sends most 
cheering notes of several Christian Endeavor societies and 
their members. One little society of six active members, 
which he organized at Nashua, lo., was composed of new con- 
verts between fifteen and eighteen years of age. With them 
were joined seven associate members, who in less than six 
months had been converted and joined the active membership. 
Within two years this society had grown to fifty. One of the 
original six deserves special notice. "She took her stand for 

544 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

Christ at the age of thirteen, the only Christian in the home. 
Her mother said to the pastor six months later, 'Nellie is 
different from what she was.' Her light was shining in the 
home, and soon her mother came into the church. Later her 
three brothers one by one came into the Christian Endeavor 
and church fellowship, and her father was brought into sym- 
pathy." After receiving training in the Moody Bible Insti- 
tute, this young lady went as teacher to the freedmen, and, 
has now fulfilled a long-cherished wish by sailing for Africa 
as a missionary to the heathen. 

A correspondent in Ontario tells a story of his experience 
in the Transvaal, where, at Wakkerstroom, he formed a society 
with an active membership of three. They had as many com- 
mittees as members : one of the three was placed on the look- 
out committee, one on the prayer-meeting, and one 
Experience ^^ ^^^ good-litcraturc, Committee. They worked 
in the against great odds on account of the war, which 

Transvaal. ^ , , . . . . ' . . 

prevented their gettmg any supplies of Christian 
Endeavor literature. For months these three, this young 
banker, one boy, and one girl, struggled along, each one tak- 
ing the meeting in turn ; but now the society numbers forty 
members and the pastor says that these Endeavorers are his 
"right hand." 

"In our Sunday-school class," writes Mrs. Lucy Clark 
Shedd, of Boston, "the teacher said recently that she had met 
a young woman of means and leisure, who said she did not 
feel that she had any special talent, or that she was of much 
use in the world, and asked the members of the class to tell 
what they would have said to her under the circumstances. 
One young woman said with great sincerity in her tone and 
manner, 'I would invite her to become a member of the 
Christian Endeavor society, for since I united with it I am a 
different girl!' After the class another member said, 'I used 
to be very diffident, and had no self-possession in public, but, 

In Every Day Life. 


when I went into the Christian Endeavor society, I just had 
to help, and it has been the making of me.' " 

Some of the most striking testimonies relate to the influ- 
ence of the "Quiet Hour." Personally I have known young 
ladies, whose lives had been entirely worldly and frivolous, to 
be entirely transformed in all their aspirations and manner of 


" Quiet 
Hour " 

Prominent Endeavor Leaders of India. 

living by the promise to spend fifteen minutes in communion 
What with God and His word every day. The president 

of the New York City Union, Mr. Lyman S. Stone, 
writes: "The results of the Quiet-Hour observance 
are often almost instantaneous in a society where a 
good proportion of its members take it up. I know two 
societies located on opposite sides of the same street, whose 
leaders had become so estranged that they would not speak 
to each other, and whose members were fast imbibing the 
same spirit. One of these societies was led to adopt the 
'Quiet Hour,' and some ninety-five per cent of its members 


546 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

became Comrades. This practice of communion with God so 
mellowed their hearts toward their neighboring fellow En- 
deavorers that they extended an olive-branch of peace and 
fellowship by inviting them to a joint prayer-meeting. The 
invitation was accepted; then the pastor was invited also; and 
he, feeling that he could not well refuse to go where his 
Endeavorers led the way, accepted. A love-feast was the 
result; both societies took up the precious 'Quiet-Hour' ob- 
servance, and there has ever since been the utmost cordiality 
and fellowship between the pastors and members." 

Many of my correspondents tell how they started with 
very small numbers; but, if the few were but faithful, it 
seems to have made but little difference whether the start was 
with three or with thirty. The Rev. N. F. Nickerson, of 
Erie, Mich., one of the Christian Endeavor pioneers, began 
with only seven, himself, two of his own children, the two 
children of an elder, and two others; but that small beginning 
soon grew to a society of seventy members ; a revival soon fol- 
lowed, and the church was very greatly blessed. 

Many of my correspondents, indeed, dwell upon the 
way in which God used unpromising efforts, as they seemed 
to them, to accomplish large results. The Rev. Horace Dut- 
ton, the superintendent of the work in Europe, tells 
about a painful experience he once had in Berlin. 
Seeming A large audicucc had assembled, and for interpreter 
'y^a"''^ he had one of the most prominent Christians in 
b^^Q d Germany. But, owing to great fatigue and weari- 
ness, his thoughts failed him at the critical moment. 
He broke down utterly, he says, and was obliged 
to confess his inability to go on, though he had full notes of a 
carefully prepared address in hand. Was there ever appar- 
ently a greater failure? "This was all I knew at the time, but 
last summer, at the Berlin convention, I met Rev. Robert 
Bahtz of Riga, and then learned for the first time that it was 

In Every Day Life. 547 

from my remarks at this very meeting in Berlin that he had 
received his first impulse to go forth into the Lettish provinces 
of Russia, and commence among his own people the life- 
work of a Christian Endeavor secretary. Do you wonder 
that this fact was a great encouragement to me? It teaches 
me that not what we attempt for God, but what God does and 
is ever waiting to do through us, makes our work successful." 

Several instances of heroism by Christian Endeavorers 
have been sent me, where they have risked their lives for oth- 
ers; but I prefer in my limited space to record the story of a 
worker in one of the largest Tyneside potteries of England, 
where the great majority of the employees are of the thought- 
less, thriftless, and godless class. Miss W., an active En- 
deavorer, has shown such a beautiful Christlike character and 
example to these rough men and women that her influence is 
now permeating their hardened hearts. In all times of trouble 
and difficulty they come to her, and the work hands now call 
her the "saint among the sinners." 

A striking incident is sent by the Rev. William T. Pat- 

chell, of San Jose, Cal. A great State convention was being 

held at Santa Barbara, and an evening open-air 

Wouid=Be meeting was held at the plaza. After the meeting 

Suicide's ^ young: man was found in the shadow of the trees 

Conversion. -^ =• 

near by, who declared that he had been utterly dis- 
couraged, and was on his way to the pier to throw himself 
into the sea, and thus end his life. But on his way he saw 
the crowd on the plaza, and stopped to listen for a moment. 
He heard a girl, an Endeavorer, repeating a verse; it was only 
this: "Come unto me, all ye that labor and are heavy laden, 
and I will give you rest." He could not see the speaker 
clearly, but stopped as suddenly as if a hand had been put on 
his shoulder. "I could not go on," he says; "I heard nothing 
else, only that. I stood still, and it kept repeating itself over 
and over in my mind, and afterwards." This splendid fellow, 

548 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

with his intelligent face shining with a new light, stood up 
before the thousands, and gave his testimony, "Jesus Christ 
has saved me from my sins, and He has made me a new man." 
"We never knew what voice it was that gave the message, only 
some timid girl; but God used her; and the man born into 
the Kingdom returned to Los Angeles to a wife and two little 
children, prepared to love and serve his Saviour." 

The influence of some "shut-in" Endeavorers has been 
most remarkable. None more so than that of Miss Grace 
Pratt, of Conneaut, O., an invalid of many years, who for 
the last dozen or fifteen years has not been able to lift her- 
self from her bed of pain, but is raised by straps and pulleys 

whenever her position is changed. A telephone 

Q'*^'^* , ,11 1 • 1-11 

Pratt's over her bed keeps her m touch with her society, 

to which she sends a message at every meeting, and 
whose songs she enjoys with the others. Her pastor has told 
me that in all the city there is no other so influential Christian 
as Miss Pratt. The young people bring to her bedside their 
joys and their sorrows. Her life of patience and good cheer 
in the midst of suffering is a constant inspiration to all, and 
few ever join the church that do not trace their conversion 
directly back to Grace Pratt's bedside. 

This chapter should not end without a brief reference 
to the unselfish generosity of a multitude of unnamed En- 
deavorers, who give their time and strength and influence and 
money to the cause of Christ and the church, without thought 
of reward or even of "honorable mention" in such a record as 
this or any other of like nature. They are numbered not by 
the scores or the thousands, but by the hundreds of thousands; 
they are found in almost every community, and the amount of 
their voluntary unrewarded work is literally beyond compute. 
One correspondent mentions, as an illustration of this, the 
work of some excursion managers to the International Con- 
ventions, and of one in particular, Mr. E. S. Ransom, of Chi- 

In Every Day Life. 549 

cago, who, he assures me, has personally incurred large 
expenses in "making good" where delegates failed to pay after 
being assigned to their places. 

But this is only one example. Space forbids their mul- 
tiplication ; but the names of these workers, though recorded 
in no earthly history, are enrolled in the heavenly records. 
We are told that there is a "Lamb's book of life." In this 
they must be found. I said that their labors were unre- 
warded; but this is true from only one standpoint, and that 
the lowest. For a good conscience, a sense of duty done, 
conscious growth in grace and in the knowledge of Christ, 
and the sense of their Lord's approval, "Ye have done it unto 
me," is their exceeding great reward. 



" Be you, too, heroic, then, O Christian Endeavorers, in the 
best things your Christ and His church would have you be. 
Make what men call smallest greatest by the motive, ' for His 
sake.' Do not daintily pick and choose. Do not say, ' Some- 
body else can do the inconspicuous and distasteful service.' 
Seize you it, rather, for Jesus' sake, and by the great motive 
with which you work turn drudgery to delight, and show how 
high and noble it is, and possible to be heroic, even though 
your hands are set at what men call common things." 

Rev. Wayland Hoyt, D.D. 

fOK the most part the lives of Christian Endeavorers 
seem to themselves, at least, plain and unheroic. 
W^ho knows how they may seem to the angels, who 
so often must reverse our human estimates? 

Christian Endeavorers are, of course, like the 
rest of humanity in the common walks of life. They are 
schoolboys and schoolgirls, clerks and shop-assistants, farmers 
and stenographers, teachers and preachers; some are rich, but 
more are poor; some move in high social circles, but more 
know little of the technical meaning of the word "society"; 
and doubtless to the great majority life seems, when they stop 
to think of it, a rather humdrum affair, made up of prosaic 
routine duties. 

But just here comes in the opportunity of Christian En- 
deavor, to redeem from commonplaceness the ordinary 

Heroic Christian Endeavor. 551 

Two Heroes of China. 

These men made the perilous journey from Peking to Tientsin to help 

reheve the garrison at the time of the siege. 

552 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

concerns of life, and to gild with the halo of Christlike devo- 
tion every plain and unpretentious duty. 

I imagine that there has been far more heroism than the 
world is apt to think, hidden away in the obscure corners of 
a Christian Endeavor prayer-meeting or committee-room. It 
is no exaggeration to say that millions within the twenty-five 
years past, urged by their love for Christ, and stimulated by 
their covenant pledge, have with trembling voices and shaking 
knees confessed before men Him whom their soul loved. 
Though none suspected that they were heroes, their names 
were recorded in heaven among God's valiant men and 

The chief beauty of it all is that they themselves never 
suspected their own heroism. They did not pose as valiant 
knights of the cross, or in Addisonian phrase ask the world to 
behold "how a Christian can die" or live. No, the great 
majority of these Endeavor heroes have been simple, ordinary, 
every-day young men and women ; but they were faithful to 
duty at the expense of their own convenience, time, and 
pleasure; and that is the essence of heroism. 

I shall never forget one of these unconscious heroines 
whom, many years ago, I heard in an Endeavor prayer-meet- 
ing. She had a serious impediment in her speech, which 
prevented her from repeating even the simplest verse of Scrip- 
ture in the prayer-meeting without painful stam- 
Unconscious mcriug. If any one would seem to have an excuse 
which could be conscientiously given to the Master 
for not taking audible part in the prayer-meeting, she seemed 
to have; but she would not accept it. She had signed the 
covenant pledge, and she would keep it. And so at every 
meeting she would rise, and, standing alone, would sing — for 
stammerers can often sing beautifully — one verse of some 
familiar hymn, such as "Jesus, Lover of my soul," or "Jesus, I 
my cross have taken, all to leave and follow Thee." 

Heroic Christian Endeavor. 553 

Another of these unconscious heroines was an "Arizona 
exile," of whom the Rev. Ernest Bourner Allen tells. She 
went to Arizona weak and worn in quest of health and 
strength. Far from friends and remote from churches, she 
lived in a tent. But the very first Sunday she arranged for a 
little Sunday-school meeting. Three were present, a boy of 
fourteen, a Catholic girl of sixteen, and herself. After two 
or three weeks the audience was greatly increased by the 
presence of a consumptive Kentuckian, and they were able to 
sing some of the old hymns. They talked about the love of 
Christ for the world, and asked what more they could do about 
it. The leader even proposed an offering for missions, truly 
a heroic proposition under the circumstances. The girl gave 
a nickel; so did the consumptive mountaineer. The boy had 
not even a penny, but he suddenly ran away to the farmhouse, 
and brought back two little neckties worn by himself, and 
eagerly asked whether they would help anywhere. 

And what is the result of all this? The sixteen-year-old 
girl became a Christian, and joined a Protestant church; the 
Kentuckian united with the church when he returned to his 
home; the fourteen-year-old boy resolved to go to Portland, 
Or., to sell papers in order to increase his gifts for missions. 
"I expect to earn as much as ten dollars," he said to the sick 
Endeavorer, who had inspired all this devotion. "Do you 
suppose if I were to send you a check for five dollars that 
would be about right?" Such devotion and such generosity 
need no comment. 

The example of the Maine Christian Endeavor parson* 
also borders close on heroism, who, when the hard winter left 
many poor people with insufficient fuel, inserted a paragraph 
in the local paper, in which he said that, if some owner of 
woodland would agree to sell standing wood very cheap to 

* The Rev. J. L. Quimby. The story is related by the Rev. C. D. Crane in 
Tl:e Christian Endeavor World. 

554 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

supply the need of the suffering poor, he would volunteer to 

head a crew of men and go into the woods and help 

A Manly ^q chop it. "There was a prompt response," we 


Muscular are told, "to the appeal of the manly and muscular 
parson, who had no difficulty in securing an efficient 
crew of wood-choppers. Nearly every man on the business 
street of Gardner was ready either to go into the woods him- 
self or hire a substitute, so that the problem of fuel-supply for 
the needy was met in an original and altogether Christian 

One of the most difficult things for young Christians to 
do is often to acknowledge their allegiance to their Master 
when in unusual places. It is comparatively easy at home in 
their own church, but when abroad among strangers, who may 
be unsympathetic, it is a different matter, and it requires no 
little Christian stamina and courage. Thirty-three young 
ladies recently found themselves at the Appledore House, in 
the Isles of Shoals, engaged as waitresses in a big hotel. Some 
„ . of them were college girls earning: their next year's 

Heroines b to t, j 

in a tuition. Many of them were Christians, and they 

did not furl their colors. They formed themselves 
into a Christian Endeavor society, and held their meetings 
sometimes upon the rocks, and sometimes in one of the public 
rooms set apart for the employees. Who will say that they 
were not heroines in every-day life? 

But sometimes we read stories of Endeavorers who out 
of the ordinary course perform deeds which even the unsym- 
pathetic world would call heroic, deeds which would entitle 
them to a Carnegie medal, were such a decoration ever award- 
ed to simple Christian heroism. For instance, in Tarsus, the 
"no mean city" of which the apostle was so proud as his birth- 
place, is a St. Paul's Institute for Armenian boys, under 
American patronage. The writer was at this Institute just 
before the awful Armenian massacres of 1893-94. Among 

Heroic Christian Endeavor. 555 

the Endeavorers in the school were several who gave their 
lives for their faith. One lad of sixteen or seventeen, the 
president of the younger society, whose bright face and ear- 
nest words I remember distinctly, was arrested by the Turks, 
and was about to be killed. He was told that if he 
Armenians, objured his faith his life would be saved, but he res- 
olutely refused. "You need not curse your old 
religion; but just hold up two fingers to show that you have 
turned to Islamism, and we will spare you," they said, but 
the brave Endeavorer refused, and had soon joined the ranks 
of the martyrs. 

Many such heroic deeds are to-day enacted in Turkey, 
even though life is not forfeited for the faith. In some parts 
of Turkey the very name of Christian Endeavor cannot be 
used. There can be no constitution signed, and the society 
must be called merely a prayer-meeting. Under no circum- 
stances can they sing "Hold the Fort," or "Onward, Christian 
Soldiers," and yet Christian Endeavor work is done in almost 
every mission station, and in many respects the Armenian En- 
deavorers set an example to the rest of us. 

They have also some novel committees, which we might 
well copy, like the "Bible-reading committee," whose duty 
it is to read the Bible to those who are not able to read it for 
themselves, and the "text-teaching committee," which per- 
forms a somewhat similar duty. 

Out of their great poverty these Endeavorers, too, con- 
tribute liberally to missions, and are supporting Bible schools 
and Bible women in India and China, as well as in their own 

The story of Christian Endeavor among the lepers is 
one of splendid heroism. There are several such societies, 
and more than one Endeavorer has gone from a happy home 
life to what every one but a devoted Christian would consider 
a loathsome task, where every day their lives are exposed to 

556 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

the danger of the most dreadful contagion. The Leper 
Christian Home in Surinam has been helped especially by 
Endeavor the Endcavorcrs of Buffalo, N. Y., and those who 

among . . r • i r i t- j t-i 

I the are carrymg it on are faithful bndeavorers. Ihe 

^P^*"*' wounds of the lepers are dressed at least twice a 

day, and since they have not sufficient bandages the Christian 

Endeavor nurses must wash them out every day, a dreadful 

task, which might cause contagion at any time. But it is 

""^"^j^HRGBIQ^ '^^^^^^^Bo^^Sa^- 


p.. q 

L. "ijB^slBBiBP^"™^- ''*' 



...' -f"^' "- rWl^ffjl 

^^flP^^^ -"^^^^^^^ 

Christian Endeavorci ^ Aniuiig the Lepers. 

done cheerfully and gladly, out of love for the lepers and 
Christ, who died for them. 

The heroism of St. Francis has been exalted throughout 
all the ages since his day because he overcame his natural 
repugnance to leprosy, and cared for the loathsome sufferers; 
but many a Christian Endeavorer has been no less brave, and 
has been inspired by the very same motive that influenced the 
saint of Assisi. 

Heroic Christian Endeavor. 557 

The Rev. Herbert Halliwell tells us that he reached 
Nellore in India during a terrible epidemic of cholera, when 
people, mostly non-Christians, were dying on every hand. "I 
stayed long enough," he says, "to witness two beautiful sights. 
One was the going out two by two of the Christian Endeavor 
members (young women of the high school) to nurse Hindu 
and Mohammedan cholera patients, and the other the bap- 
tism at one time of a Brahman widow and a Malo woman, 
representatives of the highest and one of the lowest castes. 
Both these incidents were sights worth travelling across a 
continent to witness. Remember, you who read this, that the 
Indian dreads nothing so much as cholera, and no wonder; and 
yet these Christian Endeavor comrades, for no 
Heroes. Other reason than love to their Saviour and pity 
for their poor sisters, went down into the very 
heart of the cholera region, and nursed Mohammedan 
women, nursed them in many cases back to life, and spoke to 
them when they were well enough to hear of the great Healer 
of the soul. For myself, I have no hesitation in ranking these 
Indian sisters amongst the heroines of our time. 

"The other scene is a strangely stirring one, too, — the 
Brahman and the Malo going down into the waters of bap- 
tism together, caste, whether high or low, forever left behind, 
'a new creation,' children of God by faith in the world's Re- 

Of late years the world has looked to China largely for 
its examples of Christian heroism, and it has not looked in 
vain. Other chapters have told of the Endeavor martyrs of 
Peking and Pao-ting-fu, who counted not their lives dear 
unto them. It is said that, when one of the societies in Peking 
came together after the siege, it was found that more than half 
had given their lives for their faith. I remember well this 
society in the month of May, 1900. Then there were forty- 
five members. I can see them now, as they sat in their little 

5s8 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

chapel, some old men and women, others young men and 
women, some but little more than children. When the roll 
was called, the following September, at the first meeting after 
the siege, but twenty-two could respond to their names. The 
majority had joined "the noble army of martyrs." 

Many individual instances of heroism are recorded 
among the Endeavorers of China. I have space for but one 

Mr. Tung and His Family. 

of these stories. Miss Nellie N. Russell, a most devoted and 
„ successful missionary of the American Board, tells 

Heroes ■^ ' 

of us of Mr. Tung, who was a very wealthy man, and 

related to the first families of Cho-chou. But he 
had lived a fast life, and, through his intemperance, had be- 
come insane. Two soldiers had been appointed to stay with 
him day and night to keep him from injuring himself and 
others. He was a terror to his wife and children and to all 
his neighbors. Through the efforts of the missionary, how- 

Heroic Christian Endeavor. 559 

ever, and the native Christians he was brought to Christ. He 
went to Peking for the express purpose of being with Dr. 
Ament and learning from him more about the way of salva- 

At the end of a month he went home, and instituted morn- 
ing prayers with his family, servants and workmen. All 
looked on him with suspicion and amusement, and, as the days 
came and went, with amazement. But it was no transient 
thing. He was no longer the maniac crazed by drink, but 
Christ's humble servant. During the siege of Peking he 
worked hard to protect the legation from fire, though he was 
a very large man and unused to work. But he was ever ready 
to wait on any one, going to the well for water, taking care of 
the sleeping-room of the foreign gentlemen, though he had 
been all his life used to being waited on by his own servants. 
After the siege was raised he acted for two months as a gate- 
keeper of the mission premises, running on all kinds of 
errands, and ever a true gentleman. In prayer-meetings he 
was first on his feet, and he never missed an opportunity to wit- 
ness for Christ and to tell from what a bondage he has 
escaped. Who will say that Mr. Tung is not a Christian En- 
deavor hero? 



" Around the world the chorus rings. 
And hands are joined with hands, 
A Brotherhood of Service sings 

In all the happy lands; 
And blithe they sound the watchword still 

That ever has sufficed : 
' The will ! The will ! the blessed will ! 
The will of Jesus Christ! 

Professor Atnos R. Wells. 

iT would be surprising indeed if the Christian 
^ Endeavor movement had not added something 
of value to the w^orld's hymnology. It has not 
concerned itself greatly with classical music, but 
it has voiced the outpouring of the religious 
heart in song in a remarkable way. Its great conventions 
have given it an opportunity to do this such as no other or- 
ganization has enjoyed, and its international and interdenomi- 
national character has given it the widest possible range of 
selection of hymns and tunes from every land and every 
denomination of Christians. 

Some poets of no mean ability have contributed to the 
Christian Endeavor hymnology. Among the first who were 
enlisted in its behalf was President J. E. Rankin, the author 


christian Endeavor in Song. 561 

Percy S. Foster, 
Washington, D. C. 

Leaders in Song. 

F. H. Jacobs, 
New York. 

H. C. Lincoln, 

562 Cliristian Endeavor in All Lands. 

of the most famous hymn of modern times, "God be with you 
till we meet again," which was soon adopted everywhere as 
the Christian Endeavorer's parting hymn. One that he wrote 
especially for the first Saratoga convention is a stirring one, 
with the chorus, 

'Keep your colors flying; 

Stand for God and truth; 
Keep your colors flying, 
All ye Christian youth." 

^r^,.^^, a^^^^ji. ^^--^^i'<^ Thc Rcv. Samuel F. Smith, 

^.^■.^^-^ p J) the beloved author of 

^z^, '^ < 0r^ ^cc ^C -i^i^. ' "America," wrote at least two 

.X*/-^^ o^^.^^ ^./*,^*/y<^ Christian Endeavor hymns in 

//..^^^.^«^^/r-<x;;-^/-^'^ his old age, one of which is here 

/T^SZ^oy^y^'^^Z ^'^'^^-->'^^''A- given in facsimile, showing the 
^..^i^ /.j,^^'^.^''^^ "' ^'^'^'^■^ beautiful chirography of Am- 

.<^:i/..^lw//^^/.^^^i- erica's national poet when he 

,i^„^^^^y.^^,2^''^- was well past his eightieth year. 

.//i^^^^ZSz^y^ Another poet of national 

Si^, >^'i»^'^^'(-f'^^'^y^ reputation, who has written a 

'^-'13^^'^'Ttr^^ Christian Endeavor hymn, is 

/^^a^u^y^^'-^^^'-y^ the late Hon. John Hay, the 

cO./-^^^-'^'-^-^-'^ celebrated diplomatist and 

.j^Z/A^^j^rr',^,. statesman. 1 his hymn was 

*^ '^^'i ^^^'^f ^- written originally for the Fif- 

^,^/r»(^/<«./V'^A-^'"^'!^*''^'<- teenth International Conven- 

^^j^a.^ur:7^c.,.^^^.'^^^^,^p^-<^ tion at Washington, where it 

/Zj^yj.^^^/^/^-.^^y'^/'^^'''^^- was sung with great effect. 
.^^^^c.y^.4v^r^'^ ^-^"^"i^ Afterwards, when in 1897 the 
e^^^^^^^^^jX"^^/ B^itigh convention was held in 
^^H'^^^f^' "^^ ^ yf^ Liverpool, and Mr. Hay was the 

^^^'^ _ • American minister to the Court 

of St. James, I obtained from 


him especial permission to have this hymn sung at the 

christian Endeavor in Song. 563 

Liverpool convention as his contribution to the opening ses- 
sion. At that time he assured me that it was the only hymn 
he ever wrote, though it has since been learned that two other 

poems of his have found their way into some of our 
johii church hymn-books. But, unless there was a slip in 
Hay^s jyij. Hay's memory, they were written not as hymns, 

but as religious poems, without any thought of their 
being set to music. In 1905, when the American convention 
met in Baltimore, this hymn, which had been set to new 
music by Mr. Percy S. Foster, the beloved precentor of Chris- 
tian Endeavor conventions, was sung at the opening session, 
and, as it proved, upon the very day when Mr. Hay, amid the 
tears of the nation, was laid in his last resting-place at Cleve- 
land: Here is the hymn: 

"Lord, from far-severed climes we come 
To meet at last in Thee, our home. 
Thou who hast been our guide and guard 
Be still our hope, our rich reward. 

^'Defend us. Lord, from every ill; 
Strengthen our hearts to do Thy will; 
In all we plan and all we do 
Still keep us to Thy service true. 

"O let us hear the inspiring word 
Which they of old at Horeb heard. 
Breathe to our hearts the high command: 
'Go onward and possess the land.' 

"Thou who art light, shine on each soul; 
Thou who art truth, each mind control ; 
Open our eyes, and make us see 
The path which leads to heaven and Thee." 

The Rev. Charles M. Sheldon, D.D., Marianne Farning- 
ham, Amos R. Wells, and the Rev. Theodor Monod are 
other well-known authors who have contributed distinctively 
Christian Endeavor hymns. 

564 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

The first attempt to provide a distinctively Christian En- 
deavor hymn-book was made by the Rev. S. W. Adriance by 
the publication of a small volume entitled "Hymns of 
Christian Endeavor." This book contained original hymns 
and tunes by Dr. Rankin, the Rev. R. DeWitt Mallary, the 
Rev. Dwight M. Pratt, D.D., the Rev. J. O. Barrows, the 
Rev. Joel S. Ives, the Rev. T. S. Perry, the Rev. C. H. Oli- 
phant, the Rev. Henry N. Kinney, Mr. Adriance himself, and 
others, stanch friends of Christian Endeavor, who combined 
the poetic gift with their love for the Society. 

After this first book had run its course several Christian 
Endeavor editions of "Gospel Hymns" were prepared by Mr, 
Ira D. Sankey, which contained some of his own choicest 
hymns and tunes, as well as those of other gospel singers like 
Mr. Stebbins, Mr. Excell, and others. Some of Fanny 
Crosby's best hymns were written for the Society and pub- 
lished in these books. 

In 1901 the United Society in America felt that the time 

had come for it to publish another hymn-book distinctively 

its own; and the matter was put into the hands of 

The ' , ^ 

Endeavor a Special Committee, consisting of the Rev. Charles 
ymna. ^ Dickiuson, D.D., the Rev. Howard B. Grose, 
and the Rev. James L. Hill, D.D. The committee was sub- 
sequently enlarged by the addition of the Rev. Maltbie D. 
Babcock, D.D., the Rev. J. Wilbur Chapman, D.D., and Mr. 
F. H. Jacobs. They were assisted with suggestions and lists 
of hymns from many eminent ministers of all denominations, 
and the Rev. R. DeWitt Mallary and Mrs. James L. Hill 
placed their collections of hymns freely at the disposal of 
the committee. The result of this effort has been a hymn- 
book which has met with very wide approval and a large sale. 
Its tendency has been very decidedly to raise the standard of 
the singing in the young people's societies. Many of the best 
old pieces, set to the highest class of music which is at the same 

Christian Endeavor in Song. 565 

time singable and popular, have been included in this book, 
while many new favorites have been added. 

It has been the aim of the compilers to avoid jingles and 
"ragtime," while at the same time having many tunes of sim- 
ple harmony that those who are least cultivated musically can 
appreciate. As I write a new and improved edition of this 
book is in press, and a new Junior hymn-book, "Junior 
Carols," following the same lines and compiled by Mr. 
Charles S. Brown and Mr. George B. Grafif, has just been 

In Great Britain Christian Endeavor hymnology has 
advanced even more rapidly than in America, for as a rule 
congregational singing is much better in the mother country, 
where the churches have not been so much afflicted with oper- 
atic choirs, and where people are far less closely tied to their 
notes than in America. The English "Christian Endeavour 
Hymnal," edited by the Rev. Joseph Brown Morgan and the 
Rev. Carey Bonner, is a large and admirable selection of the 
best hymns ancient and modern for young people's us*e. 

It is difficult to pick out especial favorites, since tastes 
dififer so widely, but a few hymns have found large acceptance 
on both sides of the sea. One of these is by the Rev. Charles 
A. Dickinson, D.D., a trustee of the United Society, and the 
story connected with it is worth repeating. In 1891 the 
writer, accompanied by his dear friend Dr. Dickin- 
sto% son, went to Europe in the interests of the Chris- 

2I ^ tian Endeavor movement, as has been before men- 

nymn. ' 

tioned. After several weeks in Great Britain, and 
a little more time spent in travel on the Continent, they 
returned to Boston in the same steamer. On the way a terrible 
storm overtook the steamer, which for three days labored 
heavily in the waves, and made but little progress. On the 
fourth day the storm subsided; the sun broke forth from the 
clouds; and Dr. Dickinson, in whom the poetic instinct was 

566 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

always strong (and who had been the poet of his class at 
Harvard), sat down on deck and wrote the hymn which is 
given herewith. It was afterwards set to music arranged 
from a German choral, and is now sung by Endeavorers 
the world around. It is given below. 

i/ i f \ ll,/i4^JiipU4^iii-ll^ 

1. O gold-en day, so long de- sired,Bom of a darksome night, The wait- ing earth at 

2. The noi - ses of the night shall cease,The storms no longer roar; The fac-tious foes of 

3. Sing on, ye cho-rus of the morn.Your grand en-deavor strain, Till Christian hearts es 

4. O gold-en day, the a ges'crown, A - light with heavenly love, Rare day in proph-e 

mif9-rhf=f=-^ m^ 




last is fired By Thy re-splen - dent light. And hark Hike Memnon'smom-ing chord 

God's own peace Shall vex His church no more. A thousand thou-sand voi - ces sing 

tranged and torn Blend in the glad re- frain; And all the church,with all itspow'rs, 

cy re -nown. On to thy"ie nith move. When all theworld,withone accord. 

b #^-H=tf-MN^ fe^ 



Is heard from sea to sea This song : One Master.Christ the Lord ; And brethren all are wo. 
The surging harmo- ny ; One Master.Christ ; one Saviour-King ;And brethren all are we. 
In lov-ing loy-al - ty Shallsing:OneMaster,Christ,i3 0urs; And brethren all are wa 
In f uU- voiced u-ni - ty Shall sing: One Master.Christ our Lord; And brethren all are wo. 


The Rev. John Pollock, a Scotchman, who is pastor of 
St. Enoch's Presbyterian Church of Belfast, is another popular 
Christian Endeavor poet, who writes both the words and the 
music to which they are sung. His "Scotland for Christ " 
and his "Ireland for Christ" have remarkable power, and are 
characteristic of the music of the two countries. His "For 

Christian Endeavor in Song. 


568 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

Christ and the Church" has also a glorious "swing" to it, and 

when sung, as it often is, at the great conventions, 

?®u* both in Great Britain and in America, it has set 

John ... 

Pollock's niany hearts beating fast, and inspired many young 
souls to new endeavor and new love for the church. 
I quote a verse from it: 

"Our lives to Christ we dedicate. 
Who reigns our glorious King; 
May He receive and consecrate 

The tribute that we bring! 
And to His church we gladly give 

Our service and our all, 
For in her voice we still rejoice 
To hear His royal call. 

"For Christ, for Christ, and the church of Christ! 
Be this our fond endeavor! 
For Christ, for Christ, and the church of Christ! 
These twain no power can sever; 

One on earth and one in heaven, 
Forever and forever." 

It is interesting in this connection to quote a few lines 
from a free German translation of Mr. Pollock's hymn: 

"Das Leben weihen wir dem Herrn, der unser Konig ist. 

Wie nahen wir, sein Leib, so gern dem Haupte Jesus Christ 
Ihm und der Kirche allezeit lasst Dienst bereit uns stehen 

Und lasst des Hauptes Heiligkeit in seinen Gliedern sehen." 

It will perhaps interest my readers to see a familiar friend 
in a new dress, and so I reproduce on the opposite page the 
French translation of " Blest be the tie," made by the gifted 
wife of the secreta-ry of Christian Endeavor for Switzerland. 

The Rev. Joseph Brown Morgan, of Bradford, England, 
has contributed some admirable pieces to the British Endeavor 
hymnal, as well as much careful editing. 

christian Endeavor in Song. 


It is impossible even to mention all who have contributed 
most helpfully to Christian Endeavor song, but the Rev. 
How^ard B. Grose, editorial secretary of the Baptist Home 
Missionary Society, should be credited with some excellent 
hymns and tunes, and Mr. Charles S. Brown as well, who has 
for many years been a faithful and efficient worker upon The 
Christian Endeavor World, being at the head of one of its 
business departments. 

The great conventions have naturally given the widest 
scope for the expression of the musical talents of Christian 

L- &i'}^ P' I I 






Endeavorers. I have already alluded to the great praise 
service held on the east front of the Capitol at the time of the 
Washington convention, under the lead of Mr. Percy S. 
Foster. But there have been other praise services scarcely less 
memorable, and other leaders who are also greatly beloved. 
Among these are Mr. F. H. Jacobs, who is in large demand 
throughout the country; Richard A. Harris, of Baltimore; 
Mr. Lincoln, of Philadelphia; and Mr. Washburn, of Boston; 
and Mr. Marcusson, of Chicago, In fact, almost every 

570 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

Christian Endeavor centre has its favorite musical leader, who 
for no profit or glory, and with no hymn-books or music to 
sell, gives his time and abilities freely to the convention. 
Well-known gospel singers, too, like E. O. Excell, Mr. Peter 
Bilhorn, Mr. George C. Stebbins, Mr. Estey, Mr. Alexander, 
and others are heard at the Christian Endeavor conventions. 

Perhaps the leader who has made the deepest impression 
upon the Christian Endeavor public in two hemispheres by 

his unique "Festivals of Praise" is the Rev. Carey 
Wonderful Bonner of London. These great praise services 
Festival have long been known and appreciated in Great 

Britain, and an important convention is hardly com- 
plete without them. But in 1905 for the first time Mr. Bon- 
ner was induced to come to America to conduct such a service 
at Baltimore. This will never be forgotten by those who 
heard it. It was called "An International Festival of Praise," 
and it well deserved its name. It opened with the "Sanctus," 
"Holy, Holy, Holy." "The Aaronic Blessing" was sung in 
unison by many voices, and repeated by the full choir, to one 
of the oldest of the Hebrew melodies. China's praises were 
sung to a typical native Chinese air, composed entirely on the 
five-tone or pentatonic scale. The words were written and the 
music harmonized by Mr. Bonner, and the melody was pecul- 
iarly effective. India's praise was represented by two Ben- 
gali songs, translated by the Rev. William Carey. One of 
them, called "The Endeavor Band," was very remarkable in 
both melody and rhythm, utterly unlike any sacred music 
heard in Europe or America. The Bengali hymn "O, my 
soul, do not forget Him," was written by Krishna Pal, the 
first convert baptized at Serampore. 

The praises of Africa were illustrated by two well- 
known American negro songs, entitled "Turn Back Pharaoh's 
army," and "We shall walk through the valley." The praises 
of Great Britain were given in the words of the old hymn writ- 

christian Endeavor in Song. 571 

ten by Edward Perronet, the helper of John Wesley, "Crown 
Him Lord of all." The praises of America were expressed 
by the words of Dr. Ray Palmer's hymn, "My faith looks up 
to Thee," set to Dr. Lowell Mason's tune "Olivet." Jemima 
Luke's beautiful hymn, "I think when I read that sweet story 
of old," was sung by the children's choir. The venerable 
authoress, living then in retirement in the Isle of Wight, sent 
with her portrait a message of greeting to the children of 

The spell of such a service it is impossible to describe in 
cold print. It seemed far more than a service of song, it was 
a service of communion with God, of fellowship with all His 
people; a solemn, heart-searching, tear-compelling service, 
which those who have once heard it can never forget. 

Among Christian Endeavor poets many writers should 
be recorded, but I must at least mention the Rev. Ernest W. 
Shurtlefif, now engaged in work for students in Paris, who 
has written two admirable convention poems, and the Rev. J. 
N. Davidson, of Wisconsin, some of whose short hymns and 
poems are excellent. 

To turn from the more serious convention songs to those 
which tell of patriotism and State pride and love is not a sharp 
transition, for even in the loudest State choruses there is much 
of religious fervor and gospel zeal. Every State now, with 
possibly one or two exceptions, has its authorized State 
Christian Endeavor song. Some of them, it must be con- 
fessed, are not of the highest poetical character. The char- 
acteristics of the State are sometimes brought in to the detri- 
ment of the rhythm; but each one answers its purpose, some 
of them remarkably well. Wherever there is a distinctively 
popular State song, as in Maryland and Kentucky, the tune 
is put under bonds by the Endeavorers, and is wedded to their 
own words. Thus the beautiful tune of "Maryland, my 
Maryland," often makes the welkin ring as the Maryland 

572 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

delegation in the great conventions, joined perhaps by ten 
thousand others, sing: 

"File into rank for Christ to-day, 

O Maryland, dear Maryland; 
Free to the breeze His banners play, 

Maryland, dear Maryland. 
Your noblest work for Him be done, 
From early dawn to setting sun, 
Nor cease, till latest victory's won, 

Maryland, my Maryland. 


"Shout, shout for joy the glad refrain, 

Maryland, my Maryland. 
Our King shall claim His own again, 
Maryland, my Maryland." 

A Christian Endeavor Orphan Asylum Band in Japan. 

Kentucky, too, has a peculiarly beautiful and plaintive 
air, which is all its own, " My Old Kentucky Home ;" and to 

Christian Endeavor in Song. 573 

this tune have been set some appropriate words, which, as they 
have been sung at consecration meetings in the conventions 
great and small, when the Kentucky delegation has been called 
upon, has brought tears to many eyes; but they are tears of joy 
at the thought of the devoted "Endeavor bands" who sing 
them. Here is one verse of this song with its chorus : 

"The valiant hosts of our great Endeavor band, 

With banners triumphant unfurled. 
Are gath'ring now at our mighty King's command. 

To bear His standard round the world, 
With faith in God as our ever-shining shield. 

With firmness, with patience and love, 
We'll stand for Christ till the world to Him shall yield. 

And the flag of union floats above. 

"Shout aloud, 'Hosanna'; O, praise our God to-day, 

'For Christ and the Church,' and our blest 
Endeavor bands in the old Kentucky home far away." 

The Massachusetts State song is sung to the tune of "Fair 
Harvard." It was written by Dr. Dickinson, and is one of the 
best of all. The last verse is as follows: 

"From the Bay to the Berkshires the sun ever shines 

On the flag that shall never be furled; 
Thy hillsides and valleys all shelter the shrines 

Of the faith that shall conquer the world. 
Mother State of the Union, thy heart, ever young, 

For the Union shall beat ever sure. 
Commonwealth of the noble, thy praise shall be sung 

While the noble and free shall endure." 

Another writer who has contributed not a little to the 
worthy hymnology of Christian Endeavor is Mr. John R. 
Clements, who has written two or three of the State songs, as 
well as some popular gospel hymns. 

Here is a verse of his New York State song: 

574 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

"Sing our New York marching-song, 

And sing it loud and free; 
Let the music float along 

From Erie to the sea: 
Every heart may catch the strain, 

And peal it forth with glee, 

For we are soldiers of Jesus." 

A stanza of Canada's stirring Endeavor hymn sung to 
the tune of "The Maple Leaf" is as follows: 

"From broad Pacific's golden strand 

To old Atlantic's waves we claim 
Our beautiful Canadian land 

In Christ our Leader's name; 
And filled with Pentecostal might 

We forward march forever, 
Sin's forces in God's strength to fight 

With sanctified endeavor." 

A number of the States have 
adopted as their own some favorite 
gospel hymn, and many of them have 
set their own words to a favorite evan- 
gelistic tune. Thus California, the 
"Sunshine State," has taken for her 
own "There is sunshine in my soul ;" 
Maine's tune is "Tramp, tramp, 
tramp, the boys are marching;" Ne- 
vada's State song is "Will there be any 
stars in my crown?" while Ohio sings 
her hymn to the tune of "Throw out 
the life-line," and Pennsylvania has 
set her hymn to "Trust and obey." 

But space does not permit me fur- 
ther to characterize this delightful 
convention feature. Some of the State 

A Burmese Choir-Leader. 

Christian Endeavor in Song. 575 

"cries" are scarcely as dignified as the hymns alluded to, but 

they all have their part in promoting the gaycty of 

^tatp „ the convention, and none of them really detract 

Cries. ' -^ 

from the seriousness; for there are occasions on the 
train and in the hotels, at the social gatherings and at the 
State rallies, when it is just as appropriate to hear the Bay 
State Endeavorers cry out in chorus, 

"Rubadub, dub, rubadub, dub. 
We're from the Hub, we're from the Hub! 
Lexington and Bunker Hill, 
Tea in the harbor steeping still ; 
Rubadub, dub, we're from the Hub." 

as to hear them sing the most solemn choral. 

In China, Japan, and other lands, too. Christian En- 
deavor songs enliven the conventions, and stir the hearts of a 
great multitude of young people, and lead them there, as in 
America, not only to sing, but to "go" and "say" and "do" as 
they have promised in their song, 

"I will go where you want me to go, dear Lord, 
Over mountain or plain or sea; 
I will say what you want me to say, dear Lord; 
I will be what you want me to be." 



" The pathway of Christian Endeavor is enclosed on either 
side by the fence of righteousness. Within this enclosure, be- 
tween where we are now and heaven, is the sphere of our meth- 
ods. Whatever method you may adopt, don't get into a rut; 
and, if you do get into one, don't stick; for the man who sticks 
in a rut is a continual jolt-maker." 

Rev. William N. Yates. 

O many are the plans for brightening and improv- 
ing Christian Endeavor meetings, committees, 
and service of all kinds that only sug- 
gestive samples can be given here. Every 
issue of The Christian Endeavor World and 
other leading Endeavor papers, a score of little booklets 
appropriate to each committee and to each department of 
Christian work, the invaluable yearly issue of "The Endeavor- 
er's Daily Cofnpanion," and other publications contain these 
plans, which come from all parts of the world, and are first 
tried and proved by the most devoted young people in the 
ranks of Christian Endeavor. There is no excuse for any one 
who can read his own mother tongue, for falling into ruts and 
remaining in them. Any worker who confesses, "I cannot 
make my Christian Endeavor society succeed," is simply con- 
fessing, if what he says is true, that the young people who 
compose it have less brains than their comrades, or possibly 


Bright Plans Tried and Proved. 577 

are more worldly than the average young Christian, and are 
not willing to give prayer and thought to their religious life. 

But we are persuaded better things of the vast majority of 
Christian Endeavorers, and this persuasion is justified by the 
facts which come from every section of the world where the 
societies are found. Indeed, the plans given in the brief com-' 
pass of the next few pages are enough to brighten every 
society, give variety to its work, and make it a constant help 
and joy to its church. 

Some societies complain that their meetings are dull and 
^^g monotonous. For the sake of improving the 

Impromptu Speaking-ability of the members Mr. J. P. Suter, of 
Cleveland, tells of an "impromptu club." 

"Our method of procedure is to pass two blank slips of 
paper to each member of the club. Upon each slip the mem- 
ber writes some common, interesting topic. The slips are col- 
lected and placed face downward upon a table. Then the 
important moment has arrived. The first member chosen to 
speak — it matters not how he is chosen — advances to the table, 
and selects at random one of the topics. If he feels that he 
cannot speak upon it, he is permitted to take another; but be- 
yond that there is no further choice. Upon this subject he 
must deliver a brief impromptu speech, after which he names 
his successor, and the process is repeated until all have spoken. 

"Then the critic, who in our club is elected for three 
months, discusses in detail the various speeches, and points out 
whatever defects or excellences he may have noticed, whether, 
in thought or grammar, choice of words or delivery. That, as 
I have said, is the germ idea; but it is varied in many ways. 
For instance, the speaker may, before he begins to discuss his 
own subject, allow his successor to choose a topic. This will 
give the latter a short time in which to collect his thoughts, al- 
though the speech will still be impromptu. 

"Another innovation, which was tried recently, and which 

proved very interesting, was to provide a number of short 

poems for the members of the club to read impromptu after 

578 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

the regular speeches. It is surprising how difficult it is, 
upon a first reading, to do justice to a good poem." 

The prayer-meetings, being so important a feature of 

the Christian Endeavor work, naturally come in for much 

Rules attention. The Christian Endeavor World re- 

Prayer= ccntly offered three prizes of five, three, and two 

'Meeting doUars for the best rules for prayer-meeting parti- 

Participa= . ^ . -^ ° ^ 

tion. cipants. Here is the contribution of one Christian 

Endeavorer, which did not receive the prize of the judges who 
made the award, but seems to be fully worthy of one, and well 
worth quoting in this chapter: 

"Be among the first to speak. Delay only adds to the 
nervous shrinking felt by many timid souls. 

''Be willing even to blunder rather than make no attempt 
to speak for the Master. 

"An ounce of your own experience is worth a ton of trite 

"Read helps at home, but not in the meeting. 

"Relate some story or incident that you have read, or illus- 
trate some phase of the topic. 

"A thought warm with life never fails to hit the mark. 
Avoid set phrases, speak naturally. 

"Long-windedness, now pray take heed, 
The finest discourse smothers : 
So, when you pray or talk or read. 
Remember there are others. 

■ "Do not try to do the easiest things, but do the hard 

"Don't be a weak-kneed participant; stand boldly upon 
your feet." 

Endeavorers are always desirous of new ways of helping 
their own church, since, indeed, this is the great object of their 
organization; but they are often young and not very resource- 

Bright Plans Tried and Proved. 579 

ful ; and so these suggestions of work which has actually been 
Helping Undertaken by many a society are here given: 


Own ^^ "Divide the society into fourths, each fourth to 

Church." ^^j^g some part in one of the church prayer-meetings 
of the month. 

"Form a Christian Endeavor choir, if the pastor is will- 
ing, to act as a nucleus for the singing of the church prayer- 
meeting and the Sunday-evening service. 

"Establish in your society a pastor's aid committee, to do 
whatever the pastor wishes done in connection with the 

"Perhaps you can start and carry on a church paper. 
Perhaps you can beautify with flowers the church grounds. 
Perhaps the church needs new cushions, or new lamps, or new 
paint, or new hymn-books. 

"Find some definite work to do for the church. Do it, 
and then find something else to do for it." 

An American Baptist pastor, who has been preaching in 
a number of English churches, tells of the beautiful custom 
which many English Endeavorers constantly keep up, as the 
writer can testify, of presenting to the preacher as he enters 
the pulpit a letter of welcome to the church, expressing their 
prayerful hope that God will bless him in the delivery of His 
word, while at the end of the service they present him with a 
bouquet, or at least a boutonniere. 

Here are other things which a versatile flower committee 
can do : 

"Send flowers to the new members, not only of your own 
society, but of the Juniors. 

"Send flowers to the new members received into the 

"Use flowers as recognitions of good work in 

for the the society — some successful social, for which you 

Flower wish to honor the social committee, for instance. 

"Send flowers to the sick of the church and 

community, and especially to the old folks on their birthdays. 

580 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

"Send flowers to the pastor's study. Put them in the 
prayer-meeting room of the church. Of course you will not 
forget the pulpit. 

"Make floral mottoes appropriate to the sermons." 

The music committee of the Lake Park Church, Minne- 
apolis, thus sent out invitations to a sociable in the musical 
notation seen below: 

The Music Committee 
of Lake Park Church 

A collection will be taKen. 

Here are some further hints for the music committee: 
A Christian Endeavor choir should be organized. Some- 
times let it sit in front, and sometimes let its members re- 
enforce the singing by sitting in all parts of the 

Suggestions ^„^™ 
for the room. 

Music Appoint some evening: to sins: from all parts 

Committee, ^^ o a f 

of your hymn-book, taking up only the unfamiliar 
hymns. Most hymn-books are only half used. 

Introduce other instruments than the organ, if the En- 
deavorers are skilled in the use of them. 

Plan some special musical feature for each evening. 

The society might as well assist in a body the musical 
services of the midweek prayer-meeting of the church, and 
the Sunday-evening service. 

Bright Plans Tried and Proved. 581 

Many societies do much good by conducting song services 
in hospitals and similar places. 

How to raise money for missions is often a serious ques- 
tion. Here is a plan adopted by a society in St. Croix Falls, 
Wis. They pledged fifty dollars for missions at the beginning 
of the year, making it necessary to raise on the average $4.17 
each month. So this chart was prepared with the norm a 
black line indicating the $4.17 to be given. As the society 
gave more or less than the amount each month, the tell-tale 
indicator on this card showed by its zigzag lines whether they 
were above or below their pledge. At the end of the year 


PeOY MaiCM Apriu Mnv 

55 -p 


flu«<;sr 5cPT 




5 '7 


17 '6 
■^ 6 

9> ?j 

?." A 

•-i^ 41 

'" *'; 

6-3 £f 








a 4 






« - 
















the chart looked as shown above, and it was found that the 
amount collected was $1.67 more than the pledge, and that 
for almost every month the society had kept ahead of its 
promises. The chart was a constant stimulus not to fall below 

The story of the old lady who marked various passages 
in her Bible "T&P," "Tried and Proved," may be applied to 
the plans below given for dififerent departments of Christian 
Endeavor work. They have not only been tried and proved 

582 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

in one society, but all of them in hundreds, and many of them 
in thousands, of societies and in many lands. They have been 
printed in "The Endeavorer's Daily Companion " in different 
years, but have never before been thus brought together. 


"Go to books, magazines, and the leaflets of the boards, 
and use freely the splendid and full help these will give you. 

"Make full use of outline maps, home-made, on which 
you will paste colored stars to mark the locations of the mis- 
sionaries about whom you are talking. 

"Avoid having selections read in the meetings. It is far 
more effective to speak your contributions, using your own 
words, however stumblingly. 

"Do not try to crowd too much into the meetings — an out- 
line of a book, for instance, into ten minutes. Better take up 
fewer points at a time, and make them effectively. 

"Do not omit the touches of humor and brightness that 
make facts remembered. 

"At the close of each meeting let some one appointed for 
the purpose give a summary of its principal points that are to 
be remembered, and perhaps a brisk oral examination upon 


"Help the superintendent by being ready to act as substi- 
tute teachers. 

"Help him to prepare for the Sunday-school concerts, by 
aiding in the drilling of the younger ones. 

"Help the teachers by hunting up absent scholars. 

"Help them by organizing groups for the home study of 
the lessons. 

"Help the scholars by visiting the sick. 

"Help the less ready scholars by going to their houses and 
aiding them to study the lesson. 

"Help the school by getting in new scholars. 

"Help it by advertising it in the society meetings, telling 
what a good school it is. 

Bright Plans Tried and Proved. 583 

"Help the chorister by organizing a Sunday-school choir 
and orchestra. 

"Help the librarian by interesting the Endeavorers in the 
best library books. 

"Help the society by drawing in new members from the 

"Help the prayer-meetings by bringing in points from the 
Sunday-school lesson." 


"Every society should have a press committee, even 
though there is no town or county paper, because there are 
denominational and Christian Endeavor papers that will wel- 
come the news of the good things done by the society. 

"The head of the press committee should be the best writ- 
er in the society, and the other members of the committee 
should be those whom he will be training to take his place. 

"Study the best models of expression, and do not be satis- 
fied with sending out a single paragraph that is not bright. 

"Get regular space, if you can, in your local paper, and 
fill it with the best and most interesting things you can tell 
about your church and society. 

"Remember, not everything that is interesting to you is in- 
tere:ting to others, but always, when you write, 'put yourself in 
their place.' " 


"It is a day — the one day of the year — for thought of our- 
selves as a society, what we have done, and how we may do 

"It is a day for giving — the giving of our hearts to Christ, 
if they are not given to Him; the giving of our money to mis- 
sions, that our lives may go where our bodies cannot go. 

"It is a day for praise. Let us thank God, who alone has 
brought to the young people of the world this new joy in serv- 
ice through Christian Endeavor. 

"It is a day for resolutions, for larger plans, for increased 
zeal, for earnest prayer that Christ will give His blessings and 
His power." 

584 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 


"Plan your meeting as far as possible in advance. 

"Study the good points of other meetings. 

"Write out a programme for your meeting. 

"Include in your plans at least one novel feature. 

"Begin on time, and close on time. 

"Assign work in connection with the meeting to different 
members in advance. 

"Call for sentence prayers at some time in the meeting. 

"Have a definite thing which the meeting is to accom- 

"Be very brief in your opening exercises. 

"Have much singing, but ask the members not to call for 
hymns as their part in the meeting." 


"A society temperance pledge may be hung upon the 
wall, with the signatures of all the members upon it. 

"Plan for the temperance meetings long in advance, and 
make them as strong as possible. 

"Introduce into every temperance meeting some account 
of recent temperance victories, and the progress of the move- 

"Obtain addresses now and then from temperance enthu- 

"Learn what are the temperance laws of your own State 
land community, and how they are kept. 

"How long since your town held a temperance mass- 
meeting? Plan one and hold it. 

"Why should not the temperance committee learn, for the 
information of voters, the position as to temperance of the can- 
didates before the people for election?" 


"A reversed social, in which everything is done back- 

Bright Plans Tried and Proved. 585 

"A social 'just for fun,' to which each member contrib- 
utes the most comical thing he can. 

"A game social, to which each Endeavorer brings some 
! game. 

"A botanical social, with contests in naming leaves, flow- 
ers, etc., with essays on plants, and games connected with 
them; also floral costumes. 

"A story social, each member representing some title of 
a story, and agreeing to tell the society something from it, or 
read a favorite passage. 

"A hero social, each Endeavorer representing in some 
way his favorite hero, which is to be guessed. He is also 
ready to tell about him. 

"An oratorical social for an oratorical contest, the con- 
testants having previously made entry, the judges being ap- 
pointed, and a laurel wreath awarded." 



" Christian Endeavor has taught young Christians that there 
is room in the church and work for all, that service is a 
blessed privilege, and that international union is noble and 
helpful. Christian Endeavor has waked up many sleepers in 
the church. I long to see its good influence extended to 
every church and community." 

Prof. Y. Chiba, Kyoto, Japan, 
Japanese Dean of the Doshisha Girls' School. 

HE twenty-fifth birthday of the first society sug- 
gests that some societies have had time to grow 
weary in well-doing, and makes it appropriate 
to consider how a lagging society, or one that 
has fallen into the ruts, if such there be, may be 
lifted up and set upon the smooth, high road to swift success. 
Surely in these days, when hints and helps for Christian En- 
deavorers are coming from every land, there should be no lack 
of useful suggestions from societies that have experienced 
every vicissitude, and every degree of success. 

As a rule, the societies exhibit a remarkable staying- 
power. Of the first fifty societies formed, all of which are 
now in the neighborhood of a quarter of a century old, it has 
recently been found that all but eight are alive and vigorous, 
and that almost every one of these eight has been disbanded 


How to Lift an Endeavor Society. 587 

because of denominational pressure. But Endeavor societies 
have their ups and downs, like all other human organizations; 
and one advantage of a universal movement is that the 
"downs" may be changed into "ups" by learning and applying 
the principles and methods that have helped to lift the socie- 
ties in many countries and continents. 

Many a society can be lifted by simply applying some of 
the fundamental principles of the organization, by insisting 
more strenuously on the covenant pledge, by developing the 
committee work, which has already been established, by add- 
ing new committees, or by making a feature of the monthly 
written report to the society, showing what each committee 
has tried to do for the Master, 

A few societies need a complete and thorough reorganiza- 
tion, involving a lopping off of the "dead wood" which has 
been allowed to burden the healthy tree. This can 

Complete •, i i • , i • i i • i 

Reorganiza= casily be douc, quictly and without opprobrium, by 
'*'"■ dropping, according to the provisions of the usual 

constitution, the unfaithful members who have been absent 
and unexcused from three consecutive monthly roll-call meet- 
ings. This may reduce the numbers of the society materially, 
but if done in the right spirit, with prayer and care and kindly 
efforts at reclamation of the delinquent members, it is almost 
always followed by most beneficial results. The spiritual tone 
of the society is raised ; the active members are led to feel that 
it is a serious and honorable thing to belong to the organiza- 
tion, and that its promised duties cannot be lightly treated, 
while the unfaithful ones can often be won back to renewed 
loyalty and zeal. 

Many a society, however, needs not reorganization, but 
only to have some definite goals set before it to inspire new life 
and energy. We are far more likely to hit the mark if we 
can see the target distinctly and on all sides. Here is a list 
of some definite endeavors which a pastor in Michigan pro- 

588 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

posed to his young people at the beginning of a new year of 

"i. Make the prayer-meeting an hour of intellectual 
' improvement, spiritual fervor, and fraternal greeting. 

"2. Greater personal faithfulness to my pledge. 
pfan"' ^ "3- Obtain comrades of the 'Quiet Hour.' 
for the "^_ Give or raise more money for missions. 
Year. "5- Each one win one other. 

"6. Join the Tenth Legion (of tithe-givers). 
"7. Read twelve good books. 
"8. Commit twelve standard hymns to memory. 
"9. Have a prayer-list. 
"10. Commit 365 Bible promises. 
"11. Make 24 visits to the sick. 
"12. Collect 52 missionary facts. 
"13. Record 52 missionary thoughts. 
"14. Let the past go. Forward, march!" 

I have not learned how many members of this society suc- 
ceeded in all these endeavors, but I am very sure that the 
society was helped by the very efifort and by the definiteness 
of the tasks set before it. Such a list, or a similar one, printed 
upon a card might be presented to every member of a society; 
and, if each one strenuously resolved, and recorded in black 
and white, by making a cross against one or more numbers, his 
purpose to accomplish some or all of these tasks, the society 
could not help feeling the pulsations of a new life. 

How to help the timid and the bashful to take part in- 
telligently in the prayer-meeting is one of the problems in 
most societies. These diffident members may be among the 
most faithful Christians in the whole society, but they are not 
gifted in speech, nor is it necessary that they should be to 
make excellent Endeavorers. They can, however, if some one 
leads the way, contribute something of real value to each 

Here is one plan for drawing them out, which is called 

How to Lift an Endeavor Society. 589 

"a six-word praise service." It is announced at the begin- 
ning of the meeting that each one is requested to limit himself 
to six words, if possible; and this seems so little that even the 
^ most bashful Endeavorer can say, as others lead the 

Words ^^^' '^ praise God for His goodness;" "I am 

Praise thankful for daily help;" "I bless Him for His 

Word." As has been said, this will set every one to 
thinking what his blessings are, and it is so easy to say at least 
six words that every one can take part, whereas, if the meeting 
were started with an eloquent address or an exhaustive paper, 
however full of instructions it might be, the younger and less 
educated might feel quite discouraged and overshadowed. 

An "objection-box"is an attractive feature for an occasion- 
al Christian Endeavor meeting. If this idea is carried out, the 
members are asked, for example, to bring to the meeting all 
the objections they have heard raised against foreign missions. 
Some skilful speaker of experience should be prepared to an- 
swer these objections, and to send the members away ready to 
meet them with convincing arguments when they may occur 
in the course of future conversations. At another time, in a 
similar way, objections to the Christian Endeavor covenant 
pledge might be considered, or to the consecration-meeting, or 
to the practice of tithe-giving. 

Of course it will not be understood that I am suggesting 
that there should be a "six-word -praise service," or an "objec- 
tion-box" meeting every week. All such devices should be 
used sparingly, lest they wear out their welcome. 

Missionary meetings, for both old and young, are often 
stupid and uninteresting simply because little pains has been 
„ : ^ taken in their preparation. Here is a plan which 

Plans The RoU-Call of New South Wales tells of, a plan 

Missionary which, with many variations, I have known to be 
Meetings, tj-jej succcssfully in many societies. "Plan a jour- 
ney to three or four mission fields. Let each mission field 

590 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

be represented by the home of one of the members. After a 
brief stay at the first mission field, and an inspection of what- 
ever objects illustrating its work may be available, the com- 
pany passes to the next house in order, and so on until the tour 
has been completed. A brief talk about the missions in that 
particular field may be given in each house. The decorations 
and curios, so far as possible, at each place should be in har- 
mony with the customs of the field represented." 

Here is the way in which a society in Minnesota was 
actually revived. Its interest was apparently waning; and, 
though its members were not conscious of any social coldness 
or indifiference, they decided that they could well take more 
pains to make the young people who came, as regular or occa- 
sional attendants, feel at home in the society. But I will 
let Miss Marion Brier tell in her own words what 
A they did: 


'^'*"' "After a little discussion some one suggested 

that we appoint the Christian Endeavor meetings 
fifteen minutes earlier in the future, and spend that fifteen 
minutes in getting acquainted with the young people who 
were not among our members. Another suggested that we 
take especial pains during that week to invite others to come 
to the next meeting. A third suggested that a committee of 
four members be appointed to meet each one at the door, to 
shake hands with them, and to learn their names if they were 
strangers, and to introduce them to others. 

"These suggestions were all carried out in the next meet- 
ing. The members were present promptly fifteen minutes 
l^efore the usual time, and entered enthusiastically upon the 
work of getting in touch with the other young people and of 
interesting them in the society. 

"The pleased surprise on the faces of the young people 
as they dropped in, and found themselves in the midst of so 
kindly, cordial an atmosphere, was a study. Every one was 
shaking hands; every one was becoming acquainted with 
every one else. By the close of the fifteen minutes a feeling 

How to Lift an Endeavor Society. 591 

of fellowship had been established. The meeting that fol- 
lowed was one of our best. 

"We continued the plan for some weeks, and found that 
we gained a hold upon the young people that we had never 
had before, and furthermore that our own interest and enthu- 
siasm were greatly quickened." 

Many a society is not doing its best work because it is too 
large. If it were a half or a quarter its present size, its mem- 
bers would feel their responsibility as they do not 
Best Plan now ; and each one would receive and do twice the 
Society^*^^^ good. One of the largest churches in the world is 
the Grace Baptist Temple, in Philadelphia, of 
which the eloquent Dr. Russell H. Conwell is the pastor. 
This church has a membership of more than three thousand, 
and its chief audience-room seats nearly four thousand people, 
and is often crowded. Evidently one Christian Endeavor 
society would be entirely inadequate for such a church; but 
the pastor has solved the problem by establishing no less than 
fourteen societies, limiting the membership of each one to 
sixty. These meet in different rooms of the great church, or 
on different nights of the week, and are composed, some of 
boys and girls, some of young men and women, w^hile one or 
two are Senior societies, made up of more elderly people. 
Each one seeks to do its utmost for the church, and is thor- 
oughly equipped with all necessary officers and committees. 

The philanthropic and missionary service accomplished 
by these fourteen societies is almost incredible. If I should 
attempt to record it, it would take up twice the space of this 
chapter, but still Dr. Conwell is not satisfied. "Should we 
have the room," he says, "I would strongly advocate having 
twenty-eight societies instead of fourteen. I believe every 
church, no matter how small, should have more than one 
society, thereby arousing competition and discussion, and caus- 
ing all the members to become more alive to their full respon- 

592 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

sibility. Of course there are times when one of our sections 
will pass through some special trial and become weak. That 
is the one I give my special care and attention to until it gets 
built up again. But one section keeps another alive, and so 
throughout the fourteen societies there is no opportunity for 
the interest ever to die out." 





" There is no such aid to the pastor in his arduous and 
multiform work, especially in large cities, as a well-organized 
society of Christian Endeavor. It may fittingly be character- 
ized among human agencies as his cunning and strong right 
hand." Rev. M. Rhodes, D.D., 

Pastoi- of St. Mark's Lutheran Church, St. Louis. 

" The pastor must be something of a psychologist. This is 
fundamental. To develop his Endeavorers he must know 
them ; to know them he must study them. To him they must 
be not abstractly a Christian Endeavor society, but concretely, 
the Christian Endeavorers. He must understand their gifts, 
their accomplishments, their peculiarities." 

Dr. A. K. de Blois, Chicago. 

O intimate and affectionate are the relations of the 
ideal society of Christian Endeavor to the ideal 
pastor that a brief chapter should be devoted to 
this important phase of the subject. 

It will be remembered that the first society 
w^as formed by a pastor for the benefit of his own church, with 
no thought of a world-embracing movement, or, indeed, of 
an extension beyond the borders of his own church. It was 
emphatically a pastor's society, proposed by the pastor, second- 
ed by the pastor's wife, and adopted by the young people for 

^« 593 

594 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

the sake of helping them both in many lines of church ac- 

The Society has often been named the "Pastor's Aid 
Society" ; and, if it ever wants another name, it cannot have 
a better one. 

In many ways it has commended itself particularly to 
active pastors in all countries and denominations. Otherwise 
it would not have found its way into every denomination and 
every section of the world as it has, for the pastor has been the 
chief propagandist of Christian Endeavor. There are to-day 
more than eighteen thousand societies in churches of the Pres- 
byterian form of government, as many more among those of 
a Congregational form, including the Baptists, Disciples of 
Christ, and other allied denominations, as well as Congrega- 
tionalists; nearly as many more among the different divisions 
of Methodism, while the Lutheran and Episcopalian 
churches all have their strong contingents. This very fact 
shows not only that the Society is in the widest sense inter- 
denominational, but also that the ministers in all these de- 
nominations have found in it something peculiarly suited to 
the needs of their churches. 

In the early days of the movement, when it was feeling 
its way, so to speak, into denominational affiliation, it was com- 
mon for the ministers of different churches to be called up to 
the platform to tell why they liked the Christian Endeavor 

The Baptist minister would declare that it was suited to 
the genius of his denomination because it accepted 


the the Bible as it stood, and made it the rule of faith 

Liked ^ ^^^ practice, and because each society was indepen- 
**!f . ^. dent, and ovv^ed allegiance only to its own church. 

Christian ' ^ j 

Endeavor The Presbyterian would aver that the "Society 

of the Covenant" was exactly suited to the "Church 

of the Covenant," and that Christian Endeavor had taken a 

The Pastor and the Society. 595 

Famous Preachers and Christian Endeavorers. 

Rev. Smith Baker, D. D. Rev. David J. Burrell, D. D LL D 

Rev. William Patterson, D. D. 

Tennis S. Hamlin, D. D. Rev. Charles M. Sheldon, D D 

Rev. Russell H. Conwell, D. D., LL. D. Rev. Wayland Hoyt, D. D., LL D 

596 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

leaf out of the history of Presbyterianism and applied its 
teachings to the young people of the world. 

The Methodist would declare that the Society was 
entirely in accord with the teachings of John Wesley, and its 
fire and enthusiasm, its zeal for the prayer-meeting, and its 
consecration-meeting, which was but an adaptation of the 
class-meeting of the Methodist Church, made it exactly suited 
to his denomination. 

The Episcopalian would assert that his church believed 
in Christian nurture, in training young disciples for the king- 
dom of God; and, this being a cardinal feature of Christian 
Endeavor, he could but accept it as a useful adjunct of the 

Even the Quaker would announce that the insistence of 
the Christian Endeavor Society upon personal communion 
with God, and upon the inner light received in the Quiet 
Hour, made it exactly suited to his denomination, and that, 
when the Endeavorer prepared for the prayer-meeting, the 
Spirit always moved him to speak in it. 

The Disciple of Christ would say with equal truth that 
the broad fellowship of Christian Endeavor, which discarded 
party shibboleths, and insisted on Bible doctrines rather than 
creeds, and personal activities rather than fine-spun philos- 
ophy, had led his churches to adopt it without a dissenting 

Such were the testimonies of pastors in the early days, 
and such are their testimonies today in ever-increasing 

Professor Amos R. Wells has recently asked several thou- 
sand pastors some leading questions concerning their En- 
deavorers and their work, and the replies that have come are 
almost unanimous as to the loyalty and devotion of the young 
people and the undoubted value of the Society. His book on 
"The Young People's Pastor" is by far the most- valuable 

The Pastor and the Society. 597 

contribution to this phase of the subject. Its twelve chapters 
treat of the pastor in the prayer-meeting, the busi- 
Young ness-meetings, the committees, the socials, the union 

Pastor" meetings, etc., and the pastor as a utilizer and as a 
praiser, as well as "the pastor at the brakes." The 
subject is worthy of the volume devoted to it. 

I entirely agree with Mr. Wells when he says: 
"I sometimes hear it said, 'If the Christian Endeavor 
society does not succeed, it is the fault of the pastors.' I dis- 
avow any such sentiment. I have seen the society fail through 
the fault of frivolous young people and worldly parents, where 
the pastor was bending every energy to make it succeed, and 
I have seen it succeed by virtue of zealous and godly young 
people where the pastor seemed to be bending every energy 
to make it fail. No, there are too many factors in the pro- 
blem to allow us to lay the entire blame of the failure on the 
pastors, or give them the entire credit for success; and yet the 
Christian Endeavor Society has won its triumph chiefly 
through the zeal, the approval, and the devoted activity of 

Some features of the Society have especially commended 
it to ministers in active service, especially those with young 
hearts, who have felt the importance of devoting some portion 
of their time and energy, at least, to the work of the young. 
One of these features is the insistence of the Society 
Features on loyalty to the local church. There is no other 
Commend church Organization that has made this so promi- 
Society ^^^^ ^ feature in principle and practice. Though 
to Ministers.the young people have not in all cases come up to 
the ideals of the Society, yet these ideals have 
never been lowered. Some pastors, to be sure, have dis- 
carded that clause of the pledge which relates to attendance 
upon the services of the church, either because they have felt 
that it was not necessary, or because they have thought the 

598 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

young people would not live up to it; but a multitude more 
have used it as an additional leverage in securing faithfulness 
and zeal on the part of their young people. It has given them 
something to appeal to, when urging constant attendance 
and loyalty to the church services. "You have promised it," 
they can say to them ; and, while reasonable excuses are al- 
ways admitted, it should be "the rule of your life" to do what 
you have not only promised in your church covenant, but even 
more specifically in your Christian Endeavor pledge. 

The society, too, gives the pastor certain rare opportuni- 
ties to reach and influence his young people, which he can get 
in no other way. The weekly prayer-meeting, for instance, 
if he attends it regularly and sympathetically, tells 
Pastor's him, as his young people participate, how they are 
nUies!*"^ growing in grace. The monthly consecration- 
meeting, as the names are called in solemn succes- 
sion and the responses are given, affords a still better oppor- 
tunity to note the progress of the active members. 

The social gatherings give him the best of all opportuni- 
ties for getting acquainted with his young people, who are 
often engaged in school or shop, or upon the farm, so that it 
is difficult at other times to reach them. 

The lookout committee is a splendid watch-tower for 
the pastor, and if of the right kind, and he consults it fre- 
quently, he can find out much concerning the spiritual status 
of all his young people. 

The associate membership gives him an opportunity, 
which every pastor must prize, to press home the truths of 
religion upon those who are not yet decided Christians, but 
who have put themselves in the way of religious impressions 
and instruction. 

The various committees, just as many or few as he desires, 
make it possible for him, not only to set all his young people 
at work in practical and useful lines, but to get a thousand 

The Pastor and the Society, 599 

things accomplished for the church which the church may 
need — improvement of the singing, collection of missionary 
funds, beautifying of the church grounds, care for the sick 
and the aged ; in fact, there is no possible limit to the ways in 
which an ingenious pastor may make use of young people 
when thus organized for service, and committed to loyal 
devotion to the church by the very constitution of their society. 

The union meetings give him rare opportunities to reach 
and influence the young people of other communities. 

But of all the instrumentalities of the Christian Endeavor 
society perhaps none is so helpful to the pastor as the execu- 
tive committee. This is composed of himself, of the officers 
of the society and the chairmen of the different committees. 
Through this executive committee he can plan the 
The _ work and work the plans. In its monthly meetings 
Committee he can know just what is being done, and provide 
it^Heip ^^^ other forms of necessary activity. In short, it 
to the gives him, by spending a single hour, or two hours 

Pastor. / ^ X CO 7 

at most, once a month, with the leaders of his young 
people's work, the command of the whole situation, and 
enables him, largely unseen, to keep his hand upon the reins 
and direct the society in every department of its life. 

Who will say that such work is unworthy of a Christian 
minister? Once in a while I find a pastor that practically 
says, as I have once heard a minister of noble physical pro- 
portions remark: "I am not adapted to work among children 
and youth. I am too big to go to the young people's meeting. 
The little fish don't like to have a whale swim into their 
school." "Perhaps it would have been appropriate to quote 
to this brother," as has before been remarked,* "some familiar 
words about becoming as a little child before one can enter 
the kingdom of heaven." What is the ministry for? What 
is our preparatory study for? What is the object of the morn- 

* " Training the Church of the Future." 

6oo Christian Endeavor in All Lands, 

ing sermon, and the pastoral call, and the midweek prayer- 
meeting, but to establish and build up Christian character? 
Shall we spend all our time digging in the scoriae of a 
burnt-out emotion of the aged or the middle-aged, and forget 
the virgin gold-mine of youthful love and enthusiasm which 
will so richly reward our toil?" 

Thank God that the great majority of the ministers of all 
denominations and in all parts of the world have said: "We 
will adapt ourselves to this work as best we can. We will 
gain for ourselves the young heart that we may win the 
young, so that at the last, when our account is demanded, we 
may say, 'Here am I, Lord, and the children whom thou hast 
given me.' " 



" Since we learn more through the sight than the hearing, 
it is very important that the body should express thought, 
as well as the voice. When a speaker's body says, ' I believe 
every word I am saying,' he does much stronger work than 
when the body is unresponsive, merelj^ standing there, a piece 
of cold clay. The voice is like a many-toned instrument. 
Not all people appreciate the same kind of music. So the 
voice must be attuned to express any and all kinds of thought." 
Miss Margaret Koch, at the Baltimore Convention. 

HE expression of religious thought in the best 
manner has not been neglected by Endeavorers. 
Miss Margaret Koch, of Maine, formerly a pro- 
fessor of expression in Colby University, and 
at one time field secretary of the Maine State 
Union, has done much at many conventions to show the con- 
nection between thought and expression, illustrated by the 
following examples, and still better by the splendid personal- 
ity of the speakers. 

It would be strange in the multitude of great conven- 
tions held in many lands, where the first orators of the pulpit 
and the platform have been heard, if, among all their utter- 
ances there was not much that was worth preserving. In- 
deed, a large volume of eloquence could be collected from the 
fifteen or twenty volumes which I have at my hand, contain- 

60 1 

6o2 christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

ing the reports of the chief conventions in English-speaking 
lands. To make a selection that shall fill only one brief 
chapter is a difficult task, and yet it is a task that should not 
be omitted, for these addresses not only give specimens ofy 
convention oratory, but in a most forceful way drive home 
some of the great principles of the Christian Endeavor move- 
ment. So I will accept the somewhat ungracious task of 
choosing from some thousands of pages which are worth 
quoting a few which give the opinions of eminent speakers on 
certain phases of Christian Endeavor. I begin with a quota- 
tion from an address made by President McKinley when he 
was governor of Ohio, and the Society was holding its annual 
meeting in Cleveland. 


''It is a mighty cause that could convene in any city of any 
State in the Union the splendid assemblage of people gather- 
ing in so many places this morning in this city by the lake. 
No cause but one could have brought together these noble, 
earnest people; and that is the cause of the Master and the 
cause of man. 

"Your coming is hailed with satisfaction. Your stay will 
be to us a benediction. Your going will be to us the occa- 
sion of sincere regret. You are not strangers to us. The 
young men and women of Ohio are your associates in the 
great work in which you are engaged. The whole world 
knows you, for it has felt and profited by your influence and 
example. I can conceive of no more beautiful employment 
than that of Christian Endeavor, the habitual efifort to be 
better and to do better, and to make those around us better. 
The more faithful the endeavor, the more certain the realiza- 
tion; the more constant the effort, the more sublime the end. 
We cannot try to be good without doing good. Wrong-doing 
is never profitable. Its ultimate reward is failure. Right- 
doing brings the rich reward of a peaceful conscience and a 
cheerful disposition and a faithful heart. 

"Mr. President, there is very much in habit. A bad habit 

Convention Oratory. 


is easy to make and hard to break. This is just as true of a 
good habit. . . . No one can know better than you, who have 
tried it, how easy it is to get into the habit of doing good. 
Every good act makes the next one easier; every duty per- 
formed makes the next which 
follows lighter. The habit 
of doing good expels the 
temptation to do wrong. If 
the world around you knows 
that you are fixed in your 
Christian habits and settled 
in them, it will let you alone. 
It will not present you with 
temptations; it will not pur- 
sue you with allurements to 
tempt you from the paths of 
righteousness. If I have ob- 
served your organization 
rightly in its principles, its 
business is to form in the lives 

A German Christian Endeavor 

of your members the habit of being good and of doing good." 

One of the freshest and most helpful speakers at Christian 
Endeavor conventions is the Rev. J. E. Pounds, D.D., of the 
Disciples of Christ, who spoke at Cincinnati, O., in 1901 on 


"Another Endeavor principle that should be applied to 
reading is regularity. One book a month is better than twelve 
books in one month and nothing during the rest of the year. 
It is only once in a lifetime, and then when God has special 
work, as he had for Elijah, that one can eat or read enough 
to go in the strength of it forty days and nights. If one 
should take five minutes with the poets every morning, his 
mind would be inspired and stimulated for the work of the 
day. It would be like going to the organ for the proper 
key-note of song. It is better to get the key-note for a day's 
thinking and living from Tennyson or Longfellow than from 

6o4 Christian Endeavor in All Lands. 

the conversation of the street-car or the workshop. You 
could take no more helpful pledge concerning your reading 
than this: 'I will read something of the best every day I 

"The selection of books is most important. Man may 
be the architect of his own fortune, but the best of architects 
cannot build without materials. There cannot, then, be too 
much care in selecting books, since they will be built into 
one's very character and destiny. 

"Every young man is a young Solomon, not in wisdom, 
but in the opportunity to choose it. When he stands in a 
library, there is set before him whatever his heart could wish. 
Strange things, however, are chosen. If I should say that 
the dust is gathering on Bacon and Emerson and even 
Macaulay, the pretty librarian might think I was bringing a 
charge against her housekeeping. The wise man of Israel 
did not choose riches, but our modern young man often jour- 
neys to 'King Solomon's Mines' in search of the true gold. 
An eminent college professor says sensational novels are read 
in the spirit of the gambler. The gambler seeks excitement 
and profit. It is passing strange that any one should expect 
to find either in a book that sounds like 'The Shearing of 
Billy the Butter, or, The Villain Uncovered,' or like this: 
'The Nine Lives of Thomas the Rambler, or. Come Home to 
Die.' How many mistake mere glitter for gold, and gather 
it, as the explorers carried shiploads of mica from Virginia 
to England!" 

One of the silver-tongued orators heard at almost every 
national convention in America for many years was the late 
deeply lamented John Henry Barrows, president of Oberlin 
College, who spoke at the Boston convention of 1895 on 


"Christendom was never so great a fact in the world as 
it is to-day. We are brought face to face, as never before, 
with the forces and claims of other systems, and, as the most 
famous of all the students of comparative theology has said, 

Convention Oratory. 



'However highly we prize our Christianity, we never prize 
it highly enough until we have compared it with the religions 
of the rest of the world.' Furthermore, such comparison 
discloses the fact that Christianity alone presents to-day the 
aspects of a world-wide religion. We see Judaism, the his- 
torical root of Christianity, shrinking into a national cult and 
numbering less than ten millions of our race. We look at 
the religion of the noble Parsees, the heirs of the venerable 

faith of Persia; and they have 
dwindled, as we know, to a few 
score thousands, dwelling most- 
ly in Bombay; and from the 
Malabar Hill they send out no 
missionaries to convert the 
world. We see Confucianism, 
which is older than historic 
Christianity; but it has never 
reached after a world-wide su- 
premacy; it is simply Mongo- 
lian ethics, and its ^strongest 
ambition has